One-Pot Enzymatic Total Synthesis of Presteffimycinone, an Early Intermediate of the Anthracycline Antibiotic Steffimycin Biosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: Early acting cyclases play critical roles in programming the polyketide biosynthesis toward certain, distinguished scaffolds. Starting from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, a one-pot enzymatic total synthesis of an anthracyclinone scaffold, presteffimycinone, was achieved by mixing polyketide synthase (PKS) and early post-PKS enzymes from the biosynthetic pathways of three different types of type II-PKS driven anticancer antibiotics, namely, the mithramycin (aureolic acid-type), gilvocarcin (rearranged angucycline-type), and steffimycin (anthracycline) pathways.
Project description:A one-pot enzymatic total synthesis of angucycline antibiotic rabelomycin was accomplished, starting from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, using a mixture of polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymes of the gilvocarcin, ravidomycin, and jadomycin biosynthetic pathways. The in vitro results were compared to in vivo catalysis using analogous sets of enzymes.
Project description:Polyketide synthases (PKSs) use simple extender units to synthesize complex natural products. A fundamental question is how different extender units are site-specifically incorporated into the growing polyketide. Here we established phoslactomycin (Pn) PKS, which incorporates malonyl- and ethylmalonyl-CoA, as an in?vitro model to study substrate specificity. We combined up to six Pn PKS modules with different termination sites for the controlled release of tetra-, penta- and hexaketides, and challenged these systems with up to seven different extender units in competitive assays to test for the specificity of Pn modules. While malonyl-CoA modules of Pn PKS exclusively accept their natural substrate, the ethylmalonyl-CoA module PnC tolerates different ?-substituted derivatives, but discriminates against malonyl-CoA. We show that the ratio of extender transacylation to hydrolysis controls incorporation in PnC, thus explaining site-specific selectivity and promiscuity in the natural context of Pn PKS.
Project description:The putative modular polyketide synthase (PKS) that prescribes biosynthesis of the bryostatin natural products from the uncultured bacterial symbiont of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina possesses a discrete open reading frame (ORF) (bryP) that encodes a protein containing tandem acyltransferase (AT) domains upstream of the PKS ORFs. BryP is hypothesized to catalyze in trans acylation of the PKS modules for polyketide chain elongation. To verify conservation of function, bryP was introduced into AT-deletion mutant strains of a heterologous host containing a PKS cluster with similar architecture, and polyketide production was partially rescued. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that BryP catalyzes selective malonyl-CoA acylation of native and heterologous acyl carrier proteins and complete PKS modules in vitro. The results support the hypothesis that BryP loads malonyl-CoA onto Bry PKS modules, and provide the first biochemical evidence of the functionality of the bry cluster.
Project description:HsPKS1 from Huperzia serrata is a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) with remarkable substrate tolerance and catalytic potential. Here we present the synthesis of unnatural unique polyketide-alkaloid hybrid molecules by exploiting the enzyme reaction using precursor-directed and structure-based approaches. HsPKS1 produced novel pyridoisoindole (or benzopyridoisoindole) with the 6.5.6-fused (or 18.104.22.168-fused) ring system by the condensation of 2-carbamoylbenzoyl-CoA (or 3-carbamoyl-2-naphthoyl-CoA), a synthetic nitrogen-containing nonphysiological starter substrate, with two molecules of malonyl-CoA. The structure-based S348G mutant not only extended the product chain length but also altered the cyclization mechanism to produce a biologically active, ring-expanded 6.7.6-fused dibenzoazepine, by the condensation of 2-carbamoylbenzoyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs. Thus, the basic nitrogen atom and the structure-based mutagenesis enabled additional C?C and C?N bond formation to generate the novel polyketide-alkaloid scaffold.
Project description:Iterative type I polyketide synthases (PKS) are megaenzymes essential to the biosynthesis of an enormously diverse array of bioactive natural products. Each PKS contains minimally three functional domains, ?-ketosynthase (KS), acyltransferase (AT), and acyl carrier protein (ACP), and a subset of reducing domains such as ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoylreductase (ER). The substrate selection, condensation reactions, and ?-keto processing of the polyketide growing chain are highly controlled in a programmed manner. However, the structural features and mechanistic rules that orchestrate the iterative cycles, processing domains functionality, and chain termination in this kind of megaenzymes are often poorly understood. Here, we present a biochemical and functional characterization of the KS and the AT domains of a PKS from the mallard duck Anas platyrhynchos (ApPKS). ApPKS belongs to an animal PKS family phylogenetically more related to bacterial PKS than to metazoan fatty acid synthases. Through the dissection of the ApPKS enzyme into mono- to didomain fragments and its reconstitution in vitro, we determined its substrate specificity toward different starters and extender units. ApPKS AT domain can effectively transfer acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to the ApPKS ACP stand-alone domain. Furthermore, the KS and KR domains, in the presence of Escherichia coli ACP, acetyl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA, showed the ability to catalyze the chain elongation and the ?-keto reduction steps necessary to yield a 3-hydroxybutyryl-ACP derivate. These results provide new insights into the catalytic efficiency and specificity of this uncharacterized family of PKSs.
Project description:Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) generate an array of natural products by condensing multiple acetyl units derived from malonyl-CoA to thioester-linked starter molecules covalently bound in the PKS active site. One strategy adopted by Nature for increasing the functional diversity of these biosynthetic enzymes involves modifying polyketide assembly by altering the preference for starter molecules. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a ubiquitous plant PKS and the first type III PKS described functionally and structurally. Guided by the three-dimensional structure of CHS, Phe-215 and Phe-265, which are situated at the active site entrance, were targeted for site-directed mutagenesis to diversify CHS activity. The resulting mutants were screened against a panel of aliphatic and aromatic CoA-linked starter molecules to evaluate the degree of starter molecule specificity in CHS. Although wild-type CHS accepts a number of natural CoA thioesters, it does not use N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA as a substrate. Substitution of Phe-215 by serine yields a CHS mutant that preferentially accepts this CoA-thioester substrate to generate a novel alkaloid, namely N-methylanthraniloyltriacetic acid lactone. These results demonstrate that a point mutation in CHS dramatically shifts the molecular selectivity of this enzyme. This structure-based approach to metabolic redesign represents an initial step toward tailoring the biosynthetic activity of plant type III PKS.
Project description:Type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multifunctional enzymes that are organized into modules, each of which minimally contains a beta-ketoacyl synthase, an acyltransferase (AT), and an acyl carrier protein. Here we report that the leinamycin (LNM) biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140 consists of two PKS genes, lnmI and lnmJ, that encode six PKS modules, none of which contain the cognate AT domain. The only AT activity identified within the lnm gene cluster is a discrete AT protein encoded by lnmG. Inactivation of lnmG, lnmI, or lnmJ in vivo abolished LNM biosynthesis. Biochemical characterization of LnmG in vitro showed that it efficiently and specifically loaded malonyl CoA to all six PKS modules. These findings unveiled a previously unknown PKS architecture that is characterized by a discrete, iteratively acting AT protein that loads the extender units in trans to "AT-less" multifunctional type I PKS proteins for polyketide biosynthesis. This PKS structure provides opportunities for PKS engineering as exemplified by overexpressing lnmG to improve LNM production.
Project description:Type III polyketide synthases are important for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and various plant polyphenols. Mulberry plants have abundant polyphenols, but very little is known about the mulberry type III polyketide synthase genes. An analysis of these genes may provide new targets for genetic improvement to increase relevant secondary metabolites and enhance the plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.Eighteen genes encoding type III polyketide synthases were identified, including six chalcone synthases (CHS), ten stilbene synthases (STS), and two polyketide synthases (PKS). Functional characterization of four genes representing most of the MnCHS and MnSTS genes by coexpression with 4-Coumaroyl-CoA ligase in Escherichia coli indicated that their products were able to catalyze p-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to generate naringenin and resveratrol, respectively. Microsynteny analysis within mulberry indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the MnCHS family, while tandem duplications were mainly responsible for the generation of the MnSTS genes. Combining the evolution and expression analysis results of the mulberry type III PKS genes indicated that MnCHS and MnSTS genes evolved mainly under purifying selection to maintain their original functions, but transcriptional subfunctionalization occurred during long-term species evolution. Moreover, mulberry leaves can rapidly accumulated oxyresveratrol after UV-C irradiation, suggesting that resveratrol was converted to oxyresveratrol.Characterizing the functions and evolution of mulberry type III PKS genes is crucial for advancing our understanding of these genes and providing the basis for further studies on the biosynthesis of relevant secondary metabolites in mulberry plants.
Project description:The oxazolomycins (OZMs) are a growing family of antibiotics produced by several Streptomyces species that show diverse and important antibacterial, antitumor, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity. Oxazolomycin A is a peptide-polyketide hybrid compound containing a unique spiro-linked beta-lactone/gamma-lactam, a 5-substituted oxazole ring. The oxazolomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (ozm) was identified from Streptomyces albus JA3453 and localized to 79.5-kb DNA, consisting of 20 open reading frames that encode non-ribosomal peptide synthases, polyketide synthases (PKSs), hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthase-PKS, trans-acyltransferases (trans-ATs), enzymes for methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthesis, putative resistance genes, and hypothetical regulation genes. In contrast to classical type I polyketide or fatty acid biosynthases, all 10 PKS modules in the gene cluster lack cognate ATs. Instead, discrete ATs OzmM (with tandem domains OzmM-AT1 and OzmM-AT2) and OzmC were equipped to carry out all of the loading functions of both malonyl-CoA and methoxymalonyl-ACP extender units. Strikingly, only OzmM-AT2 is required for OzmM activity for OZM biosynthesis, whereas OzmM-AT1 seemed to be a cryptic AT domain. The above findings, together with previous results using isotope-labeled precursor feeding assays, are assembled for the OZM biosynthesis model to be proposed. The incorporation of both malonyl-CoA (by OzmM-AT2) and methoxymalonyl-ACP (by OzmC) extender units seemed to be unprecedented for this class of trans-AT type I PKSs, which might be fruitfully manipulated to create structurally diverse novel compounds.
Project description:Curcuminoid synthase (CUS) from Oryza sativa is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that catalyzes the remarkable one-pot formation of the C(6)-C(7)-C(6) diarylheptanoid scaffold of bisdemethoxycurcumin, by the condensation of two molecules of 4-coumaroyl-CoA and one molecule of malonyl-CoA. The crystal structure of O. sativa CUS was solved at 2.5-Å resolution, which revealed a unique, downward expanding active-site architecture, previously unidentified in the known type III PKSs. The large active-site cavity is long enough to accommodate the two C(6)-C(3) coumaroyl units and one malonyl unit. Furthermore, the crystal structure indicated the presence of a putative nucleophilic water molecule, which forms hydrogen bond networks with Ser351-Asn142-H(2)O-Tyr207-Glu202, neighboring the catalytic Cys174 at the active-site center. These observations suggest that CUS employs unique catalytic machinery for the one-pot formation of the C(6)-C(7)-C(6) scaffold. Thus, CUS utilizes the nucleophilic water to terminate the initial polyketide chain elongation at the diketide stage. Thioester bond cleavage of the enzyme-bound intermediate generates 4-coumaroyldiketide acid, which is then kept within the downward expanding pocket for subsequent decarboxylative condensation with the second 4-coumaroyl-CoA starter, to produce bisdemethoxycurcumin. The structure-based site-directed mutants, M265L and G274F, altered the substrate and product specificities to accept 4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl-CoA as the starter to produce tetrahydrobisdemethoxycurcumin. These findings not only provide a structural basis for the catalytic machinery of CUS but also suggest further strategies toward expanding the biosynthetic repertoire of the type III PKS enzymes.