Identification of eight genetic variants as novel determinants of dyslipidemia in Japanese by exome-wide association studies.
ABSTRACT: We have performed exome-wide association studies to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence serum concentrations of triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, or low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol or confer susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, or hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia in Japanese. Exome-wide association studies for serum triglycerides (13,414 subjects), HDL-cholesterol (14,119 subjects), LDL-cholesterol (13,577 subjects), hypertriglyceridemia (4742 cases, 8672 controls), hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (2646 cases, 11,473 controls), and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia (4489 cases, 9088 controls) were performed with HumanExome-12 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 BeadChip arrays. Twenty-four, 69, or 32 loci were significantly (P < 1.21 × 10-6) associated with serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol, respectively, with 13, 16, or 9 of these loci having previously been associated with triglyceride-, HDL-cholesterol-, or LDL-cholesterol-related traits, respectively. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10790162, rs7350481) were significantly related to both serum triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemia; three polymorphisms (rs146515657, rs147317864, rs12229654) were significantly related to both serum HDL-cholesterol and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia; and six polymorphisms (rs2853969, rs7771335, rs2071653, rs2269704, rs2269703, rs2269702) were significantly related to both serum LDL-cholesterol and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia. Among polymorphisms identified in the present study, two polymorphisms (rs146515657, rs147317864) may be novel determinants of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, and six polymorphisms (rs2853969, rs7771335, rs2071653, rs2269704, rs2269703, rs2269702) may be new determinants of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia. In addition, 12, 61, 23, or 3 polymorphisms may be new determinants of the serum triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol concentrations or of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, respectively.
Project description:The circulating concentrations of triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL)?cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)?cholesterol have a substantial genetic component, and the heritability of early?onset dyslipidemia might be expected to be higher compared with late?onset forms. In the present study, exome?wide association studies (EWASs) were performed for early?onset hypertriglyceridemia, hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia, and hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia, with the aim to identify genetic variants that confer susceptibility to these conditions in the Japanese population. A total of 8,073 individuals aged ?65 years were enrolled in the study. The EWASs for hypertriglyceridemia (2,664 cases and 5,294 controls), hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia (974 cases and 7,085 controls), and hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia (2,911 cases and 5,111 controls) were performed with Illumina Human Exome?12 v1.2 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome?24 v1.0 BeadChip arrays. The association of allele frequencies for 31,198, 31,133, or 31,175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to hypertriglyceridemia, hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia, or hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia, respectively, was examined with Fisher's exact test. To compensate for multiple comparisons of genotypes with each of the three conditions, Bonferroni's correction was applied for statistical significance of association. The results demonstrated that 25, 28 and 65 SNPs were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia and hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex revealed that all 25, 28 and 65 of these SNPs were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia and hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia, respectively. Following examination of the association of the identified SNPs to serum concentrations of triglycerides, HDL?cholesterol, or LDL?cholesterol, linkage disequilibrium of the SNPs, and results of previous genome?wide association studies, we newly identified chromosomal region 19p12 as a susceptibility locus for hypertriglyceridemia, eight loci (MOB3C?TMOD4, LPGAT1, EHD3, COL6A3, ZNF860?CACNA1D, COL6A5, DCLRE1C, ZNF77) for hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia, and three loci (KIAA0319?FAM65B, UBD, LOC105375015) for hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia. The present study thus identified 12 novel loci that may confer susceptibility to early?onset dyslipidemia. Determination of genotypes for the SNPs at these loci may prove informative for assessment of genetic risk for hypertriglyceridemia, hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia, or hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia in the Japanese population.
Project description:We previously identified 9 genes and chromosomal region 3q28 as susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Japanese individuals by genome-wide or candidate gene association studies. In the present study, we examined the association of 13 polymorphisms at these 10 loci with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia, hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterolemia, or CKD in community-dwelling Japanese individuals. The study subjects comprised 6,027 individuals who were recruited to the Inabe Health and Longevity Study, a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study of atherosclerotic, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The subjects were recruited from individuals who visited the Health Care Center at Inabe General Hospital for an annual health checkup, and they were followed up each year (mean follow?up period, 5 years). Longitudinal analysis with a generalized estimating equation and with adjustment for covariates revealed that rs6929846 of butyrophilin, subfamily 2, member A1 gene (BTN2A1) was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.0001), hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (P=0.0004), and CKD (P=0.0007); rs2569512 of interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3) was associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (P=0.0029); and rs2074379 (P=0.0019) and rs2074388 (P=0.0029) of alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1) were associated with CKD. Longitudinal analysis with a generalized linear mixed-effect model and with adjustment for covariates among all individuals revealed that rs6929846 of BTN2A1 was significantly associated with the serum concentrations of triglycerides (P=0.0011), LDL cholesterol (P=3.3 x 10(-5)), and creatinine (P=0.0006), as well as with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P=0.0004); rs2569512 of ILF3 was shown to be associated with the serum concentration of LDL cholesterol (P=0.0221); and rs2074379 (P=0.0302) and rs2074388 (P=0.0336) of ALPK1 were shown to be associated with the serum concentration of creatinine. Similar analysis among individuals not taking any anti?dyslipidemic medication revealed that rs6929846 of BTN2A1 was significantly associated with the serum concentrations of triglycerides (P=8.3 x 10?5) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0004), and that rs2569512 of ILF3 was associated with the serum concentration of LDL cholesterol (P=0.0010). BTN2A1 may thus be a susceptibility gene for hypertriglyceridemia, hyper?LDL cholesterolemia and CKD in Japanese individuals.
Project description:Adults with short stature have been previously reported to have increased risk of cardiovascular events and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia. We aimed to assess the association between height and lipid profiles among Korean adolescents and adults. We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2015, from 37,889 individuals (aged 12-59 years). In adolescents, total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels had profound associations with height in both boys and girls, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels had an inverse association with height only in boys. Height was inversely associated with TC, triglycerides (TG), and LDL-C concentrations in men and women and positively correlated with HDL-C concentration in women. In boys, the odds ratios (ORs) for hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia were higher for shorter subjects (ORs = 2.38~7.01), while only the OR of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia was significantly higher in girls with short stature (OR = 3.12). In adults, the ORs for hypercholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia were significantly higher in short subjects than in tall subjects after controlling for covariates (ORs = 1.50~2.61). Also, short men showed significantly higher ORs for hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.85) than tall men. Short stature was significantly associated with adverse lipid profiles in both adolescents and adults.
Project description:We previously identified rs6929846 of the butyrophilin, subfamily 2, member A1 gene (BTN2A1) as a susceptibility locus for myocardial infarction in Japanese individuals by a genome-wide association study. The aim of the present study was to examine the relation of the rs6929846 polymorphism of BTN2A1 to dyslipidemia in Japanese and Korean populations, given that dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for myocardial infarction. A total of 10,953 individuals from three independent subject panels were examined. The relations of the rs6929846 polymorphism of BTN2A1 to serum concentrations of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol were examined in each subject panel. The C?T polymorphism (rs6929846) of BTN2A1 was significantly associated with serum concentrations of triglycerides in Japanese subject panels A (P=0.0004) and B (P=0.0010), and in the Korean population (P=0.0095), with the minor T allele being related to an increased serum concentration of triglycerides. The rs6929846 was associated with serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol in Japanese subject panels A (P=0.0047) and B (P=0.0015), with the T allele being related to a decreased serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol, but not in the Korean population. This polymorphism was associated with the serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol only in Japanese subject panel B (P=0.0059), with the T allele being related to an increased serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol. The results suggest that BTN2A1 may be a susceptibility gene for hypertriglyceridemia in East Asian populations and for low serum HDL-cholesterol in the Japanese population.
Project description:Plasma levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), apolipoprotein C-III (apoC3) and small dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C), have been recently recognized as circulating atherosclerosis-related lipid measurements. We aimed to elucidate their associations with current dyslipidemias, and identify their levels at increased risk to dyslipidemia. A total of 1,605 consecutive, non-treated patients undergoing diagnostic/interventional coronary angiography were examined. Plasma PCSK9 and apoC3 levels were determined using a validated ELISA assay, and sdLDL-C was measured by the Lipoprint LDL System. Plasma levels of PCSK9, apoC3, and sdLDL-C were associated with the current dyslipidemias classification (all p<0.001). PCSK9 significantly conferred prediction of both hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia at a level of 235 ng/ml; apoC3 levels for hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia were 80.0, 71.5, and 86.4 ?g/ml, respectively; and sdLDL-C for hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, combined hyperlipidemia and hypo high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterolemia 3.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 2.5 mg/dl, respectively (all p<0.001 for area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve). In a polytomous logistic model comparing increasing LDL-C categories, the interactions with high PCSK9, apoC3, and sdLDL-C elevated gradually. Similarly, apoC3 and sdLDL-C showed elevated interaction with increased triglyceride categories, and only sdLDL-C showed interaction with decreased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) categories. Furthermore, discordances of PCSK9, apoC3, and sdLDL-C with current dyslipidemias were observed. PCSK9, apoC3, and sdLDL-C showed significant interactions with current dyslipidemias, and were predictive in the screening. The substantial discordances with current dyslipidemias might provide novel view in lipid management and further cardiovascular benefit.
Project description:Hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) may contribute to a presumed accelerated risk for cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acid treatment on triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, HDL-C, and HDL subpopulations. Forty-one HIV-seropositive subjects with hypertriglyceridemia (?150?mg/dl) on active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover trial comparing the effects of omega-3 fatty acid treatment (1.9?g EPA and 1.5?g DHA) on triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, and HDL subpopulations. An independent sample t-test was used to assess the study start to posttreatment change for all components. After omega-3 fatty acid treatment, triglyceride levels decreased 63.2±86.9?mg/dl (p<0.001). No significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, or HDL-C were found. Within HDL subpopulations, significant changes were seen in the most atheroprotective HDL particles, ?-1, which increased by 2.5±5.6?mg/dl (p<0.05), and pre?-1, which increased by 0.6±1.0?mg/dl (p<0.001). Pre?-3, a presumably atherogenic HDL particle, decreased by 0.5±0.9?mg/dl (p<0.01). Omega-3 fatty acid treatment significantly lowered triglyceride levels in HIV-positive patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. While no study-wide improvements in LDL-C or HDL-C were detected, the HDL subpopulation profile changed in a beneficial way suggesting more cardioprotection after treatment.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the independent association between flavonoid intake and hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterolemia and the potential modifying effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake on this association among Korean adults. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 10,326 subjects who participated in the 2013-2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of flavonoid and PUFA intakes with hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia prevalence. Proanthocyanidins intake showed an inverse relationship with hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia only in men (Tertile (T) 3 vs. T1: odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59-0.92, p-trend = 0.0330). Total flavonoid and PUFA intakes were not associated with hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia in both men and women. However, when stratified by PUFA intake, there was an inverse relationship between total flavonoid intake and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia prevalence in men with a high n-3 PUFA intake (total flavonoid intakes T3 vs. T1: OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.42-0.82, p-trend = 0.0004) or a low n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio (T3 vs. T1: OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.93, p-trend = 0.0053), but not in those with a low n-3 PUFA intake (p-interaction = 0.0038) or a high n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio (p-interaction = 0.1772). In women, no association was found between total flavonoid intake and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, regardless of PUFA intake. These results imply that the intake of proanthocyanidins might have beneficial effects on the HDL-cholesterol level in Korean men. In addition, n-3 PUFA intake might modify the association of total flavonoid intake with the hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia among Korean men.
Project description:Considering the strong correlation between carbohydrate and fat intake, we defined and assessed the association of the carbohydrate-to-fat ratio with the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level using 12-year follow-up data from the community-based cohort of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. We evaluated the long-term changes in HDL-c levels according to quartiles of carbohydrate-to-fat ratio using a mixed model. We also assessed the effect of the carbohydrate-to-fat ratio on the prevalence and incidence of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia. Of 6,627 subjects, the prevalence of undiagnosed hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia at baseline was 35.3% (n?=?2,339). Among the disease-free subjects, 56.8% developed hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (incidence?=?92/1,000 person-years). The prevalence and incidence of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia were higher in females than in males. The highest carbohydrate-to-fat ratio quartile, which was characterized by high and low intake of carbohydrate and fat, was consistently associated with a lower HDL-c level during the 12-year follow up. Moreover, those in the highest quartile had a 1.14-fold greater risk of incident hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia than those in the lowest quartile, with a significant dose-response relationship. We found that high and low intake of carbohydrate and fat, respectively, was consistently associated with a low HDL-c level over a prolonged period. More research is needed to promote appropriate intake of macronutrients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dyslipidemia was present in most of the patients with coronary heart disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that anthocyanin has some effects on the serum lipid. However, these results are controversial. This study aimed at collecting current clinical evidence and evaluating the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in dialysis patients.<h4>Methods</h4>The search included PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database (up to July 2015) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the association between anthocyanin and serum lipids. RevMan (version 5.2) was used for Meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger's weighted regression tests were performed by using STATA software (version 12.0; StatCorp, College Station, TX, USA).<h4>Results</h4>Six studies (seven arms) involving 586 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that anthocyanin supplementation has significant effects on TC [MD = -24.06, 95% CI(-45.58 to -2.64) mg/dL, I2 = 93%], TG [MD = -26.14, 95%CI(-40.20 to -3.08) mg/dL, I2 = 66%1], LDL-C [MD = -22.10, 95% CI (-34.36 to -9.85) mg/dL, I2 = 61%], and HDL-C(MD = 5.58, 95% CI (1.02 to 10.14) mg/dL;I2 = 90%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Anthocyanin supplementation significantly reduces serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in patients with dyslipidemia, and increases HDL-C. Further rigorously designed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the effectiveness of anthocyanin supplementation for dyslipidemia, especially hypo high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia.
Project description:The evidence about the effect of dietary patterns on blood cholesterol from cohort studies was very scarce. The study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with lipid profile, especially cholesterol, in a cohort in north China. Using a 1-year food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the dietary intake of 4515 adults from the Harbin People's Health Study in 2008, aged 20-74 years. Principle component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The follow-up was completed in 2012. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of blood lipid concentrations. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low-HDL cholesterolemia. Five dietary patterns were identified ("staple food", "vegetable, fruit and milk", "potato, soybean and egg", "snack", and "meat"). The relative risk (RR) between the extreme tertiles of the snack dietary pattern scores was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.59, P = 0.004) for hypercholesterolemia, 1.39 (1.13, 1.75, P = 0.036) for hypertriglyceridemia, after adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, exercise and baseline lipid concentrations. There was a significant positive association between the snack dietary pattern scores and fasting serum total cholesterol (SRC (standardized regression coefficient) = 0.262, P = 0.025), LDL-c (SRC = 0.324, P = 0.002) and triglycerides (SRC = 0.253, P = 0.035), after adjustment for the multiple variables above. Moreover, the adjusted RR of hypertriglyceridemia between the extreme tertiles was 0.73 (0.56, 0.94, P = 0.025) for the vegetable, fruit and milk dietary pattern, and 1.86 (1.33, 2.41, P = 0.005) for the meat dietary pattern. The snack dietary pattern was a newly emerged dietary pattern in northern Chinese adults. It appears conceivable that the risk of hypercholesterolemia can be reduced by changing the snack dietary pattern.