Contribution of the PDL to Osteotomy Repair and Implant Osseointegration.
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to clarify the fate of the periodontal ligament (PDL) retained in the socket after tooth extraction, then determine if this tissue contributed to the osseointegration of "immediate" implants placed in these fresh extraction sockets. Mice underwent maxillary first molar extraction, the residual PDL was removed by an osteotomy, and titanium implants were placed. The osteotomy was created in such a way that the palatal surface was devoid of PDL remnants while the buccal, mesial, and distal surfaces retained PDL fibers. At multiple time points after surgery, tissues were analyzed using a battery of molecular, cellular, and histomorphometrical assays. We found that PDL remnants mineralized and directly contributed to new bone formation in the extraction site. Compared with regions of an extraction site where the PDL was removed by osteotomy, regions that retained PDL fibers had produced significantly more new bone. Around immediate implants, the retained PDL remnants directly contributed to new bone formation and osseointegration. Thus, we conclude that PDL remnants are inherently osteogenic, and if the tissue is healthy, it is reasonable to conclude that curetting out an extraction socket prior to immediate implant placement should be avoided. This recommendation aligns with contemporary trends toward minimally invasive surgical manipulations of the extraction socket prior to immediate implant placement.
Project description:The aim of this study was to gain insights into the biology and mechanics of immediate postextraction implant osseointegration. To mimic clinical practice, murine first molar extraction was followed by osteotomy site preparation, specifically in the palatal root socket. The osteotomy was positioned such that it removed periodontal ligament (PDL) only on the palatal aspect of the socket, leaving the buccal aspect undisturbed. This strategy created 2 distinct peri-implant environments: on the palatal aspect, the implant was in direct contact with bone, while on the buccal aspect, a PDL-filled gap existed between the implant and bone. Finite element modeling showed high strains on the palatal aspect, where bone was compressed by the implant. Osteocyte death and bone resorption predominated on the palatal aspect, leading to the loss of peri-implant bone. On the buccal aspect, where finite element modeling revealed low strains, there was minimal osteocyte death and robust peri-implant bone formation. Initially, the buccal aspect was filled with PDL remnants, which we found directly provided Wnt-responsive cells that were responsible for new bone formation and osseointegration. On the palatal aspect, which was devoid of PDL and Wnt-responsive cells, adding exogenous liposomal WNT3A created an osteogenic environment for rapid peri-implant bone formation. Thus, we conclude that low strain and high Wnt signaling favor osseointegration of immediate postextraction implants. The PDL harbors Wnt-responsive cells that are inherently osteogenic, and if the PDL tissue is healthy, it is reasonable to preserve this tissue during immediate implant placement.
Project description:A dental implant is used to replace a missing tooth. Fixing the implant in its natural position requires the engineering of a substantial amount of conformal bone growth inside the implant socket, osseointegration. However, this conventional implant attachment does not include the periodontal ligament (PDL), which has a fundamental role in cushioning high mechanical loads. As a result, tooth implants have a shorter lifetime than the natural tooth and have a high chance of infections. We have engineered a "bio-implant" that provides a living PDL connection for titanium implants. The bio-implant consists of a hydroxyapatite coated titanium screw, ensheathed in cell sheets made from immortalized human periodontal cells. Bio-implants were transplanted into the upper first molar region of a tooth-extraction mouse model. Within 8 weeks the bio-implant generated fibrous connective tissue, a localised blood vessel network and new bone growth fused into the alveolar bone socket. The study presents a bio-implant engineered with human cells, specialised for the root connection, and resulted in the partial reconstruction of a naturalised tooth attachment complex (periodontium), consisting of all the principal tissue types, cementum, PDL and alveolar bone.
Project description:Stem cells residing in the periodontal ligament (PDL) support the homeostasis of the periodontium, but their in vivo identity, source(s), and function(s) remain poorly understood. Here, using a lineage-tracing mouse strain, we identified a quiescent Wnt-responsive population in the PDL that became activated in response to tooth extraction. The Wnt-responsive population expanded by proliferation, then migrated from the PDL remnants that remained attached to bundle bone, into the socket. Once there, the Wnt-responsive progeny upregulated osteogenic protein expression, differentiated into osteoblasts, and generated the new bone that healed the socket. Using a liposomal WNT3A protein therapeutic, we showed that a single application at the time of extraction was sufficient to accelerate extraction socket healing 2-fold. Collectively, these data identify a new stem cell population in the intact periodontium that is directly responsible for alveolar bone healing after tooth removal.
Project description:Introduction: Immediate placement of implants in a fresh post-extraction socket is an increasingly popular and established treatment option. However, active infection in the extraction site may adversely affect the outcome of this procedure. This study was designed to assess the clinical results of immediate placement of dental implants in infected extraction sockets using a standardized protocol, which included (a) the use of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser for the decontamination of the infected socket prior to implant insertion, and (b) the utilization of an in situ hardening alloplastic bone graft substitute to augment the gap between the implant surface and the labial plate of bone. Patients and Methods: A retrospective record review was used to identify 68 patients who had implants placed as per the described protocol. A total of 126 implants were placed in 68 patients (65 implants in the maxilla, 61 implants in the mandible). The implants were loaded 136 ± 73 days (mean ± standard deviation; range: 37-400 days) after implant placement. Eight patients (16 implants) were subsequently lost to follow up. Results: 105 of the 110 implants (95.45%) placed immediately in the infected sites using the described protocol survived after prosthetic loading. Conclusion: Immediate implant placement in previously infected sites using the protocols mentioned in our study with laser decontamination of the socket, grafting with an in situ hardening alloplastic bone graft material and non-submerged healing shows a similar survival rate to the published success rates for immediate implants placed in non-infected sites.
Project description:Our long-term objective is to devise methods to improve osteotomy site preparation and, in doing so, facilitate implant osseointegration. As a first step in this process, we developed a standardized oral osteotomy model in ovariectomized rats. There were 2 unique features to this model: first, the rats exhibited an osteopenic phenotype, reminiscent of the bone health that has been reported for the average dental implant patient population. Second, osteotomies were produced in healed tooth extraction sites and therefore represented the placement of most implants in patients. Commercially available drills were then used to produce osteotomies in a patient cohort and in the rat model. Molecular, cellular, and histologic analyses demonstrated a close alignment between the responses of human and rodent alveolar bone to osteotomy site preparation. Most notably in both patients and rats, all drilling tools created a zone of dead and dying osteocytes around the osteotomy. In rat tissues, which could be collected at multiple time points after osteotomy, the fate of the dead alveolar bone was followed. Over the course of a week, osteoclast activity was responsible for resorbing the necrotic bone, which in turn stimulated the deposition of a new bone matrix by osteoblasts. Collectively, these analyses support the use of an ovariectomy surgery rat model to gain insights into the response of human bone to osteotomy site preparation. The data also suggest that reducing the zone of osteocyte death will improve osteotomy site viability, leading to faster new bone formation around implants.
Project description:The presence of insufficient bone volume remains a major clinical problem for dental implant placement to restore the oral function. Gene-transduced stem cells provide a promising approach for inducing bone regeneration and enhancing osseointegration in dental implants with tissue engineering technology. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) promotes osteogenesis in rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). In this study, the function of HIF-1? was validated for the first time in a preclinical large animal canine model in term of its ability to promote new bone formation in defects around implants as well as the osseointegration between tissue-engineered bone and dental implants. A lentiviral vector was constructed with the constitutively active form of HIF-1? (cHIF). The ectopic bone formation was evaluated in nude mice. The therapeutic potential of HIF-1?-overexpressing canine BMSCs in bone repair was evaluated in mesi-implant defects of immediate post-extraction implants in the canine mandible. HIF-1? mediated canine BMSCs significantly promoted new bone formation both subcutaneously and in mesi-implant defects, including increased bone volume, bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and trabecular bone volume fraction. Furthermore, osseointegration was significantly enhanced by HIF-1?-overexpressing canine BMSCs. This study provides an important experimental evidence in a preclinical large animal model concerning to the potential applications of HIF-1? in promoting new bone formation as well as the osseointegration of immediate implantation for oral function restoration.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore the feasibility of immediate implantation after tooth extraction in the maxillary molar socket with poor bone quality beneath the sinus. METHODS:We collected the data from the patients undergoing extraction of maxillary molars with poor bone quality between the sockets and sinuses. Sinus lifting and immediate implant following the extraction were performed simultaneously in these cases, and the primary stability of the implants, wound healing, and changes of the sinus were observed. At 6 months after the operations, the crowns were installed on the implants. The masticatory function was observed, and the growth of the alveolar bones and their changes after the operations were examined using microcomputed tomography (MCT). RESULTS:We analyzed 32 extraction cases with immediate implantation in the maxillary molar sockets with poor bone quality beneath the sinus. The average age of the patients was 59.8 years, and the length and diameter of the implant ranged from 8.5 to 10 mm and from 4.5 to 5.5 mm, respectively. The torque force of the implants varied from the minimum (in which cases the implants remained fixed after insertion with fingers) to the maximum of 30 N·cm. The postoperative recovery was uneventful in all the cases and no failed or movable implants were found. At 6 months after the operation, none of the patients showed abnormalities in the sinus, and in all the cases the crowns were successfully installed on the implants with good recovery of the masticatory functions. Follow-up of the patients for 12 to 96 months after the operation showed successful immediate implantation in all the cases. After the operation, the changes of the mean alveolar ridge heights on the buccal, palatal, mesial, and distal sides of the patients were 0.8069±0.6253 mm (t=1.2904, P>0.1), 0.5272± 0.3331 mm (t=1.5836, P>0.05), 0.5416±0.4048 mm (t=1.3379, P>0.05), and 0.5172±0.3874 mm (t=1.3351, P>0.05), respectively; the change of the alveolar ridge width was 0.5522±0.4381 mm (t=1.2604, P>0.1) mm. The dimension of the alveolar bone underwent no significant changes after the operation in these patients. CONCLUSIONS:Immediate implantation in the maxillary extraction socket with a poor bone quality can avoid damages to the sinus and achieve good outcomes with such advantages of less trauma, full use of the innate gingiva and alveolar ridge, and well preserved morphology of the alveolar ridge as compared with delayed implantation.
Project description:This study evaluated the von Mises stress (MPa) and equivalent strain occurring around monolithic yttria-zirconia (Zir) implant using three clinically simulated finite element analysis (FEA) models for a missing maxillary central incisor. Two unidentified patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) datasets with and without right maxillary central incisor were used to create the FEA models. Three different FEA models were made with bone structures that represent a healed socket (HS), reduced bone width edentulous site (RB), and immediate extraction socket with graft (EG). A one-piece abutment-implant fixture mimicking Straumann Standard Plus tissue level RN 4.1 X 11.8mm, for titanium alloy (Ti) and Zir were modeled. 178 N oblique load and 200 N vertical load were used to simulate occlusal loading. Von Mises stress and equivalent strain values for around each implant model were measured. Within the HS and RB models the labial-cervical region in the cortical bone exhibited highest stress, with Zir having statistically significant lower stress-strain means than Ti in both labial and palatal aspects. For the EG model the labial-cervical area had no statistically significant difference between Ti and Zir; however, Zir performed better than Ti against the graft. FEA models suggest that Ti, a more elastic material than Zir, contributes to the transduction of more overall forces to the socket compared to Zir. Thus, compared to Ti implants, Zir implants may be less prone to peri-implant bone overloading and subsequent bone loss in high stress areas especially in the labial-cervical region of the cortical bone. Zir implants respond to occlusal loading differently than Ti implants. Zir implants may be more favorable in non-grafted edentulous or immediate extraction with grafting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immediate implants are frequently employed in the anterior maxillary area. However, the installation of dental implants simultaneously with tooth extraction can also provide with benefits in the posterior areas with a reduction in time prior the recovery of the masticatory function. Results previously reported in the literature show high-survival and success rates for implants placed in extraction sockets in molar areas; however, this topic has received limited systematic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Electronic and manual literature searches were performed by two independent reviewers in several data-bases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, for articles up to January 2019 reporting outcomes of immediate implants placed in molar areas. Primary outcomes included survival and success rates, as well as marginal bone loss. Secondary outcomes included the influence of implant position, type of implant connection, grafting protocol, flap or flapless approach, implant diameter, surgical phase, presence of buccal plate, and loading protocol. RESULTS:Twenty studies provided information on the survival rate, with a total sample of 1.106 implants. The weighted mean survival rate of immediate implants after 1 year of follow-up was 96.6%, and the success rate was 93.3%. On the other hand, marginal bone loss was 1.29 ± 0.24 mm. Secondary outcomes demonstrated that grafting the gap and the loading protocol have an effect on survival and success rates. Similarly, the presence or absence of the buccal bone affect crestal bone levels. Meta-analysis of 4 investigations showed a weighted mean difference of 0.31 mm ± 0.8 IC 95% (0.15-0.46) more marginal bone loss at immediate implant placement versus implants in healed sites (p < 0.001) I2 = 15.2%. CONCLUSION:In selected scenarios, immediate implant placement in molar extraction socket might be considered a predictable technique as demonstrated by a high survival and success rates, with minimal marginal bone loss.
Project description:Alveolar bone remodelling is vital for the success of dental implants and orthodontic treatments. However, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms, in particular the function of the periodontal ligament (PDL) in bone loading and remodelling, are not well understood. The PDL is a soft fibrous connective tissue that joins the tooth root to the alveolar bone and plays a critical role in the transmission of loads from the tooth to the surrounding bone. However, due to its complex structure, small size and location within the tooth socket it is difficult to study in vivo. Finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal tool with which to investigate the role of the PDL, however inclusion of the PDL in FE models is complex and time consuming, therefore consideration must be given to how it is included. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of including the PDL and its fibrous structure in mandibular finite element models. A high-resolution model of a human molar region was created from micro-computed tomography scans. This is the first time that the fibrous structure of the PDL has been included in a model with realistic tooth and bone geometry. The results show that omission of the PDL creates a more rigid model, reducing the strains observed in the mandibular corpus which are of interest when considering mandibular functional morphology. How the PDL is modelled also affects the strains. The inclusion of PDL fibres alters the strains in the mandibular bone, increasing the strains in the tooth socket compared to PDL modelled without fibres. As strains in the alveolar bone are thought to play a key role in bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement, future FE analyses aimed at improving our understanding and management of orthodontic treatment should include the fibrous structure of the PDL.