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Removal of 4-Chlorophenol from Contaminated Water Using Activated Carbon from Dried Date Pits: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics Analyses.

ABSTRACT: Five different activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared from dried date pits using air and phosphoric acid as activating agents. The used phosphoric acid:date pit ratio dictated the characteristics of the prepared ACs; the equivalent BET-nitrogen surface area varied from 794 m²/g for a ratio of 5:1, to 1707 m²/g for a ratio of 2:1, whereas the micropore volume changed in value from 0.24 cm³/g for the 5:1 ratio to 0.59 cm³/g for the 2:1 ratio. The prepared ACs were tested to remove 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from aqueous solutions by means of batch adsorption process. The prepared 2:1 AC exhibited the highest uptake with a maximum of 525 mg/g. Equilibrium pH studies showed that 4-CP removal was pH dependent; the maximum uptake occurred at an equilibrium pH value of 5.5. Dynamic studies showed that 4-CP uptake on 2:1 AC is rapid, with 80% of the maximum uptake achieved during the first 40 min. Both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion were identified to be effective adsorption mechanisms. Kinetic studies indicated a pseudo second-order reaction. Results of equilibrium adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption of the 4-CP on 2:1 AC is best described by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamics parameters of the adsorption (ΔG⁰, ΔH⁰, and ΔS⁰) were determined by studying the adsorption equilibrium at different temperatures. The values of these parameters indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption phenomenon of 4-CP on the prepared ACs.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5502915 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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