Electrical gate control of spin current in van der Waals heterostructures at room temperature.
ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer a unique platform due to their remarkable and contrasting spintronic properties, such as weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in graphene and strong SOC in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Here we combine graphene and MoS2 in a van der Waals heterostructure (vdWh) to demonstrate the electric gate control of the spin current and spin lifetime at room temperature. By performing non-local spin valve and Hanle measurements, we unambiguously prove the gate tunability of the spin current and spin lifetime in graphene/MoS2 vdWhs at 300?K. This unprecedented control over the spin parameters by orders of magnitude stems from the gate tuning of the Schottky barrier at the MoS2/graphene interface and MoS2 channel conductivity leading to spin dephasing in high-SOC material. Our findings demonstrate an all-electrical spintronic device at room temperature with the creation, transport and control of the spin in 2D materials heterostructures, which can be key building blocks in future device architectures.
Project description:Two dimensional atomically thin crystals of graphene and its insulating isomorph hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) are promising materials for spintronic applications. While graphene is an ideal medium for long distance spin transport, h-BN is an insulating tunnel barrier that has potential for efficient spin polarized tunneling from ferromagnets. Here, we demonstrate the spin filtering effect in cobalt|few layer h-BN|graphene junctions leading to a large negative spin polarization in graphene at room temperature. Through nonlocal pure spin transport and Hanle precession measurements performed on devices with different interface barrier conditions, we associate the negative spin polarization with high resistance few layer h-BN|ferromagnet contacts. Detailed bias and gate dependent measurements reinforce the robustness of the effect in our devices. These spintronic effects in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures hold promise for future spin based logic and memory applications.
Project description:Electronic devices lose efficacy due to quantum effect when the line-width of gate decreases to sub-10 nm. Spintronics overcome this bottleneck and logic gates are building blocks of integrated circuits. Thus, it is essential to control electronic transport of opposite spins for designing a spintronic logic gate, and spin-selective semiconductors are natural candidates such as zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR) whose edges are ferromagnetically ordered and antiferromagnetically coupled with each other. Moreover, it is necessary to sandwich ZGNR between two ferromagnetic electrodes for making a spintronic logic gate and also necessary to apply magnetic field to change the spin orientation for modulating the spin transport. By first principle calculations, we propose a method to manipulate the spin transport in graphene nanoribbons with electric field only, instead of magnetic field. We find that metal gates with specific bias nearby edges of ZGNR build up an in-plane inhomogeneous electric field which modulates the spin transport by localizing the spin density in device. The specific manipulation of spin transport we have proposed doesn't need spin-charge conversion for output and suggests a possible base for designing spintronic integrated circuit in atomic scale.
Project description:The proximity of a transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) to graphene imprints a rich spin texture in graphene and complements its high-quality charge/spin transport by inducing spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Rashba and valley-Zeeman SOCs are the origin of charge-to-spin conversion mechanisms such as the Rashba-Edelstein effect (REE) and spin Hall effect (SHE). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time charge-to-spin conversion due to the REE in a monolayer WS2-graphene van der Waals heterostructure. We measure the current-induced spin polarization up to room temperature and control it by a gate electric field. Our observation of the REE and the inverse of the effect (IREE) is accompanied by the SHE, which we discriminate by symmetry-resolved spin precession under oblique magnetic fields. These measurements also allow for the quantification of the efficiencies of charge-to-spin conversion by each of the two effects. These findings are a clear indication of induced Rashba and valley-Zeeman SOC in graphene that lead to the generation of spin accumulation and spin current without using ferromagnetic electrodes. These realizations have considerable significance for spintronic applications, providing accessible routes toward all-electrical spin generation and manipulation in two-dimensional materials.
Project description:Recently the hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskites have shown remarkable performance as active layers in photovoltaic and other optoelectronic devices. However, their spin characteristic properties have not been fully studied, although due to the relatively large spin-orbit coupling these materials may show great promise for spintronic applications. Here we demonstrate spin-polarized carrier injection into methylammonium lead bromide films from metallic ferromagnetic electrodes in two spintronic-based devices: a 'spin light emitting diode' that results in circularly polarized electroluminescence emission; and a 'vertical spin valve' that shows giant magnetoresistance. In addition, we also apply a magnetic field perpendicular to the injected spins orientation for measuring the 'Hanle effect', from which we obtain a relatively long spin lifetime for the electrically injected carriers. Our measurements initiate the field of hybrid perovskites spin-related optoelectronic applications.
Project description:Graphene has gigantic potential in the development of advanced spintronic devices. The interfacial interactions of graphene with semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides improve the electronic properties drastically, making it an intriguing candidate for spintronic applications. Here, we fabricated bilayer graphene encapsulated by WS2 layers to exploit the interface-induced spin-orbit interaction (SOI). We designed a dual gated device, where the SOI is tuned by gate voltages. The strength of induced SOI in the bilayer graphene is dramatically elevated, which leads to a strong weak antilocalization (WAL) effect at low temperature. The quantitative analysis of WAL demonstrates that the spin relaxation time is 10 times smaller than in bilayer graphene on conventional substrates. To support these results, we also examined Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations, which give unambiguous evidence of the zero-field spin-splitting in our bilayer graphene. The spin-orbit coupling constants estimated by two different measurements (i.e., the WAL effect and SdH oscillations) show close values as a function of gate voltage, supporting the self-consistency of this study's experimental results. The gate modulation of the SOI in bilayer graphene encapsulated by WS2 films establishes a novel way to explore the manipulation of spin-dependent transport through an electric field.
Project description:Unique electronic spin textures in topological states of matter are promising for emerging spin-orbit driven memory and logic technologies. However, there are several challenges related to the enhancement of their performance, electrical gate-tunability, interference from trivial bulk states, and heterostructure interfaces. We address these challenges by integrating two-dimensional graphene with a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) in van der Waals heterostructures to take advantage of their remarkable spintronic properties and engineer proximity-induced spin-charge conversion phenomena. In these heterostructures, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable spin-galvanic effect (SGE) at room temperature, allowing for efficient conversion of a non-equilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Systematic measurements of SGE in various device geometries via a spin switch, spin precession, and magnetization rotation experiments establish the robustness of spin-charge conversion in the Gr-TI heterostructures. Importantly, using a gate voltage, we reveal a strong electric field tunability of both amplitude and sign of the spin-galvanic signal. These findings provide an efficient route for realizing all-electrical and gate-tunable spin-orbit technology using TIs and graphene in heterostructures, which can enhance the performance and reduce power dissipation in spintronic circuits.
Project description:Graphene is an ideal medium for long-distance spin communication in future spintronic technologies. So far, the prospect is limited by the smaller sizes of exfoliated graphene flakes and lower spin transport properties of large-area chemical vapour-deposited (CVD) graphene. Here we demonstrate a high spintronic performance in CVD graphene on SiO2/Si substrate at room temperature. We show pure spin transport and precession over long channel lengths extending up to 16??m with a spin lifetime of 1.2?ns and a spin diffusion length ?6??m at room temperature. These spin parameters are up to six times higher than previous reports and highest at room temperature for any form of pristine graphene on industrial standard SiO2/Si substrates. Our detailed investigation reinforces the observed performance in CVD graphene over wafer scale and opens up new prospects for the development of lateral spin-based memory and logic applications.
Project description:Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators (TIs) are known to have unique electronic and spintronic properties. We combine graphene with TIs in van der Waals heterostructures to demonstrate the emergence of a strong proximity-induced spin-orbit coupling in graphene. By performing spin transport and precession measurements supported by ab initio simulations, we discover a strong tunability and suppression of the spin signal and spin lifetime due to the hybridization of graphene and TI electronic bands. The enhanced spin-orbit coupling strength is estimated to be nearly an order of magnitude higher than in pristine graphene. These findings in graphene-TI heterostructures could open interesting opportunities for exploring exotic physical phenomena and new device functionalities governed by topological proximity effects.
Project description:Future development in spintronic devices will require an advanced control of spin currents, for example by an electric field. Here we demonstrate an approach that differs from previous proposals such as the Datta and Das modulator, and that is based on a van de Waals heterostructure of atomically thin graphene and semiconducting MoS2. Our device combines the superior spin transport properties of graphene with the strong spin-orbit coupling of MoS2 and allows switching of the spin current in the graphene channel between ON and OFF states by tuning the spin absorption into the MoS2 with a gate electrode. Our proposal holds potential for technologically relevant applications such as search engines or pattern recognition circuits, and opens possibilities towards electrical injection of spins into transition metal dichalcogenides and alike materials.
Project description:We determine the spin-lifetime anisotropy of spin-polarized carriers in graphene. In contrast to prior approaches, our method does not require large out-of-plane magnetic fields and thus it is reliable for both low- and high-carrier densities. We first determine the in-plane spin lifetime by conventional spin precession measurements with magnetic fields perpendicular to the graphene plane. Then, to evaluate the out-of-plane spin lifetime, we implement spin precession measurements under oblique magnetic fields that generate an out-of-plane spin population. We find that the spin-lifetime anisotropy of graphene on silicon oxide is independent of carrier density and temperature down to 150?K, and much weaker than previously reported. Indeed, within the experimental uncertainty, the spin relaxation is isotropic. Altogether with the gate dependence of the spin lifetime, this indicates that the spin relaxation is driven by magnetic impurities or random spin-orbit or gauge fields.