Effects of Surface Modification on the Mechanical Properties of Flax/β-Polypropylene Composites.
ABSTRACT: The effects of surface treatment of flax fibers featuring vinyltrimethoxy silane (VTMO) and maleic anhydride-polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties of flax/PP composites were investigated. α-polypropylene (α-PP) and β-polypropylene (β-PP) were used as matrices for measuring the mechanical properties of the flax fiber/polypropylene (flax/PP) composites. Flax/PP composites composed of double-covered uncommingled yarn (DCUY) were prepared using a film-stacking technique. The influence of surface treatment on the tensile, flexural, impact, and water uptake properties of Flax/PP composites were investigated. MAPP treatment was suitable for flax/PP composites in terms of superior tensile and impact properties. VTMO treatment showed superior flexural properties and less influence on the impact properties after moisture absorption.
Project description:This study uses the melt compounding method to produce polypropylene (PP)/short glass fibers (SGF) composites. PP serves as matrix while SGF serves as reinforcement. Two coupling agents, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, (PP-g-MA) and maleic anhydride grafted styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS-g-MA) are incorporated in the PP/SGF composites during the compounding process, in order to improve the interfacial adhesion and create diverse desired properties of the composites. According to the mechanical property evaluations, increasing PP-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with higher tensile, flexural, and impact properties. In contrast, increasing SEBS-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with decreasing tensile and flexural strengths, but also increasing impact strength. The DSC results indicate that using either PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent increases the crystallization temperature. However, the melting temperature of PP barely changes. The spherulitic morphology results show that PP has a smaller spherulite size when it is processed with PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent. The SEM results indicate that SGF is evenly distributed in PP matrices, but there are distinct voids between these two materials, indicating a poor interfacial adhesion. After PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA is incorporated, SGF can be encapsulated by PP, and the voids between them are fewer and indistinctive. This indicates that the coupling agents can effectively improve the interfacial compatibility between PP and SGF, and as a result improves the diverse properties of PP/SGF composites.
Project description:A novel class of injection-molded, toughened biocomposites was engineered from pyrolyzed miscanthus-based biocarbon, poly(octene ethylene) elastomer, and polypropylene (PP). The elastomer and biocarbon were added to the PP matrix at 30 and 20 wt %, respectively. The particle size of the biocarbon varied within two main ranges: <20 and 106-125 ?m. The morphology and adhesion between the filler and the matrix were controlled by the addition of maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP). The composites were melt-blended and then injection-molded to tensile, flexural, and impact bars. The results showed that although the morphology of the composite is almost independent of particle size it is greatly dependent on the addition of MAPP. Two completely different morphologies, separate dispersion and encapsulated filler particles, were obtained in the presence and absence of MAPP, which was verified by atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. Model calculations based on a modified Kerner equation showed that the encapsulated filler content decreased from 64 to 8% by the addition of MAPP, which caused a major improvement in the stiffness and strength of the composites. Despite having a different morphology caused by the compatibilizer, composites with smaller particles exhibited better strength and modulus and lower impact toughness compared to those with a larger particle size. Results suggest that the failure mechanisms are mainly controlled by the local fracturing of biocarbon particles, which was more pronounced when the particle size was larger.
Project description:The effect of various combinations of filler materials on the performance of polypropylene (PP)-based composites was investigated. PP in particulate form was used as the matrix. Milled short carbon fiber (SCF) micro-size, graphite nano-platelet (GNP), and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO<sub>2</sub>) were used as fillers. These fillers were incorporated in the polymer matrix to produce mono-filler (PP/SCF and PP/nanofiller) and hybrid composites. Hybrid composites consist of PP/10SCF/GNP, PP/10SCF/nTiO<sub>2</sub>, and PP/10SCF/GNP/nTiO<sub>2</sub>. The effect of the addition of SCF, GNP, and nTiO<sub>2</sub> on PP-based composites was investigated by analyzing their morphological, mechanical, and physical properties. The addition of mono-filler to the PP matrix improved the mechanical properties of the composites when compared to the neat PP. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), flexural modulus, flexural strength, and impact toughness of the hybrid composites with 15 wt % total loading of fillers, were higher than that of mono-filler composites with 15 wt % SCF (PP/15SCF). A maximum increase of 20% in the flexural modulus was observed in the hybrid composite with 10 wt % of SCF with the additional of 2.5 wt % GNP and 2.5 wt % nTiO<sub>2</sub> when compared to PP/15SCF composite. The addition of 2.5 wt % nTiO<sub>2</sub> to the 10 wt % SCF reinforced PP, resulted in increasing the strain at break by 15% when compared to the PP/10SCF composite. A scanning electron microscope image of the PP/10SCF composite with the addition of GNP improved the interfacial bonding between PP and SCF compared with PP/SCF alone. A decrease in the melt flow index (MFI) was observed for all compositions. However, hybrid composites showed a higher decrease in MFI.
Project description:This work describes flax fibre reinforced polymeric composites with recent developments. The properties of flax fibres, as well as advanced fibre treatments such as mercerization, silane treatment, acylation, peroxide treatment and coatings for the enhancement of flax/matrix incompatibility are presented. The characteristic properties and characterizations of flax composites on various polymers including polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid, epoxy, bio-epoxy and bio-phenolic resin are discussed. A brief overview is also given on the recent nanotechnology applied in flax composites.
Project description:A laminated composite was produced using a thermoplastic prepreg by inserting an interleaved film with the same type of matrix as the prepreg during the lay-up process to improve the low interlaminar properties, which is a known weakness of laminated composites. Carbon fiber fabric (CFF) and polypropylene (PP) were used to manufacture the thermoplastic prepregs. Eight prepregs were used to produce the laminated composites. Interleaved films with different thicknesses were inserted into each prepreg. The physical properties of the composite, such as thickness, density, fiber volume fraction (Vf), and void content (Vc), were examined. The tensile strength, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), impact property, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the mechanical properties. Compared to the composite without any inserted interleaved film, as the thickness of the inserted interleaved resin film was increased, Vc decreased by 51.45%. At the same time, however, the tensile strength decreased by 8.75%. Flexural strength increased by 3.79% and flexural modulus decreased by 15.02%. Interlaminar shear strength increased by 11.05% and impact strength increased by 15.38%. Fracture toughness of the laminated composite was improved due to insertion of interleaved film.
Project description:Four biomass wastes (rice husk, coffee husk, coarse wool, and landfill wood) were added with biochar and polypropylene (PP) to manufacture biocomposites. Individual biomasses were tested for their combustion behavior using cone calorimeter. Biocomposites were analyzed for their fire/thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties. Wood had the most desirable comprehensive effect on both the mechanical and fire properties of composites. In particular, wood and biochar composite exhibited the highest values of tensile/flexural properties with a relatively low peak heat release rate. In general, application of waste derived biochar and biomasses drastically reduced the susceptibility of neat PP towards fire.
Project description:Waste newspaper are currently used in a single way and have low utilization rates. In this paper, the optimal process of preparing environmentally friendly layered composites by using waste newspaper combined with polypropylene film lamination was studied. The effects of hot-pressing temperature, hot-pressing time and paper content on the properties of the composites were analyzed. The results showed that under the process conditions of hot-pressing temperature 180 °C, compression time 20 min and paper content 66.7%, the obtained composite material had a flexural strength of 126 MPa, a tensile strength of 95 MPa, an impact strength of 5.3 kJ/m2 and a water absorption thickness expansion ratio of 3.2%. Tensile performance increased by 164% compared to the original waste newspaper. Compared to our previous work, the hot processing time had been cut in half and costs were lower. In terms of creep properties, the unrecoverable strain rate was reduced by 57.5% compared to pure polypropylene. The results show that the material can maintain excellent flexural strength, tensile strength and water absorption performance while making good use of waste newspaper.
Project description:The aim of the research was to study the effects of adding natural fillers to a polypropylene (PP) matrix on mechanical and physical properties of hybrid composites. The 10%, 15%, and 20% by weight basalt fibers (BF) and ground hazelnut shells (HS) were added to the PP matrix. Composites were produced by making use of an injection molding method. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, strain at break, Charpy impact strength, and the coefficient of thermal expansion were determined. The influence of temperature, thermal aging, and water absorption on mechanical properties was also investigated. In addition, short-time creep tests were carried out. To characterize the morphology and the filler distribution within the matrix, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used. The results showed that the addition of the two types of filler enhanced mechanical properties. Furthermore, improvements in thermal stability were monitored. After water absorption, the changes in the tensile properties of the tested composites were moderate. However, thermal aging caused a decrease in tensile strength and tensile modulus.
Project description:Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs) grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt) by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL) for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue.
Project description:A nanocomposite containing polypropylene (PP) and nano α-Al2O3 particles was prepared using a Haake internal mixer. Mechanical tests, such as tensile and flexural tests, showed that mechanical properties of the composite were enhanced by addition of nano α-Al2O3 particles and dispersant agent to the polymer. Tensile strength was approximately ∼ 16% higher than pure PP by increasing the nano α-Al2O3 loading from 1 to 4 wt% into the PP matrix. The results of flexural analysis indicated that the maximum values of flexural strength and flexural modulus for nanocomposite without dispersant were 50.5 and 1954 MPa and for nanocomposite with dispersant were 55.88 MPa and 2818 MPa, respectively. However, higher concentration of nano α-Al2O3 loading resulted in reduction of those mechanical properties that could be due to agglomeration of nano α-Al2O3 particles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations of the nanocomposites also showed that fracture surface became rougher by increasing the content of filler loading from 1 to 4% wt.