Mechanism of bacterial gene rearrangement: SprA-catalyzed precise DNA recombination and its directionality control by SprB ensure the gene rearrangement and stable expression of spsM during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
ABSTRACT: A sporulation-specific gene, spsM, is disrupted by an active prophage, SP?, in the genome of Bacillus subtilis. SP? excision is required for two critical steps: the onset of the phage lytic cycle and the reconstitution of the spsM-coding frame during sporulation. Our in vitro study demonstrated that SprA, a serine-type integrase, catalyzed integration and excision reactions between attP of SP? and attB within spsM, while SprB, a recombination directionality factor, was necessary only for the excision between attL and attR in the SP? lysogenic chromosome. DNA recombination occurred at the center of the short inverted repeat motif in the unique conserved 16 bp sequence among the att sites (5?-ACAGATAA/AGCTGTAT-3?; slash, breakpoint; underlines, inverted repeat), where SprA produced the 3?-overhanging AA and TT dinucleotides for rejoining the DNA ends through base-pairing. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that SprB promoted synapsis of SprA subunits bound to the two target sites during excision but impaired it during integration. In vivo data demonstrated that sprB expression that lasts until the late stage of sporulation is crucial for stable expression of reconstituted spsM without reintegration of the SP? prophage. These results present a deeper understanding of the mechanism of the prophage-mediated bacterial gene regulatory system.
Project description:Temperate phages infect bacteria by injecting their DNA into bacterial cells, where it becomes incorporated into the host genome as a prophage. In the genome of Bacillus subtilis 168, an active prophage, SP?, is inserted into a polysaccharide synthesis gene, spsM. Here, we show that a rearrangement occurs during sporulation to reconstitute a functional composite spsM gene by precise excision of SP? from the chromosome. SP? excision requires a putative site-specific recombinase, SprA, and an accessory protein, SprB. A minimized SP?, where all the SP? genes were deleted, except sprA and sprB, retained the SP? excision activity during sporulation, demonstrating that sprA and sprB are necessary and sufficient for the excision. While expression of sprA was observed during vegetative growth, sprB was induced during sporulation and upon mitomycin C treatment, which triggers the phage lytic cycle. We also demonstrated that overexpression of sprB (but not of sprA) resulted in SP? prophage excision without triggering the lytic cycle. These results suggest that sprB is the factor that controls the timing of phage excision. Furthermore, we provide evidence that spsM is essential for the addition of polysaccharides to the spore envelope. The presence of polysaccharides on the spore surface renders the spore hydrophilic in water. This property may be beneficial in allowing spores to disperse in natural environments via water flow. A similar rearrangement occurs in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, where a SP?-like element is excised during sporulation to reconstitute a polysaccharide synthesis gene, suggesting that this type of gene rearrangement is common in spore-forming bacteria because it can be spread by phage infection.
Project description:Flavobacterium johnsoniae cells move rapidly over surfaces by gliding motility. Gliding results from the movement of adhesins such as SprB and RemA along the cell surface. These adhesins are delivered to the cell surface by a Bacteroidetes-specific secretion system referred to as the type IX secretion system (T9SS). GldN, SprE, SprF, and SprT are involved in secretion by this system. Here we demonstrate that GldK, GldL, GldM, and SprA are each also involved in secretion. Nonpolar deletions of gldK, gldL, or gldM resulted in the absence of gliding motility and in T9SS defects. The mutant cells produced SprB and RemA proteins but failed to secrete them to the cell surface. The mutants were resistant to phages that use SprB or RemA as a receptor, and they failed to attach to glass, presumably because of the absence of cell surface adhesins. Deletion of sprA resulted in similar but slightly less dramatic phenotypes. sprA mutant cells failed to secrete SprB and RemA, but cells remained susceptible to some phages and retained some limited ability to glide. The phenotype of the sprA mutant was similar to those previously described for sprE and sprT mutants. SprA, SprE, and SprT are needed for secretion of SprB and RemA but may not be needed for secretion of other proteins targeted to the T9SS. Genetic and molecular experiments demonstrate that gldK, gldL, gldM, and gldN form an operon and suggest that the proteins encoded by these genes may interact to form part of the F. johnsoniae T9SS.
Project description:AdpA is a key transcriptional activator in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus, activating a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Of the five chymotrypsin-type serine protease genes, sprA, sprB, and sprD were transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that these protease genes are members of the AdpA regulon. These proteases were predicted to play the same physiological role, since these protease genes were transcribed in a similar time course during growth and the matured enzymes showed high end-to-end similarity to one another. AdpA bound two sites upstream of the sprA promoter approximately at positions -375 and -50 with respect to the transcriptional start point of sprA. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding sites showed that both AdpA-binding sites were essential for transcriptional activation. AdpA bound a single site at position -50 in front of the sprB promoter and greatly enhanced the transcription of sprB. The AdpA-binding site at position -40 was essential for transcription of sprD, although there was an additional AdpA-binding site at position -180. Most chymotrypsin activity excreted by S. griseus was attributed to SprA and SprB, because mutant deltasprAB, having a deletion in both sprA and sprB, lost almost all chymotrypsin activity, as did mutant deltaadpA. Even the double mutant deltasprAB and triple mutant deltasprABD grew normally and developed aerial hyphae and spores over the same time course as the wild-type strain.
Project description:Four tandem subtilisin-like protease genes were found on a 6,854-bp DNA fragment cloned from the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain LG12. The two downstream genes (sprC and sprD) appear to be transcribed independently, while the two upstream genes (sprA and sprB) seem to be part of the same transcript.
Project description:Cells of the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae move rapidly over surfaces by an unknown mechanism. Transposon insertions in sprB resulted in cells that were defective in gliding. SprB is a highly repetitive 669-kDa cell surface protein, and antibodies against SprB inhibited the motility of wild-type cells. Polystyrene microspheres coated with antibodies against SprB attached to and were rapidly propelled along the cell surface, suggesting that SprB is one of the outermost components of the motility machinery. The movement of SprB along the cell surface supports a model of gliding motility in which motors anchored to the cell wall rapidly propel cell surface adhesins.
Project description:Cells of Flavobacterium johnsoniae move rapidly over surfaces by a process known as gliding motility. Gld proteins are thought to comprise the gliding motor that propels cell surface adhesins, such as the 669-kDa SprB. A novel protein secretion apparatus called the Por secretion system (PorSS) is required for assembly of SprB on the cell surface. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that sprB is part of a seven-gene operon spanning 29.3 kbp of DNA. In addition to sprB, three other genes of this operon (sprC, sprD, and sprF) are involved in gliding. Mutations in sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF resulted in cells that failed to form spreading colonies on agar but that exhibited some motility on glass in wet mounts. SprF exhibits some similarity to Porphyromonas gingivalis PorP, which is required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors via the P. gingivalis PorSS. F. johnsoniae sprF mutants produced SprB protein but were defective in localization of SprB to the cell surface, suggesting a role for SprF in secretion of SprB. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is involved in secretion of extracellular chitinase in addition to its role in secretion of SprB. SprF was not needed for chitinase secretion and may be specifically required for SprB secretion by the PorSS. Cells with nonpolar mutations in sprC or sprD produced and secreted SprB and propelled it rapidly along the cell surface. Multiple paralogs of sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF are present in the genome, which may explain why mutations in sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF do not result in complete loss of motility and suggests the possibility that semiredundant SprB-like adhesins may allow movement of cells over different surfaces.
Project description:Colony spreading of Flavobacterium johnsoniae is shown to include gliding motility using the cell surface adhesin SprB, and is drastically affected by agar and glucose concentrations. Wild-type (WT) and ?sprB mutant cells formed nonspreading colonies on soft agar, but spreading dendritic colonies on soft agar containing glucose. In the presence of glucose, an initial cell growth-dependent phase was followed by a secondary SprB-independent, gliding motility-dependent phase. The branching pattern of a ?sprB colony was less complex than the pattern formed by the WT. Mesoscopic and microstructural information was obtained by atmospheric scanning electron microscopy (ASEM) and transmission EM, respectively. In the growth-dependent phase of WT colonies, dendritic tips spread rapidly by the movement of individual cells. In the following SprB-independent phase, leading tips were extended outwards by the movement of dynamic windmill-like rolling centers, and the lipoproteins were expressed more abundantly. Dark spots in WT cells during the growth-dependent spreading phase were not observed in the SprB-independent phase. Various mutations showed that the lipoproteins and the motility machinery were necessary for SprB-independent spreading. Overall, SprB-independent colony spreading is influenced by the lipoproteins, some of which are involved in the gliding machinery, and medium conditions, which together determine the nutrient-seeking behavior.
Project description:Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and SPI4 have previously been shown to be jointly regulated. We report that SPI1 and SPI4 gene expression is linked through a transcriptional activator, SprB, encoded within SPI1 and regulated by HilA. SprB directly activates SPI4 gene expression and weakly represses SPI1 gene expression through HilD.
Project description:HilD is an AraC-like transcriptional regulator encoded in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), which actives transcription of many genes within and outside SPI-1 that are mainly required for invasion of Salmonella into host cells. HilD controls expression of target genes directly or by acting through distinct regulators; three different regulatory cascades headed by HilD have been described to date. Here, by analyzing the effect of HilD on the yobH gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), we further define an additional regulatory cascade mediated by HilD, which was revealed by previous genome-wide analyses. In this regulatory cascade, HilD acts through SprB, a LuxR-like regulator encoded in SPI-1, to induce expression of virulence genes. Our data show that HilD induces expression of sprB by directly counteracting H-NS-mediated repression on the promoter region upstream of this gene. Then, SprB directly activates expression of several genes including yobH, slrP and ugtL. Interestingly, we found that YobH, a protein of only 79 amino acids, is required for invasion of S. Typhimurium into HeLa cells and mouse macrophages. Thus, our results reveal a novel S. Typhimurium invasion factor and provide more evidence supporting the HilD-SprB regulatory cascade.
Project description:Flavobacterium johnsoniae SprB moves rapidly along the cell surface, resulting in gliding motility. SprB secretion requires the type IX secretion system (T9SS). Proteins secreted by the T9SS typically have conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) belonging to the type A CTD or type B CTD family. Attachment of 70- to 100-amino-acid type A CTDs to a foreign protein allows its secretion. Type B CTDs are common but have received little attention. Secretion of the foreign protein superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) fused to regions spanning the SprB type B CTD (sfGFP-CTDSprB) was analyzed. CTDs of 218 amino acids or longer resulted in secretion of sfGFP, whereas a 149-amino-acid region did not. Some sfGFP was secreted in soluble form, whereas the rest was attached on the cell surface. Surface-attached sfGFP was rapidly propelled along the cell, suggesting productive interaction with the motility machinery. This did not result in rapid cell movement, which apparently requires additional regions of SprB. Secretion of sfGFP-CTDSprB required coexpression with sprF, which lies downstream of sprB SprF is similar in sequence to Porphyromonas gingivalis PorP. Most F. johnsoniae genes encoding proteins with type B CTDs lie immediately upstream of porP/sprF-like genes. sfGFP was fused to the type B CTD from one such protein (Fjoh_3952). This resulted in secretion of sfGFP only when it was coexpressed with its cognate PorP/SprF-like protein. These results highlight the need for extended regions of type B CTDs and for coexpression with the appropriate PorP/SprF-like protein for efficient secretion and cell surface localization of cargo proteins.IMPORTANCE The F. johnsoniae gliding motility adhesin SprB is delivered to the cell surface by the type IX secretion system (T9SS) and is rapidly propelled along the cell by the motility machinery. How this 6,497-amino-acid protein interacts with the secretion and motility machines is not known. Fusion of the C-terminal 218 amino acids of SprB to a foreign cargo protein resulted in its secretion, attachment to the cell surface, and rapid movement by the motility machinery. Efficient secretion of SprB required coexpression with the outer membrane protein SprF. Secreted proteins that have sequence similarity to SprB in their C-terminal regions are common in the phylum Bacteroidetes and may have roles in adhesion, motility, and virulence.