Janus Kinase 3, a Novel Regulator for Smooth Muscle Proliferation and Vascular Remodeling.
ABSTRACT: Vascular remodeling because of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a common process occurring in several vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, post-transplant vasculopathy, restenosis after angioplasty, etc. The molecular mechanism underlying SMC proliferation, however, is not completely understood. The objective of this study is to determine the role and mechanism of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) in vascular remodeling and SMC proliferation.Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, an SMC mitogen, induces JAK3 expression and phosphorylation while stimulating SMC proliferation. Janex-1, a specific inhibitor of JAK3, or knockdown of JAK3 by short hairpin RNA, inhibits the SMC proliferation. Conversely, ectopic expression of JAK3 promotes SMC proliferation. Mechanistically, JAK3 promotes the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in SMC, 2 signaling pathways known to be critical for SMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. Blockade of these 2 signaling pathways by their inhibitors impeded the JAK3-mediated SMC proliferation. In vivo, knockdown of JAK3 attenuates injury-induced neointima formation with attenuated neointimal SMC proliferation. Knockdown of JAK3 also induces neointimal SMC apoptosis in rat carotid artery balloon injury model.Our results demonstrate that JAK3 mediates SMC proliferation and survival during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provides a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:<h4>Impact statement</h4>Accumulating evidence suggests that vascular remodeling due to immoderate proliferation and migration of SMCs is a common process occurring in APE. In this work, we tried to find a breakthrough in the pathological mechanism to alleviate the prognosis of APE by improving SMCs proliferation and explored the effect of JANEX-1 on PDGF-induced proliferation-related molecules in PVSMCs and assessed the therapeutic potential of JAK3 for vascular remodeling in APE mice. We demonstrated that JANEX-1, blocking JAK3 expression or activity, reduced JAK3/STAT3 signaling pathway, VEGF expression and FAK activation, and PDGF-induced proliferation of PVSMCs. Moreover, JANEX-1 inhibited the thrombus-induced intimal hyperplasia and the expression of VEGF and FAK activation in neointimal SMCs of APE mice. The data are helpful to elucidate the pharmacological mechanism and potential therapeutic effect of JANEX-1 in APE.
Project description:Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive.In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury.These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis.
Project description:RATIONALE:Neointimal hyperplasia is characterized by excessive accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) leading to occlusive disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stenosis. Blood vessel injury increases growth factor secretion and matrix synthesis, which promotes SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia via FAK (focal adhesion kinase). OBJECTIVE:To understand the mechanism of FAK action in SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using combined pharmacological FAK catalytic inhibition (VS-4718) and SMC-specific FAK kinase-dead (Myh11-Cre-ERT2) mouse models, we report that FAK regulates SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in part by governing GATA4- (GATA-binding protein 4) cyclin D1 signaling. Inhibition of FAK catalytic activity facilitates FAK nuclear localization, which is required for proteasome-mediated GATA4 degradation in the cytoplasm. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified GATA4 binding to the mouse cyclin D1 promoter, and loss of GATA4-mediated cyclin D1 transcription diminished SMC proliferation. Stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor or serum activated FAK and redistributed FAK from the nucleus to cytoplasm, leading to concomitant increase in GATA4 protein and cyclin D1 expression. In a femoral artery wire injury model, increased neointimal hyperplasia was observed in parallel with elevated FAK activity, GATA4 and cyclin D1 expression following injury in control mice, but not in VS-4718-treated and SMC-specific FAK kinase-dead mice. Finally, lentiviral shGATA4 knockdown in the wire injury significantly reduced cyclin D1 expression, SMC proliferation, and neointimal hyperplasia compared with control mice. CONCLUSIONS:Nuclear enrichment of FAK by inhibition of FAK catalytic activity during vessel injury blocks SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia through regulation of GATA4-mediated cyclin D1 transcription.
Project description:Neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury is a representative complication of restenosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular intimal hyperplasia. PARP16, a member of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases family, is correlated with the nuclear envelope and the ER. Here, we found that PERK and IRE1<i>α</i> are ADP-ribosylated by PARP16, and this might promote proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulating. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis, PARP16 was identified as a novel target gene for histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase SMYD3, and SMYD3 could bind to the promoter of <i>Parp16</i> and increased H3K4me3 level to activate its host gene's transcription, which causes UPR activation and SMC proliferation. Moreover, knockdown either of PARP16 or SMYD3 impeded the ER stress and SMC proliferation. On the contrary, overexpression of PARP16 induced ER stress and SMC proliferation and migration. <i>In vivo</i> depletion of PARP16 attenuated injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia by mediating UPR activation and neointimal SMC proliferation. This study identified SMYD3-PARP16 is a novel signal axis in regulating UPR and neointimal hyperplasia, and targeting this axis has implications in preventing neointimal hyperplasia related diseases.
Project description:Neointimal hyperplasia characterized by abnormal accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is a hallmark of occlusive disorders such as atherosclerosis, postangioplasty restenosis, vein graft stenosis, and allograft vasculopathy. Cyclic nucleotides are vital in SMC proliferation and migration, which are regulated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs).Our goal is to understand the regulation and function of PDEs in SMC pathogenesis of vascular diseases.We performed screening for genes differentially expressed in normal contractile versus proliferating synthetic SMCs. We observed that PDE1C expression was low in contractile SMCs but drastically elevated in synthetic SMCs in vitro and in various mouse vascular injury models in vivo. In addition, PDE1C was highly induced in neointimal SMCs of human coronary arteries. More importantly, injury-induced neointimal formation was significantly attenuated by PDE1C deficiency or PDE1 inhibition in vivo. PDE1 inhibition suppressed vascular remodeling of human saphenous vein explants ex vivo. In cultured SMCs, PDE1C deficiency or PDE1 inhibition attenuated SMC proliferation and migration. Mechanistic studies revealed that PDE1C plays a critical role in regulating the stability of growth factor receptors, such as PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR?) known to be important in pathological vascular remodeling. PDE1C interacts with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 and PDGFR?, thus regulating PDGFR? endocytosis and lysosome-dependent degradation in an low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1-dependent manner. A transmembrane adenylyl cyclase cAMP-dependent protein kinase cascade modulated by PDE1C is critical in regulating PDGFR? degradation.These findings demonstrated that PDE1C is an important regulator of SMC proliferation, migration, and neointimal hyperplasia, in part through modulating endosome/lysosome-dependent PDGFR? protein degradation via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1.
Project description:Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and excessive accumulation of dysfunctional PVAT are hallmarks of pathogenesis after angioplasty. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MIA3 is associated with atherosclerosis-relevant VSMC phenotypes. However, the role of MIA3 in the vascular remodeling response to injury remains unknown. Here, we found that expression of MIA3 is increased in proliferative VSMCs and knockdown of MIA3 reduces VSMCs proliferation, migration, and inflammation, whereas MIA3 overexpression promoted VSMC migration and proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of MIA3 ameliorates femoral artery wire injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and increases brown-like perivascular adipocytes. Collectively, the data suggest that MIA3 deficiency prevents neointimal formation by decreasing VSMC proliferation, migration, and inflammation and maintaining BAT-like perivascular adipocytes in PVAT during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) remains a significant cause of in-stent restenosis. Integrins, which are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors, play a crucial role in SMC biology by binding to the extracellular matrix protein with the actin cytoskeleton within the SMC. Integrin α9 plays an important role in cell motility and autoimmune diseases; however, its role in SMC biology and remodeling remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that stimulated human coronary SMCs upregulate α9 expression. Targeting α9 in stimulated human coronary SMCs, using anti-integrin α9 antibody, suppresses synthetic phenotype and inhibits SMC proliferation and migration. To provide definitive evidence, we generated an SMC-specific α9-deficient mouse strain. Genetic ablation of α9 in SMCs suppressed synthetic phenotype and reduced proliferation and migration in vitro. Mechanistically, suppressed synthetic phenotype and reduced proliferation were associated with decreased focal adhesion kinase/steroid receptor coactivator signaling and downstream targets, including phosphorylated ERK, p38 MAPK, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and nuclear β-catenin, with reduced transcriptional activation of β-catenin target genes. Following vascular injury, SMC-specific α9-deficient mice or wild-type mice treated with murine anti-integrin α9 antibody exhibited reduced injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia at day 28 by limiting SMC migration and proliferation. Our findings suggest that integrin α9 regulates SMC biology, suggesting its potential therapeutic application in vascular remodeling.
Project description:The novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist finerenone holds promise to be safe and efficient in the treatment of patients with heart failure and/or chronic kidney disease. However, its effects on vascular function remain elusive.The aim of this study was to determine the functional effect of selective MR antagonism by finerenone in vascular cells in vitro and the effect on vascular remodeling following acute vascular injury in vivo.In vitro, finerenone dose-dependently reduced aldosterone-induced smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, as quantified by BrdU incorporation, and prevented aldosterone-induced endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis, as measured with a flow cytometry based caspase 3/7 activity assay. In vivo, oral application of finerenone resulted in an accelerated re-endothelialization 3 days following electric injury of the murine carotid artery. Furthermore, finerenone treatment inhibited intimal and medial cell proliferation following wire-induced injury of the murine femoral artery 10 days following injury and attenuated neointimal lesion formation 21 days following injury.Finerenone significantly reduces apoptosis of ECs and simultaneously attenuates SMC proliferation, resulting in accelerated endothelial healing and reduced neointima formation of the injured vessels. Thus, finerenone appears to provide favorable vascular effects through restoring vascular integrity and preventing adverse vascular remodeling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Perivascular adipose-derived stem cells (PVASCs) can contribute to vascular remodeling, which are also capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of PVASC differentiation toward smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) as well as its function in neointimal hyperplasia.<h4>Methods</h4>Single-cell sequencing and bulk mRNA sequencing were applied for searching key genes in PVASC regarding its role in vascular remodeling. PVASCs were induced to differentiate toward SMCs and ECs <i>in vitro</i>, which was quantitatively evaluated using immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR), and Western blot. Lentivirus transfections were performed in PVASCs to knock down or overexpress TBX20. <i>In vivo</i>, PVASCs transfected with lentivirus were transplanted around the guidewire injured femoral artery. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was performed to examine their effects on neointimal hyperplasia.<h4>Results</h4>Bulk mRNA sequencing and single-cell sequencing revealed a unique expression of TBX20 in PVASCs. TBX20 expression markedly decreased during smooth muscle differentiation while it increased during endothelial differentiation of PVASCs. TBX20 knockdown resulted in the upregulation of SMC-specific marker expression and activated Smad2/3 signaling, while inhibiting endothelial differentiation. In contrast, TBX20 overexpression repressed the differentiation of PVASCs toward smooth muscle cells but promoted endothelial differentiation <i>in vitro</i>. Transplantation of PVASCs transfected with TBX20 overexpression lentivirus inhibited neointimal hyperplasia in a murine femoral artery guidewire injury model. On the contrary, neointimal hyperplasia significantly increased in the TBX20 knockdown group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A subpopulation of PVASCs uniquely expressed TBX20. TBX20 could regulate SMC and EC differentiation of PVASCs <i>in vitro</i>. Transplantation of PVASCs after vascular injury suggested that PVASCs participated in neointimal hyperplasia via TBX20.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) that contributes to tissue remodeling after revascularization interventions. The cytokine transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is induced on tissue injury and regulates tissue remodeling and wound healing, but dysregulated signaling results in excess ECM deposition and fibrosis. The LIM (Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3) domain protein LIM domain only 7 (LMO7) is a TGF-?1 target gene in hepatoma cells, but its role in vascular physiology and fibrosis is unknown. METHODS:We use carotid ligation and femoral artery denudation models in mice with global or inducible smooth muscle-specific deletion of LMO7, and knockout, knockdown, overexpression, and mutagenesis approaches in mouse and human SMC, and human arteriovenous fistula and cardiac allograft vasculopathy samples to assess the role of LMO7 in neointima and fibrosis. RESULTS:We demonstrate that LMO7 is induced postinjury and by TGF-? in SMC in vitro. Global or SMC-specific LMO7 deletion enhanced neointimal formation, TGF-? signaling, ECM deposition, and proliferation in vascular injury models. LMO7 loss of function in human and mouse SMC enhanced ECM protein expression at baseline and after TGF-? treatment. TGF-? neutralization or receptor antagonism prevented the exacerbated neointimal formation and ECM synthesis conferred by loss of LMO7. Notably, loss of LMO7 coordinately amplified TGF-? signaling by inducing expression of Tgfb1 mRNA, TGF-? protein, ?v and ?3 integrins that promote activation of latent TGF-?, and downstream effectors SMAD3 phosphorylation and connective tissue growth factor. Mechanistically, the LMO7 LIM domain interacts with activator protein 1 transcription factor subunits c-FOS and c-JUN and promotes their ubiquitination and degradation, disrupting activator protein 1-dependent TGF-? autoinduction. Importantly, preliminary studies suggest that LMO7 is upregulated in human intimal hyperplastic arteriovenous fistula and cardiac allograft vasculopathy samples, and inversely correlates with SMAD3 phosphorylation in cardiac allograft vasculopathy. CONCLUSIONS:LMO7 is induced by TGF-? and serves to limit vascular fibrotic responses through negative feedback regulation of the TGF-? pathway. This mechanism has important implications for intimal hyperplasia, wound healing, and fibrotic diseases.