Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 cashew allergens share cross-reactive CD4(+) T cell epitopes with other tree nuts.
ABSTRACT: Allergies to cashew are increasing in prevalence, with clinical symptoms ranging from oral pruritus to fatal anaphylactic reaction. Yet, cashew-specific T cell epitopes and T cell cross-reactivity amongst cashew and other tree nut allergens in humans remain uncharacterized.In this study, we characterized cashew-specific T cell responses in cashew-allergic subjects and examined cross-reactivity of these cashew-specific cells towards other tree nut allergens.CD154 up-regulation assay was used to determine immunodominance hierarchy among cashew major allergens at the T cell level. The phenotype, magnitude and functionality of cashew-specific T cells were determined by utilizing ex vivo staining with MHC class II tetramers. Dual tetramer staining and proliferation experiments were used to determine cross-reactivity to other tree nuts.CD4(+) T cell responses were directed towards cashew allergens Ana o 1 and Ana o 2. Multiple Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 T cell epitopes were then identified. These epitopes elicited either TH 2 or TH 2/TH 17 responses in allergic subjects, which were either cashew unique epitope or cross-reactive epitopes. For clones that recognized the cross-reactive epitope, T cell clones responded robustly to cashew, hazelnut and/or pistachio but not to walnut.Phylogenetically diverse tree nut allergens can activate cashew-reactive T cells and elicit a TH 2-type response at an epitope-specific level.Lack of cross-reactivity between walnut and cashew suggests that cashew peptide immunotherapy approach may not be most effective for walnut.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Allergic sensitisation towards cashew nut often happens without a clear history of eating cashew nut. IgE cross-reactivity between cashew and pistachio nut is well described; however, the ability of cashew nut-specific IgE to cross-react to common tree nut species and other Anacardiaceae, like mango, pink peppercorn, or sumac is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES:Cashew nut allergic individuals may cross-react to foods that are phylogenetically related to cashew. We aimed to determine IgE cross-sensitisation and cross-reactivity profiles in cashew nut-sensitised subjects, towards botanically related proteins of other Anacardiaceae family members and related tree nut species. METHOD:Sera from children with a suspected cashew nut allergy (n = 56) were assessed for IgE sensitisation to common tree nuts, mango, pink peppercorn, and sumac using dot blot technique. Allergen cross-reactivity patterns between Anacardiaceae species were subsequently examined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot inhibition, and IgE-reactive allergens were identified by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS:From the 56 subjects analysed, 36 were positive on dot blot for cashew nut (63%). Of these, 50% were mono-sensitised to cashew nuts, 19% were co-sensitised to Anacardiaceae species, and 31% were co-sensitised to tree nuts. Subjects co-sensitised to Anacardiaceae species displayed a different allergen recognition pattern than subjects sensitised to common tree nuts. In pink peppercorn, putative albumin- and legumin-type seed storage proteins were found to cross-react with serum of cashew nut-sensitised subjects in vitro. In addition, a putative luminal binding protein was identified, which, among others, may be involved in cross-reactivity between several Anacardiaceae species. CONCLUSIONS:Results demonstrate the in vitro presence of IgE cross-sensitisation in children towards multiple Anacardiaceae species. In this study, putative novel allergens were identified in cashew, pistachio, and pink peppercorn, which may pose factors that underlie the observed cross-sensitivity to these species. The clinical relevance of this widespread cross-sensitisation is unknown.
Project description:Food allergies represent a substantial medical liability and preventing accidental exposure to food allergens requires constant attention. Allergic reaction to cashew nuts is frequently serious, and the small 2S albumin, Ana o 3, is an immuno-dominant cashew allergen. Ana o 3 is composed of five alpha helices, contains 2 subunits linked by cysteine disulfide bonds, and remains soluble even after extensive heating of cashew nuts. The stability and solubility properties of Ana o 3 make it an excellent target for diagnostic and detection methods and tools. In this work, a monoclonal antibody, designated 2H5, aimed at amino acids 39-54 within helices I and II of the small subunit of Ana o 3 was developed that recognizes both recombinant and native Ana o 3 and is cashew specific in ELISA experiments. The KD against the targeted amino-acid sequence was found to be approximately 7.0?×?10-6 mg/ml (3.3?nM), while the KD against the native protein was found to be approximately 1.2?×?10-3 mg/ml (92?nM). The 2H5 monoclonal anti-Ana o 3 antibody can distinguish between native and recombinant proteins and represents a useful reagent for the study of antibody cashew-allergen interactions and may enable the development of cashew-specific diagnostic tools that can be used to prevent accidental cashew allergen exposures.
Project description:Cashew nuts are an increasingly common cause of food allergy. We compare the soluble protein profile of cashew nuts following heating. SDS-PAGE indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew nut proteins. The 11S legumin, Ana o 2, dominates the soluble protein content in ready to eat and mildly heated cashew nuts. However, we found that in dark-roasted cashew nuts, the soluble protein profile shifts and the 2S albumin Ana o 3 composes up to 40% of the soluble protein. Analysis of trypsin-treated extracts by LC/MS/MS indicate changes in the relative number and intensity of peptides. The relative cumulative intensity of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 1 and 2 peptides are altered by heating, while those of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 3 peptides remaine relatively constant. ELISA experiments indicate that there is a decrease in rabbit IgG and human serum IgE binding to soluble cashew proteins following heating. Our findings indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew allergens, resulting in altered IgE binding. Our results support the use of both Ana o 2 and Ana o 3 as potential cashew allergen diagnostic targets.
Project description:Tree nuts show nutritional properties and human health benefits. However, they contain allergenic proteins, which make them harmful to the sensitised population. The presence of tree nuts on food labelling is mandatory and, consequently, the development of suitable analytical methodologies to detect nuts in processed foods is advisable. Real-Time PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequences. Some food processing methods could induce structural and/or conformational changes in proteins by altering their allergenic capacity, as well as produce the fragmentation and/or degradation of genomic DNA. In this work, we analysed by means of Real-Time PCR, the influence of pressure and thermal processing through Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) on the detectability of hazelnut, pistachio and cashew allergens. The detection of targets in hazelnut, pistachio and cashew (Cor a 9, Pis v 1 and Ana o 1, respectively) is affected by the treatment to different extents depending on the tree nut. Results are compared to those previously obtained by our group in the analysis of different treatments on the amplificability of the same targets. Reduction in amplificability is similar to that reported for some autoclave conditions. Our assays might allow for the detection of up to 1000 mg/kg of hazelnut, pistachio and cashew flours after being submitted to DIC treatment in food matrices.
Project description:Proteins from cashew nut can elicit mild to severe allergic reactions. Three allergenic proteins have already been identified, and it is expected that additional allergens are present in cashew nut. pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR10) allergens from pollen have been found to elicit similar allergic reactions as those from nuts and seeds. Therefore, we investigated the presence of PR10 genes in cashew nut. Using RNA-seq analysis, we were able to identify several PR10-like transcripts in cashew nut and clone six putative PR10 genes. In addition, PR10 protein expression in raw cashew nuts was confirmed by immunoblotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. An in silico allergenicity assessment suggested that all identified cashew PR10 proteins are potentially allergenic and may represent three different isoallergens.
Project description:Cross-reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes are present in their proteins.To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE-binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins, react with IgE from sera of patients with allergy to walnut and/or peanut.? Patient sera were characterized by western blotting for IgE binding to nut protein extracts and to peptides from walnut and peanut allergens, similar to known peanut epitopes as defined by low PD values, synthesized on membranes. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to show that peanut and predicted walnut epitope sequences compete with purified Ara h 2 for binding to IgE in serum from a cross-reactive patient.Sequences from the vicilin walnut allergen Jug r 2, which had low PD values to epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 2, a 2S albumin, bound to IgE in sera from five patients who reacted to either walnut or peanut or both. A walnut epitope recognized by sera from six patients mapped to a surface-exposed region on a model of the N-terminal pro-region of Jug r 2. This predicted walnut epitope competed for IgE binding to Ara h 2 in serum as well as the known IgE epitope from Ara h 2.Sequences with low PD value (< 8.5) to known IgE epitopes could contribute to cross-reactivity between allergens. This further validates the PD scoring method for predicting cross-reactive epitopes in allergens.
Project description:Protein allergens can be related by cross-reactivity. Allergens that share relevant sequence can cross-react, those lacking sufficient similarity in their IgE antibody-binding epitopes do not cross-react. Cross-reactivity is based on shared epitopes that is based on shared sequence and higher level structure (charge and shape). Epitopes are important in predicting cross-reactivity potential and may provide the potential to establish criteria that identify homology among allergens. Selected allergen's IgE-binding epitope sequences were used to determine how the FASTA algorithm could be used to identify a threshold of significance. A statistical measure (expectation value, E-value) was used to identify a threshold specific to identifying cross-reactivity potential. Peanut Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, shrimp tropomyosin Pen a 1, and birch tree pollen allergen, Bet v 1 were sources of known epitopes. Each epitope or set of epitopes was inserted into random amino acid sequence to create hypothetical proteins used as queries to an allergen database. Alignments with allergens were noted for the ability to match the epitope's source allergen as well as any cross-reactive or other homologous allergens. A FASTA expectation value range (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-6 ) was identified that could act as a threshold to help identify cross-reactivity potential.
Project description:The etiology of urticaria is heterogeneous and allergic responses may be involved in it. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of sensitivity to inhaled and food allergens among patients with urticaria in Henan province (China). The levels of specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) were detected using the AllergyScreen test and a total of 524/1,091 cases (48.0%) tested positive for sIgE to at least one of the 19 allergens. The most common inhaled allergens the urticaria patients were sensitive to were D. pteronyssinus (34.5%), cockroach (12.5%) and tree pollen mix (11.1%), while the food allergens with the highest rate of allergic reactions were cashew nut (8.1%), shrimp (6.8%) and crab (6.4%). The positive rates for D. pteronyssinus, dog hair, cockroach, mold mix, tree pollen mix and shrimp in the chronic urticaria group were higher than those in the acute urticaria group (P<0.05). Furthermore, positive rates for the majority of allergens were higher in males than in females and were significantly different between age groups (P<0.05). The results of the present study provided information on the characteristics of allergen sensitization of patients with urticaria and may facilitate the prevention, diagnosis and management of urticaria in Henan province.
Project description:Understanding and predicting an individual's clinical cross-reactivity to related allergens is a key to better management, treatment and progression of novel therapeutics for food allergy. In food allergy, clinical cross-reactivity is observed in patients reacting to unexpected allergen sources containing the same allergenic protein or antibody binding patches (epitopes), often resulting in severe allergic reactions. Shellfish allergy affects up to 2% of the world population and persists for life in most patients. The diagnosis of shellfish allergy is however often challenging due to reported clinical cross-reactivity to other invertebrates including mites and cockroaches. Prediction of cross-reactivity can be achieved utilizing an in-depth analysis of a few selected IgE-antibody binding epitopes. We combined available experimentally proven IgE-binding epitopes with informatics-based cross-reactivity prediction modeling to assist in the identification of clinical cross-reactive biomarkers on shellfish allergens. This knowledge can be translated into prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. To overcome the problem of predicting IgE cross-reactivity of shellfish allergens we developed an epitope conservation model using IgE binding epitopes available in the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (http://www.iedb.org/). We applied this method to a set of four different shrimp allergens, and successfully identified several non-cross-reactive as well as cross-reactive epitopes, which have been experimentally established to cross-react. Based on these findings we suggest that this method can be used for advanced component-resolved-diagnosis to identify patients sensitized to a specific shellfish group and distinguish from patients with extensive cross-reactivity to ingested and inhaled allergens from invertebrate sources.
Project description:Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction.A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2-17 years) with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5%) of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63) manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15) developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137) of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137) of the children were treated with epinephrine.This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed NTR3572.