The feasibility of automated eye tracking with the Early Childhood Vigilance Test of attention in younger HIV-exposed Ugandan children.
ABSTRACT: Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P).A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P. Tobii ×2-30 portable infrared cameras were programmed to monitor pupil direction during the ECVT 6-min animation and compared with observer-based PROCODER webcam scoring.Children watched 78% of the cartoon (Tobii) compared with 67% (webcam scoring), although the 2 measures were highly correlated (r = .90, p = .001). It is possible for 2 such measures to be highly correlated even if one is consistently higher than the other (Bergemann et al., 2012). Both ECVT Tobii and webcam ECVT measures significantly correlated with COAT immediate recall (r = .37, p = .02 vs. r = .38, p = .01, respectively) and total recall (r = .33, p = .06 vs. r = .42, p = .005) measures. However, neither the Tobii eye tracking nor PROCODER webcam ECVT measures of attention correlated with MSEL composite cognitive performance or BRIEF-P global executive composite.ECVT scoring using Tobii eye tracking is feasible with at-risk very young African children and consistent with webcam-based scoring approaches in their correspondence to one another and other neurocognitive performance-based measures. By automating measurement and scoring, eye tracking technologies can improve the efficiency and help better standardize ECVT testing of attention in younger children. This holds promise for other neurodevelopmental tests where eye movements, tracking, and gaze length can provide important behavioral markers of neuropsychological and neurodevelopmental processes associated with such tests. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Eye tracking and event-related potentials have been widely used in the field of cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Both techniques have the ability to refine cognitive models through a precise timeline description; nevertheless, they also have severe limitations. Combining measures of event-related potentials and eye movements can contribute to cognitive process capture, which provides the possibility to determine precisely when and in which order different cognitive operations occur. Combining of event-related potentials and eye movements has been recently conducted by synchronizing measures from an infrared eye tracker with an electroencephalograph to allow simultaneous data recording. Here, we describe in detail 4 types of co-registration methods for event-related potentials and eye movements on the Tobii platform. Moreover, the present investigation was designed to evaluate the temporal accuracy of data obtained using the 4 methods. We found that the method based on the Tobii Pro Analytics software development kit had a higher degree of temporal accuracy than the other co-registration methods. Furthermore, the reasons for the different temporal accuracies were assessed, and potential measures to correct clock drift were taken. General suggestions are made regarding timing in the co-registration of the electroencephalograph and eye tracker.
Project description:Mobile head-worn eye trackers allow researchers to record eye-movement data as participants freely move around and interact with their surroundings. However, participant behavior may cause the eye tracker to slip on the participant's head, potentially strongly affecting data quality. To investigate how this eye-tracker slippage affects data quality, we designed experiments in which participants mimic behaviors that can cause a mobile eye tracker to move. Specifically, we investigated data quality when participants speak, make facial expressions, and move the eye tracker. Four head-worn eye-tracking setups were used: (i) Tobii Pro Glasses 2 in 50 Hz mode, (ii) SMI Eye Tracking Glasses 2.0 60 Hz, (iii) Pupil-Labs' Pupil in 3D mode, and (iv) Pupil-Labs' Pupil with the Grip gaze estimation algorithm as implemented in the EyeRecToo software. Our results show that whereas gaze estimates of the Tobii and Grip remained stable when the eye tracker moved, the other systems exhibited significant errors (0.8-3.1<sup>?</sup> increase in gaze deviation over baseline) even for the small amounts of glasses movement that occurred during the speech and facial expressions tasks. We conclude that some of the tested eye-tracking setups may not be suitable for investigating gaze behavior when high accuracy is required, such as during face-to-face interaction scenarios. We recommend that users of mobile head-worn eye trackers perform similar tests with their setups to become aware of its characteristics. This will enable researchers to design experiments that are robust to the limitations of their particular eye-tracking setup.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Clinical and laboratory assessment of people with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) indicate impairments in eye movements. These tests are typically done in a static, seated position. Recently, the use of mobile eye-tracking systems has been proposed to quantify subtle deficits in eye movements and visual sampling during different tasks. However, the impact of mTBI on eye movements during functional tasks such as walking remains unknown. <b>Objective:</b> Evaluate differences in eye-tracking measures collected during gait between healthy controls (HC) and patients in the sub-acute stages of mTBI recovery and to determine if there are associations between eye-tracking measures and gait speed. <b>Methods:</b> Thirty-seven HC participants and 67individuals with mTBI were instructed to walk back and forth over 10-m, at a comfortable self-selected speed. A single 1-min trial was performed. Eye-tracking measures were recorded using a mobile eye-tracking system (head-mounted infra-red Tobbii Pro Glasses 2, 100 Hz, Tobii Technology Inc. VA, United States). Eye-tracking measures included saccadic (frequency, mean and peak velocity, duration and distance) and fixation measurements (frequency and duration). Gait was assessed using six inertial sensors (both feet, sternum, right wrist, lumbar vertebrae and the forehead) and gait velocity was selected as the primary outcome. General linear model was used to compare the groups and association between gait and eye-tracking outcomes were explored using partial correlations. <b>Results:</b> Individuals with mTBI showed significantly reduced saccade frequency (<i>p</i> = 0.016), duration (<i>p</i> = 0.028) and peak velocity (<i>p</i> = 0.032) compared to the HC group. No significant differences between groups were observed for the saccade distance, fixation measures and gait velocity (<i>p</i> > 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between saccade duration and gait velocity only for participants with mTBI (<i>p</i> = 0.025). <b>Conclusion:</b> Findings suggest impaired saccadic eye movement, but not fixations, during walking in individuals with mTBI. These findings have implications in real-world function including return to sport for athletes and return to duty for military service members. Future research should investigate whether or not saccade outcomes are influenced by the time after the trauma and rehabilitation.
Project description:<b>Introduction:</b> Laparoscopic surgery is an increasingly used technique, but it requires a high degree of learning, and communication between the operating room crew is considerably difficult. The use of eye tracking has been proposed as a didactic and evaluation tool in several settings, including in laparoscopy in simulators. <b>Objectives:</b> This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the use of eye tracking systems (Tobii glasses 2) in laparoscopic surgery as a didactic and assessment tool to improve communication in the operating room and improve patients' security. <b>Methodology:</b> An anonymous survey was sent to the students and medical teachers of a faculty of medicine and practicing doctors and residents. The message contained an explanation about the use of the Tobii glasses, a link to watch the video showing its use in a laparoscopic surgery, and the survey to complete after watching the video. <b>Results:</b> The survey was answered by 113 participants (51.3% medical students, 27.4% medical teachers, 18.6% practicing doctors, and 2.7% medicine residents). Eighty-three percent agreed with the usefulness of the "Tobii glasses" in the operating room for improving communication between the main surgeon and the assistant, for learning complex surgery techniques, for obtaining didactic videos, and for indicating anatomical structures. The item scored worst was the price of the glasses. <b>Conclusions:</b> It is possible to record and project expert gaze patterns in the operating room in real time using the Tobii glasses. This device allows improving communication among the surgical crew and the learning of residents and also improving the security of surgical patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As eye tracking-based assessment of cognition becomes more widely used in older adults, particularly those at risk for dementia, reliable and scalable methods to collect high-quality data are required. Eye tracking-based cognitive tests that utilize device-embedded cameras have the potential to reach large numbers of people as a screening tool for preclinical cognitive decline. However, to fully validate this approach, more empirical evidence about the comparability of eyetracking-based paradigms to existing cognitive batteries is needed. OBJECTIVE:Using a population of clinically normal older adults, we examined the relationship between a 30-minute Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) recognition memory task and cognitive composite indices sensitive to a subtle decline in domains associated with Alzheimer disease. Additionally, the scoring accuracy between software used with a commercial grade eye tracking camera at 60 frames per second (FPS) and a manually scored procedure used with a laptop-embedded web camera (3 FPS) on the VPC task was compared, as well as the relationship between VPC task performance and domain-specific cognitive function. METHODS:A group of 49 clinically normal older adults completed a 30-min VPC recognition memory task with simultaneous recording of eye movements by a commercial-grade eye-tracking camera and a laptop-embedded camera. Relationships between webcam VPC performance and the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) and National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB) were examined. Inter-rater reliability for manually scored tests was analyzed using Krippendorff's kappa formula, and we used Spearman's Rho correlations to investigate the relationship between VPC performance scores with both cameras. We also examined the relationship between VPC performance with the device-embedded camera and domain-specific cognitive performance. RESULTS:Modest relationships were seen between mean VPC novelty preference and the PACC (r=.39, P=.007) and NIHTB-CB (r=.35, P=.03) composite scores, and additional individual neurocognitive task scores including letter fluency (r=.33, P=.02), category fluency (r=.36, P=.01), and Trail Making Test A (-.40, P=.006). Robust relationships were observed between the 60 FPS eye tracker and 3 FPS webcam on both trial-level VPC novelty preference (r=.82, P<.001) and overall mean VPC novelty preference (r=.92 P<.001). Inter-rater agreement of manually scored web camera data was high (kappa=.84). CONCLUSIONS:In a sample of clinically normal older adults, performance on a 30-minute VPC task correlated modestly with computerized and paper-pencil based cognitive composites that serve as preclinical Alzheimer disease cognitive indices. The strength of these relationships did not differ between camera devices. We suggest that using a device-embedded camera is a reliable and valid way to assess performance on VPC tasks accurately and that these tasks correlate with existing cognitive composites.
Project description:This study measured changes in switches of attention between 1 and 9 months of age in 67 typically developing infants. Remote eye-tracking (Tobii X120) was used to measure saccadic latencies, related to switches of fixation, as a measure of shifts of attention, from a central stimulus to a peripheral visual target, measured in the Fixation Shift Paradigm. Fixation shifts occur later if the central fixation stimulus stays visible when the peripheral target appears (competition condition), than if the central stimulus disappears as the peripheral target appears (non-competition condition). This difference decreases with age. Our results show significantly faster disengagement in infants over 4 months than in the younger group, and provide more precise measures of fixation shifts, than behavioural observation with the same paradigm. Reduced saccadic latencies in the course of a test session indicate a novel learning effect. The Fixation Shift Paradigm combined with remote eye-tracking measures showed improved temporal and spatial accuracy compared to direct observation by a trained observer, and allowed an increased number of trials in a short testing time. This makes it an infant-friendly non-invasive procedure, involving minimal observational training, suitable for use in future studies of clinical populations to detect early attentional abnormalities in the first few months of life.
Project description:We present Titta, an open-source toolbox for controlling eye trackers manufactured by Tobii AB from MATLAB and Python. The toolbox provides a wrapper around the Tobii Pro SDK, providing a convenient graphical participant setup, calibration and validation interface implemented using the PsychToolbox and PsychoPy toolboxes. The toolbox furthermore enables MATLAB and Python experiments to communicate with Tobii Pro Lab through the TalkToProLab tool. This enables experiments to be created and run using the freedom of MATLAB and Python, while the recording can be visualized and analyzed in Tobii Pro Lab. All screen-mounted Tobii eye trackers that are supported by the Tobii Pro SDK are also supported by Titta. At the time of writing, these are the Spectrum, Nano, TX300, T60XL, X3-120, X2-60, X2-30, X60, X120, T60 and T120 from Tobii Pro, and the 4C from Tobii Tech.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify the nutritional and immunological correlates of memory and neurocognitive development as measured by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and by the Color Object Association Test (COAT) among children in Uganda. DESIGN:This analysis uses baseline data collected between 2008 and 2010 from 119 HIV-infected children aged 1-6 years, participating in a randomized controlled trial of an interventional parenting program in Kayunga, Uganda. METHODS:Peripheral blood draws were performed to determine immunological biomarkers. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were used to relate MSEL and COAT scores to sociodemographic characteristics, weight-for-age Z scores (WAZs), antiretroviral therapy status, and immunological biomarkers. RESULTS:In the final analysis, 111 children were included. Lower levels of CD4 CD38 T cells (P = 0.04) were associated to higher immediate and total recall scores (P = 0.04). Higher levels of CD8 HLA-DR T cells were associated with higher total recall score (P = 0.04) of the COAT. Higher CD4 CD38 HLA-DR T cells levels were associated with higher gross motor scores of the MSEL (P = 0.02). WAZ was positively correlated to visual reception, fine motor, expressive language, and composite score of the MSEL. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, WAZ was a stronger predictor of neurocognitive outcomes assessed by the MSEL. CD4 CD38 T cells were more specifically associated with memory-related outcomes. Future research should include immunological markers and standardized neurocognitive tests to further understand this relationship.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Abnormalities in the oculomotor system may represent an early sign of diabetic neuropathy and are currently poorly studied. We designed an eye-tracking-based test to evaluate oculomotor function in patients with type 1 diabetes.<h4>Methods</h4>We used the SRLab-Tobii TX300 Eye tracker®, an eye-tracking device, coupled with software that we developed to test abnormalities in the oculomotor system. The software consists of a series of eye-tracking tasks divided into 4 classes of parameters (Resistance, Wideness, Pursuit and Velocity) to evaluate both smooth and saccadic movement in different directions. We analyzed the oculomotor system in 34 healthy volunteers and in 34 patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 474 parameters analyzed with the eye-tracking-based system, 11% were significantly altered in patients with type 1 diabetes (p < 0.05), with a higher proportion of abnormalities observed in the Wideness (24%) and Resistance (10%) parameters. Patients with type 1 diabetes without diabetic neuropathy showed more frequently anomalous measurements in the Resistance class (p = 0.02). The classes of Velocity and Pursuit were less frequently altered in patients with type 1 diabetes as compared to healthy subjects, with anomalous measurements mainly observed in patients with diabetic neuropathy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Abnormalities in oculomotor system function can be detected in patients with type 1 diabetes using a novel eye-tracking-based test. A larger cohort study may further determine thresholds of normality and validate whether eye-tracking can be used to non-invasively characterize early signs of diabetic neuropathy.<h4>Trial</h4>NCT04608890.