Near-field fault slip of the 2016 Vettore Mw 6.6 earthquake (Central Italy) measured using low-cost GNSS.
ABSTRACT: The temporal evolution of slip on surface ruptures during an earthquake is important for assessing fault displacement, defining seismic hazard and for predicting ground motion. However, measurements of near-field surface displacement at high temporal resolution are elusive. We present a novel record of near-field co-seismic displacement, measured with 1-second temporal resolution during the 30th October 2016 Mw 6.6 Vettore earthquake (Central Italy), using low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers located in the footwall and hangingwall of the Mt. Vettore - Mt. Bove fault system, close to new surface ruptures. We observe a clear temporal and spatial link between our near-field record and InSAR, far-field GPS data, regional measurements from the Italian Strong Motion and National Seismic networks, and field measurements of surface ruptures. Comparison of these datasets illustrates that the observed surface ruptures are the propagation of slip from depth on a surface rupturing (i.e. capable) fault array, as a direct and immediate response to the 30th October earthquake. Large near-field displacement ceased within 6-8 seconds of the origin time, implying that shaking induced gravitational processes were not the primary driving mechanism. We demonstrate that low-cost GNSS is an accurate monitoring tool when installed as custom-made, short-baseline networks.
Project description:We provide a database of the surface ruptures produced by the 26 December 2018 Mw 4.9 earthquake that struck the eastern flank of Mt. Etna volcano in Sicily (southern Italy). Despite its relatively small magnitude, this shallow earthquake caused about 8?km of surface faulting, along the trace of the NNW-trending active Fiandaca Fault. Detailed field surveys have been performed in the epicentral area to map the ruptures and to characterize their kinematics. The surface ruptures show a dominant right-oblique sense of displacement with an average slip of about 0.09?m and a maximum value of 0.35?m. We have parsed and organized all observations in a concise database, with 932 homogeneous georeferenced records. The Fiandaca Fault is part of the complex active Timpe faults system affecting the eastern flank of Etna, and its seismic history indicates a prominent surface-faulting potential. Therefore, this database is essential for unravelling the seismotectonics of shallow earthquakes in volcanic areas, and contributes updating empirical scaling regressions that relate magnitude and extent of surface faulting.
Project description:Earthquake-related fault slip in the upper hundreds of meters of Earth's surface has remained largely unstudied because of challenges measuring deformation in the near field of a fault rupture. We analyze centimeter-scale accuracy mobile laser scanning (MLS) data of deformed vine rows within ±300 m of the principal surface expression of the M (magnitude) 6.0 2014 South Napa earthquake. Rather than assuming surface displacement equivalence to fault slip, we invert the near-field data with a model that allows for, but does not require, the fault to be buried below the surface. The inversion maps the position on a preexisting fault plane of a slip front that terminates ~3 to 25 m below the surface coseismically and within a few hours postseismically. The lack of surface-breaching fault slip is verified by two trenches. We estimate near-surface slip ranging from ~0.5 to 1.25 m. Surface displacement can underestimate fault slip by as much as 30%. This implies that similar biases could be present in short-term geologic slip rates used in seismic hazard analyses. Along strike and downdip, we find deficits in slip: The along-strike deficit is erased after ~1 month by afterslip. We find no evidence of off-fault deformation and conclude that the downdip shallow slip deficit for this event is likely an artifact. As near-field geodetic data rapidly proliferate and will become commonplace, we suggest that analyses of near-surface fault rupture should also use more sophisticated mechanical models and subsurface geomechanical tests.
Project description:The main active tectonic structure in the western part of Central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is the left-lateral Palu-Koro strike-slip fault. Its offshore section was thought not to have broken during the M<sub>w</sub> 7.5 Palu Earthquake on 28 September 2018, challenging the established knowledge of the tectonic setting at this location. Here, we use Sentinel-1 SAR interferometry to produce a map of the ground velocities in the area of the M<sub>w</sub> 7.5 earthquake for the seven months following the 2018 earthquake. We show evidence of surface deformation along the western coast of the Palu bay, indicating that the Palu Koro offshore fault section might have contribute to or been affected by the earthquake. As the possibility of multi-segment ruptures is a high concern in the area because of the high seismic and tsunami hazard, we present here, a fault model that includes the offshore section of the Palu-Koro fault. Thanks to four independents space-based geodetics measurements of the co-seismic displacement (Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 correlograms) we constrain the 3D co-seismic ground displacements. The modeling of these displacements allows us to estimate the co-seismic fault slip amplitude and geometry at depth. At the end, we consider the multi-segment faulting scenario, including the offshore section of the Palu-Koro fault, as a plausible model to explain the submarine landslides and the tsunamis. This study also gives the opportunity to observe a super-shear earthquake in the context of a complex fault network and implies an increase in the probability of submarine landslides within the bay in the forthcoming years.
Project description:We have investigated the possible cause-and-effect relationship due to stress transfer between two earthquakes that occurred near Christchurch, New Zealand, in September 2010 and in February 2011. The Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury) event took place along a previously unrecognized fault. The Mw 6.3 Christchurch earthquake, generated by a thrust fault, occurred approximately five months later, 6?km south-east of Christchurch's city center. We have first measured the surface displacement field to retrieve the geometries of the two seismic sources and the slip distribution. In order to assess whether the first earthquake increased the likelihood of occurrence of a second earthquake, we compute the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF). We find that the maximum CFF increase over the second fault plane is reached exactly around the hypocenter of the second earthquake. In this respect, we may conclude that the Darfield earthquake contributed to promote the rupture of the Christchurch fault.
Project description:Poor knowledge of how faults slip and distribute deformation in the shallow crust hinders efforts to mitigate hazards where faults increasingly intersect with the expanding global population at Earth's surface. Here we analyze two study sites along the 2014 M 6.0 South Napa, California, earthquake rupture, each dominated by either co- or post-seismic shallow fault slip. We combine mobile laser scanning (MLS), active-source seismic tomography, and finite element modeling to investigate how deformation rate and mechanical properties of the shallow crust affect fault behavior. Despite four orders-of-magnitude difference in the rupture velocities, MLS-derived shear strain fields are remarkably similar at the two sites and suggest deceleration of the co-seismic rupture near Earth's surface. Constrained by the MLS and seismic data, finite element models indicate shallow faulting is more sensitive to lithologic layering and plastic yielding than to the presence of fault compliant zones (i.e., regions surrounding faults with reduced stiffness). Although both elastic and elastoplastic models can reproduce the observed surface displacement fields within the uncertainty of MLS data, elastoplastic models likely provide the most reliable representations of subsurface fault behavior, as they produce geologically reasonable stress states and are consistent with field, geodetic, and seismological observations.
Project description:Temporal distribution of earthquakes is key to seismic hazard assessment. However, for most fault systems shortness of large earthquake catalogues makes this assessment difficult. Its unique long earthquake record makes the Dead Sea fault (DSF) exceptional to test earthquake behaviour models. A paleoseismological trench along the southern section of the DSF, revealed twelve surface-rupturing earthquakes during the last 8000 years, of which many correlate with past earthquakes reported in historical chronicles. These data allowed us building a rupture scenario for this area, which includes timing and rupture length for all significant earthquakes during the last two millenaries. Extending this rupture scenario to the entire DSF south of Lebanon, we were able to confirm the temporal-clustering hypothesis. Using rupture length and scaling laws, we have estimated average co-seismic slip for each past earthquake. The cumulated slip was then balanced with long-term tectonic loading to estimate the slip deficit for this part of DSF over the last 1600 years. The seismic-slip budget shows that the slip deficit is similarly high along the fault with a minimum of 2 meters, which suggests that an earthquake cluster might happen over the entire region in the near future.
Project description:On 3 July 2015, the Mw 6.5 Pishan earthquake occurred at the junction of the southwestern margin of the Tarim Basin and the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the seismogenic mechanism and the post-seismic deformation behavior, we investigated the characteristics of the post-seismic deformation fields in the seismic area, using 9 Sentinel-1A TOPS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired from 18 July 2015 to 22 September 2016 with the Small Baseline Subset Interferometric SAR (SBAS-InSAR) technique. Postseismic LOS deformation displayed logarithmic behavior, and the temporal evolution of the post-seismic deformation is consistent with the aftershock sequence. The main driving mechanism of near-field post-seismic displacement was most likely to be afterslip on the fault and the entire creep process consists of three creeping stages. Afterward, we used the steepest descent method to invert the afterslip evolution process and analyzed the relationship between post-seismic afterslip and co-seismic slip. The results witness that 447 days after the mainshock (22 September 2016), the afterslip was concentrated within one principal slip center. It was located 5-25 km along the fault strike, 0-10 km along with the fault dip, with a cumulative peak slip of 0.18 m. The 447 days afterslip seismic moment was approximately 2.65 × 10<sup>17</sup> N m, accounting for approximately 4.1% of the co-seismic geodetic moment. The deep afterslip revealed that a creeping process from steady-state "secondary" creeping to accelerating "tertiary" creep in the deep of fault. The future seismic hazard deserves further attention and research.
Project description:Monitoring of earthquake faults and volcanoes contributes to our understanding of their dynamic mechanisms and to our ability to predict future earthquakes and volcanic activity. We report here on spatial and temporal variations of seismic velocity around the seismogenic fault of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake [moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0] based on ambient seismic noise. Seismic velocity near the rupture faults and Aso volcano decreased during the earthquake. The velocity reduction near the faults may have been due to formation damage, a change in stress state, and an increase in pore pressure. Further, we mapped the post-earthquake fault-healing process. The largest seismic velocity reduction observed at Aso volcano during the earthquake was likely caused by pressurized volcanic fluids, and the large increase in seismic velocity at the volcano's magma body observed ~3 months after the earthquake may have been a response to depressurization caused by the eruption. This study demonstrates the usefulness of continuous monitoring of faults and volcanoes.
Project description:We utilize L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in this study to retrieve a ground velocity map for the near field of the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault (NAF) zone. The segmentation and creep distribution of this section, which last ruptured in 1912 to generate a moment magnitude (Mw)7.3 earthquake, remains incompletely understood. Because InSAR processing removes the mean orbital plane, we do not investigate large scale displacements due to regional tectonics in this study as these can be determined using global positioning system (GPS) data, instead concentrating on the close-to-the-fault displacement field. Our aim is to determine whether, or not, it is possible to retrieve robust near field velocity maps from stacking L-band interferograms, combining both single and dual polarization SAR data. In addition, we discuss whether a crustal velocity map can be used to complement GPS observations in an attempt to discriminate the present-day surface displacement of the Ganos fault (GF) across multiple segments. Finally, we characterize the spatial distribution of creep on shallow patches along multiple along-strike segments at shallow depths. Our results suggest the presence of fault segmentation along strike as well as creep on the shallow part of the fault (i.e. the existence of a shallow creeping patch) or the presence of a smoother section on the fault plane. Data imply a heterogeneous fault plane with more complex mechanics than previously thought. Because this study improves our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the GF, our results have implications for local seismic hazard assessment.
Project description:Theoretical studies have shown that the issue of rupture modes has important implications for fault constitutive laws, stress conditions on faults, energy partition and heat generation during earthquakes, scaling laws, and spatiotemporal complexity of fault slip. Early theoretical models treated earthquakes as crack-like ruptures, but seismic inversions indicate that earthquake ruptures may propagate in a self-healing pulse-like mode. A number of explanations for the existence of slip pulses have been proposed and continue to be vigorously debated. This study presents experimental observations of spontaneous pulse-like ruptures in a homogeneous linear-elastic setting that mimics crustal earthquakes; reveals how different rupture modes are selected based on the level of fault prestress; demonstrates that both rupture modes can transition to supershear speeds; and advocates, based on comparison with theoretical studies, the importance of velocity-weakening friction for earthquake dynamics.