Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women.
ABSTRACT: The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the "active transportation" cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with "active transportation" included "high availability of destinations around home," "presence of bicycle paths," and "low traffic." A "positive image of walking/cycling," the "individual feeling of being physically active," and a "high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends" were positively related to "active transportation," identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sedentary behavior (SB) is associated with increased risks of detrimental health outcomes. Few studies have explored correlates of SB in physically active individuals. Furthermore, SB correlates may depend on settings of SB, such as occupation, transportation and leisure time sitting. This study aims to identify subject-, lifestyle- and health-related correlates for total SB and different SB domains: transportation, occupation, and leisure time. METHODS:Dutch participants were recruited between June, 2015 and December, 2016. Participant characteristics (i.e. age, sex, weight, height, marital status, education level, employment), lifestyle (sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) and medical history were collected via an online questionnaire. SB was assessed using the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire and estimated for 9 different activities during weekdays and weekend days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between correlates and SB. Total SB was dichotomized at >?8?h/day and?>?10?h/day, and being sedentary during transportation, occupation and leisure time at the 75th percentile (60?min/day, 275?min/day and 410?min/day, respectively). RESULTS:In total, 8471 participants (median age 55, 55% men) were included of whom 86% met the physical activity guidelines. Median SB was 9.1?h/day (Q25 6.3-Q75 12.0) during weekdays and 7.4?h/day (Q25 5.5-Q75 9.5) during weekend days. SB was most prevalent during leisure time (5.3?h/day; Q25 3.9-Q75 6.8), followed by occupation (2?h/day; Q25 0.1-Q75 4.6) and transportation (0.5?h/day; Q25 0.2-Q75 1.0). Younger age, male sex, being unmarried, higher education, employment and higher BMI were significantly related to higher levels of total SB. Younger age, male sex, employment, and higher BMI increased the odds for high SB volumes during occupation and transportation. Higher education, being unmarried and smoking status were positively associated with high volumes of occupational SB only, whereas older age, being unmarried, unemployment, higher BMI and poor health were positively linked to leisure time SB. CONCLUSIONS:SB is highly prevalent in physically active individuals, with SB during leisure time as the most important contributor. Correlates for high volumes of SB vary substantially across SB domains, emphasizing the difficulty to target this unhealthy lifestyle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are major concerns for public health. Although global initiatives have been successful in monitoring physical activity (PA) worldwide, there is no systematic action for the monitoring of correlates of these behaviors, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Here we describe the prevalence and distribution of PA domains and sitting time in population sub-groups of six south American countries. METHODS:Data from the South American Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Network (SAPASEN) were used, which includes representative data from Argentina (n = 26,932), Brazil (n = 52,490), Chile (n = 3719), Ecuador (n = 19,851), Peru (n = 8820), and Suriname (n = 5170). Self-reported leisure time (≥150 min/week), (≥150 min/week), transport (≥10 min/week), and occupational PA total (≥10 min/week), as well as sitting time (≥4 h/day) were captured in each national survey. Sex, age, income, and educational status were exposures. Descriptive statistics and harmonized random effect meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS:The prevalence of PA during leisure (Argentina: 29.2% to Peru: 8.6%), transport (Peru: 69.7% to Ecuador: 8.8%), and occupation (Chile: 60.4 to Brazil 18.3%), and ≥4 h/day of sitting time (Peru: 78.8% to Brazil: 14.8%) differed widely between countries. Moreover, total PA ranged between 60.4% (Brazil) and 82.9% (Chile) among men, and between 49.4% (Ecuador) and 74.9% (Chile) among women. Women (low leisure and occupational PA) and those with a higher educational level (low transportation and occupational PA as well as high sitting time) were less active. Concerning total PA, men, young and middle-aged adults of high educational status (college or more) were, respectively, 47% [OR = 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78), I2 = 76.6%], 25% [OR = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.61-0.93), I2 = 30.4%] and 32% [OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.47-1.00), I2 = 80.3%] less likely to be active. CONCLUSIONS:PA and sitting time present great ranges and tend to vary across sex and educational status in South American countries. Country-specific exploration of trends and population-specific interventions may be warranted.
Project description:Background: Regular physical activity (PA) and reduced sedentary behavior (SB) are positively related to children's health and considered as pillars of a healthy lifestyle. Full-day schools with their afterschool programs (ASPs) have an impact on children's daily PA and SB. Studies investigating PA and SB in ASPs, which compare PA and SB between the organizational forms full-day and half-day schools, are rare. The aim of this study is to describe elementary school children's PA and SB during ASPs and to compare the results to other time periods of the day, e.g., teaching hours and leisure time. Additionally, PA and SB of children in full-day and half-day schools are compared. Further, relevant factors influencing the achievement of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) PA guidelines for children, e.g., time spent in ASPs, are investigated. Methods: PA and SB of 332 German students (n = 198 full-day school children; n = 134 half-day school children) from 11 different elementary schools were measured via accelerometry for 5 consecutive days within one school week in 2017. PA and SB during ASPs and other times of the day were analyzed via one-way and factorial ANOVA, correlation, and logistic regression. Results: Children attending full-day schools show the highest percentage of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (13.7%) and the lowest percentage of SB (49.5%) during ASPs, in comparison with teaching hours and leisure time. In the afternoon hours, full-day school children show 20 min less SB than half-day school children. Children spending more time in ASPs obtain significantly more SB (r = 0.23) and less MVPA (r = -0.15). Further, they less likely reach WHO's PA guidelines odds ratio (OR = 0.98). Conclusion: Peers and the choice as well as offer of extracurricular activities promote PA in ASPs. Media availability leads to higher SB in leisure time. ASPs help to be more active and less sedentary. Time spent in ASPs should be limited, so that full-day school children still have the possibility to join other PA offers in leisure time. ASP time should contain a certain minimum amount of MVPA in line with ASP guidelines.
Project description:Background: Work may contribute significantly to daily physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Physical inactivity and SB at work might be two major risk factors for premature morbidity. Therefore, the aim of this research was to describe self-reported past PA and SB at work and during leisure time within the PROOF cohort subjects, and to determine consequences of PA and SB on late health of these now retired workers. Material and Methods: The PROOF cohort study was used to prospectively allow assessment of the predictive value of PA and SB at work and during leisure time among a healthy retired French population, with regard to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. PA (MET-h/week) and SB (h/d) were assessed using the Population Physical Activity Questionnaire (POPAQ) and the modified Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Odds ratios (ORs with 95% CIs) for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were associated with each level of PA at work: light (<3 METs), moderate (3-5.9 METs), vigorous (?6 METs) and were compared to SB at work. Results: Out of the 1011 65-year-old subjects initially included, the 15-year follow-up has been currently completed for 688 (68%) subjects; 89 deaths (all-cause mortality, 9%) and 91 fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (9%), were reported. An active work (light, moderate, or vigorous intensity) was associated with a 21% reduced risk of cardiovascular (myocardial infarction) and cerebrovascular events (stroke) (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.32-0.91, p < 0.02) compared to sedentary work. This relationship was already significant for light intensity work (32%; i.e., OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.31-0.87, p < 0.02). Conclusion: There is strong causal evidence linking PA and SB at work with late cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. All in all, the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and stroke was lower among those who had a previous active work compared to those with previous sedentary work. Even previous light active work produced substantial health benefits. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT00759304.
Project description:This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA) in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI) score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of knowing the potential impediments and enablers for physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in a specific population, the aim of this study was to systematically review and summarise evidence on individual, social, environmental, and policy correlates of PA and SB in the Thai population. METHODS:A systematic review of articles written in Thai and English was conducted. Studies that reported at least one correlate for PA and/or SB in a healthy Thai population were selected independently by two authors. Data on 21 variables were extracted. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS:A total of 25,007 records were screened and 167 studies were included. The studies reported associations with PA for a total of 261 variables, mostly for adults and older adults. For most of the variables, evidence was available from a limited number of studies. Consistent evidence was found for individual-level and social correlates of PA in children/adolescents and adults and for individual-level correlates of PA in older adults. Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were consistently associated with PA in all age groups. Other consistently identified individual-level correlates in adults and older adults included self-rated general health, mental health, perceived benefits, and attitudes towards PA. Consistent evidence was also found for social correlates of PA in adults, including social support, interpersonal influences, parent/family influences, and information support. The influence of friendship/companionship was identified as a correlate of PA only in children/adolescents. A limited number of studies examined SB correlates, especially in older adults. The studies reported associations with SB for a total of 41 variables. Consistent evidence of association with SB was only found for obesity in adults. Some evidence suggests that male adults engage more in SB than females. CONCLUSIONS:More Thai studies are needed on (i) PA correlates, particularly among children/adolescents, and that focus on environment- and policy-related factors and (ii) SB correlates, particularly among older adults. Researchers are also encouraged to conduct longitudinal studies to provide evidence on prospective and causal relationships, and subject to feasibility, use device-based measures of PA and SB.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study investigated physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) among preschool-aged children in Singapore and potential correlates at multiple levels of the socioecological model from in-school and out-of-school settings. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study using a mixed-methods approach. PARTICIPANTS:Parent-child dyads from six preschools in Singapore. METHODS:PA and SB of children (n=72) were quantified using wrist-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) among 12 teachers explored diverse influences on children's activities, and System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) assessed PA environment and children's activity levels at preschools. Seventy-three parents completed questionnaires on home and neighbourhood factors influencing children's PA and SB. Descriptive analyses of quantitative data and thematic analysis of FGDs were performed. RESULTS:Based on accelerometry, children (4.4±1.1 years) spent a median of 7.8 (IQR 6.4-9.0) hours/day in SB, and 0.5 (0.3-0.8) hours/day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). MVPA was similar throughout the week, and SB was slightly higher on non-school days. In preschools, SOPLAY showed more children engaging in MVPA outdoors (34.0%) than indoors (7.7%), and absence of portable active play equipment. FGDs revealed issues that could restrict active time at preschool, including academic requirements of the central curriculum and its local implementation. The teachers had varying knowledge about PA guidelines and perceived that the children were sufficiently active. In out-of-school settings, parents reported that their children rarely used outdoor facilities for active play and spent little time in active travel. Few children (23.5%) participated in extracurricular sports, but most (94.5%) reported watching screens for 1.5 (0.5-3.0) hours/day. CONCLUSION:MVPA was low and SB was high in preschool-aged children in an urban Asian setting. We identified diverse in-school and out-of-school correlates of PA and SB that should be taken into account in health promotion strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study examined the reliability of measures of correlates of dietary behaviours (DBs), physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) for Hong Kong adolescents. METHOD:Individual, social and environmental correlates of obesity-related behaviours were assessed twice, 15-27 days apart (average 20 days), via self-administered questionnaires. These questionnaire included measures of decisional balance, self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support related to intake of fruits, vegetables, high-fat foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, PA behaviour and SB. They also included measures of perceived barriers to PA, parental rules related to PA and SB, and environmental correlates of DB, PA and SB. The questionnaires were self-completed outside school hours. A sample of 119 12-17 year old Chinese-speaking secondary school students (60 girls; 59 boys) were recruited from four Hong Kong schools located in areas stratified by walkability and socio-economic status. RESULTS:The test-retest reliability of the examined measures ranged from poor to excellent (ICC: 0.30-0.99). All measures of correlates of PA and SB had excellent or substantial test-retest reliability, with the exception of self-efficacy for reducing SB (ICC: 0.59). Four of 18 measures of DBs showed moderate, and two poor (ICC < 0.41), test-retest reliability. Evidence of unidimensionality (Cronbach's ? ? 0.70) was found for 10 of 28 multi-item scales. The evidence for the remaining 18 was either questionable or poor. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the self-report measures of correlates of obesity-related behaviours used in the iHealt(H) study have acceptable test-retest reliability in Hong Kong adolescents. The factorial structure of several scales needs to be investigated in a larger sample.
Project description:There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children.The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6-8 yr) who were followed-up in Grades 1-3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1-3.Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1-3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1-3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1-3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1-3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents.Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776.
Project description:It is well known that physical inactivity increases the risk of global death; however, the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown strategy on physical activity (PA) remains unclear. This study compared PA-i.e., daily occupation, transportation to and from daily occupation, leisure time activities, and regular sporting activities-prior (PRE) and during (POST) the on-going COVID-19 outbreak in the Greece lockdown environment. A Greek version of the web-based Active-Q questionnaire was used to access PA. The questionnaire was filled out twice (once each for the PRE and POST conditions) by 8495 participants (age = 37.2 ± 0.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI), 36.9-37.5); males = 38.3% (95%CI, 36.7-40.0); females = 61.7% (95%CI, 60.4-63.0). The relative frequency of overall sporting activities, which, prior to lockdown, occurred at least once per month, and overall participation in competitive sports was significantly reduced (8.6% (95%CI, 7.9-9.3) and 84.7% (95%CI, 82.9-86.6) respectively). With the exception of overall leisure time activities, which were significantly increased in the POST condition, daily occupational, transportation, and sporting activities significant reduced (p < 0.05). Overall PA was reduced in all genders, age, body mass index (BMI) and PA level subgroups in the POST condition, and an interaction between the males and High PA subgroups was observed. The change in overall PA (from PRE to POST conditions) was -16.3% (95%CI, -17.3 to -15.4), while in daily occupational, transportation, and sporting activities, it was -52.9% (95%CI, -54.8-51.0), -41.1% (95%CI, -42.8-39.5) and -23.9% (95%CI, -25.1-22.8), respectively. Thus, the lockdown period is highly associated with a negative change in overall PA. During lockdown, inactivity increased dramatically, with males and the high PA population affected significantly more. The decline in PA is a great concern due to possible long-term consequences on public health and healthcare system.