The prognostic impact of programmed cell death ligand 1 and human leukocyte antigen class I in pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is associated with an immunosuppressive tumor-microenvironment (TME) that supports the growth of tumors and mediates tumors enabling evasion of the immune system. Expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I on tumor cells are methods by which tumors escape immunosurveillance. We examined immune cell infiltration, the expression of PD-L1 and HLA class I by PDA cells, and the correlation between these immunological factors and clinical prognosis. PDA samples from 36 patients were analyzed for HLA class I, HLA-DR, PD-L1, PD-1, CD4, CD8, CD56, CD68, and FoxP3 expression by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between the expression of HLA class I, HLA-DR, PD-L1 or PD-1 and the pattern of tumor infiltrating immune cells or the patients' prognosis were assessed. PD-L1 expression correlated with tumor infiltration by CD68+ and FoxP3+ cells. Low HLA class I expression was an only risk factor for poor survival. PD-L1 negative and HLA class I high-expressing PDA was significantly associated with higher numbers of infiltrating CD8+ T cells in the TME, and a better prognosis. Evaluation of both PD-L1 and HLA class I expression by PDA may be a good predictor of prognosis for patients. HLA class I expression by tumor cells should be evaluated when selecting PDA patients who may be eligible for treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor microenvironment (TME) including the immune checkpoint system impacts prognosis in some types of malignancy. The aim of our study was to investigate the precise prognostic significance of the TME profile in endometrial carcinoma. METHODS:We performed immunohistochemistry of the TME proteins, PD-L1, PD-1, CD4, CD8, CD68, and VEGF in endometrial carcinomas from 221 patients. RESULTS:High PD-L1 in tumor cells (TCs) was associated with better OS (p?=?0.004), whereas high PD-L1 in tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) was associated with worse OS (p?=?0.02). High PD-L1 in TICs correlated with high densities of CD8+ TICs and CD68+ TICs, as well as microsatellite instability (p?=?0.00000064, 0.00078, and 0.0056), while high PD-L1 in TCs correlated with longer treatment-free interval (TFI) after primary chemotherapy in recurrent cases (p?=?0.000043). High density of CD4+ TICs correlated with better OS and longer TFI (p?=?0.0008 and 0.014). Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors revealed that high PD-L1 in TCs and high density of CD4+ TICs were significant and independent for favorable OS (p?=?0.014 and 0.0025). CONCLUSION:The current findings indicate that PD-L1 and CD4+ helper T cells may be reasonable targets for improving survival through manipulating chemosensitivity, providing significant implications for combining immunotherapies into the therapeutic strategy for endometrial carcinoma.
Project description:Objective:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been reported to be related to prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. The impact of sorafenib on PD-L1 expression in the TME of advanced HCC is unclear. Patients and Methods:Patients with HCC who received sorafenib for advanced disease at National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, and who had paired HCC tissues obtained before and after sorafenib treatment were included in the study group. HCC patients not treated with sorafenib who had paired primary and recurrent or metastatic tissues were identified as the reference group. The membrane PD-L1 staining, detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using SP142 antibody, was semiquantitatively scored in tumor cells (TCs) or tumor-infiltrating immune cells (ICs). Additional IHC assays were employed to characterize the PD-L1-expressing ICs. Results:Twenty-three advanced HCC patients with pre- and post-sorafenib paired HCC tissues were included in the study group. The median duration of sorafenib treatment was 4.3 months (range: 1.3-18.7). PD-L1 expression in ICs was significantly higher in post-sorafenib HCC tissues than in pre-sorafenib HCC tissues (pre-sorafenib vs. post-sorafenib IHC 0/1/2/3: 11/5/5/2 vs. 5/5/2/11, p = 0.016). However, PD-L1 expression in TCs was not significantly different between pre- and post-sorafenib tissues (IHC 0/1/2/3: 19/2/0/2 vs. 14/5/0/4, p = 0.094). In the reference group of 44 patients not treated with sorafenib, PD-L1 expression in ICs and TCs was not significantly different between the paired primary and metastatic HCC tissues. By performing IHC double staining with PD-L1 and CD68, we found the PD-L1-expressing ICs were mainly CD68-positive macrophages. PD-L1 expression levels of pre- and post-sorafenib tissues were not associated with patients' overall survival or duration of sorafenib treatment. Conclusions:PD-L1 expression in ICs was significantly increased in post-sorafenib HCC tissues. The mechanisms and clinical significance of this observation warrants further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) responds poorly to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi). While the mechanism is not completely clear, it has been recognized that tumor microenvironment (TME) plays key roles. We investigated if targeting CD47 with a monoclonal antibody could enhance the response of PDAC to ICPi by altering the TME. METHODS:Using immunohistochemistry, we examined tumor-infiltrating CD68+ pan-macrophages (CD68+ M) and CD163+ M2 macrophages (CD163+ M2) and tumor expression of CD47 and PD-L1 proteins in 106 cases of PDAC. The efficacy of CD47 blockade was examined in xenograft models. CD45+ immune cells from syngeneic tumor models were subjected to single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) by using the 10x Genomics pipeline. RESULTS:We found that CD47 expression correlated with the level of CD68+ M but not CD163+ M2. High levels of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ M, CD163+ M2, and CD47 expression were significantly associated with worse survival. CD47high/CD68+ Mhigh and CD47high/CD163+ M2high correlated significantly with shorter survival, whereas CD47low/CD68+ Mlow and CD47low/CD163+ M2low correlated with longer survival. Intriguingly, CD47 blockade decreased the tumor burden in the Panc02 but not in the MPC-83 syngeneic mouse model. Using scRNA-seq, we showed that anti-CD47 treatment significantly remodeled the intratumoral lymphocyte and macrophage compartments in Panc02 tumor-bearing mice by increasing the pro-inflammatory macrophages that exhibit anti-tumor function, while reducing the anti-inflammatory macrophages. Moreover, CD47 blockade not only increased the number of intratumoral CD8+ T cells, but also remodeled the T cell cluster toward a more activated one. Further, combination therapy targeting both CD47 and PD-L1 resulted in synergistic inhibition of PDAC growth in the MPC-83 but not in Panc02 model. MPC-83 but not Panc02 mice treated with both anti-CD47 and anti-PD-L1 showed increased number of PD-1+CD8+ T cells and enhanced expression of key immune activating genes. CONCLUSION:Our data indicate that CD47 targeting induces compartmental remodeling of tumor-infiltrating immune cells of the TME in PDAC. Different PDAC mouse models exhibited differential response to the anti-CD47 and anti-PD-L1 blockade due to the differential effect of this combination treatment on the infiltrating immune cells and key immune activating genes in the TME established by the different PDAC cell lines.
Project description:Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis and an increasing incidence, for which novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Since the immune system has been described to play a presumed role in the protection against MPM, characterization of its tumor immune microenvironment (TME) and immune checkpoints can identify new immunotherapeutic targets and their predictive and/or prognostic value. To characterize the TME and the immune checkpoint expression profile, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from 54 MPM patients (40 at time of diagnosis; 14 treated with chemotherapy). We stained for PD-1, PD-L1, TIM-3, LAG-3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, granzyme B, FoxP3 and CD68. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the immunological parameters and survival, as well as response to chemotherapy. We found that TIM-3, PD-1 and PD-L1 were expressed on both immune and tumor cells. Strikingly, PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was only seen in unpretreated samples. No LAG-3 expression was observed. CD45RO expression in the stroma was an independent negative predictive factor for response on chemotherapy, while CD4 and TIM-3 expression in lymphoid aggregates were independent prognostic factors for better outcome. Our data propose TIM-3 as a promising new target in mesothelioma. Chemotherapy influences the expression of immune checkpoints and therefore further research on the best combination treatment schedule is required.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway has been observed to be efficient in several solid tumors. We aim to investigate the prognostic significance of PD-1/PD-L1 expression profile in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:We investigated the expression of PD-1, PD-L1, CD8+ T cells, and CD68+ macrophages in paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from 322 ICC patients using tyramide signal amplification (TSA)-based multiplexed immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:We found that high proportion of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ PD-1High within CD8+ PD-1+ T cells significantly correlated with advanced TNM stage (P = 0.035). ICC patients with high proportion of CD8+ PD-1High in CD8+ PD-1+ had worse postoperative survival than low proportion patients (P = 0.0037), which was an independently prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.025,). The density of CD68+ PD-L1+ significantly and positively correlated with the density of CD8+ PD-1High (P < 0.0001, r = 0.5927). The proportion of CD68+ PD-L1+ within CD68+ ICC was the risk factor for OS and TTR but not an independently factor for prognosis. The CD68+ PD-L1+ macrophages and CD8+ PD-1High T cells may cooperatively play a role in inhibiting anti-tumor immunity. CONCLUSION:CD68+ PD-L1+ macrophages and CD8+ PD-1High T cells predict unfavorable prognosis, which could also bring new progress about immune target therapy in ICC research.
Project description:The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway play an important immunosuppressive role in cancer and chronic viral infection, and have been effectively targeted in cancer therapy. Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with both human papillomavirus and HIV infection. To date, patients with HIV have been excluded from most trials of immune checkpoint blocking agents, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, because it was assumed that their antitumor immunity was compromised compared with immunocompetent patients.To compare the local tumor immune microenvironment (TME) in anal SCCs from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.Anal SCC tumor specimens derived from the AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (National Cancer Institute) and Johns Hopkins Hospital included specimens. Tumors were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for immune checkpoints (PD-L1, PD-1, LAG-3) and immune cell (IC) subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68). Expression profiling for immune-related genes was performed on select HIV-positive and HIV-negative cases in PD-L1+ tumor areas associated with ICs.Programmed death-ligand 1 expression on tumor cells and ICs, PD-L1 patterns (adaptive vs constitutive), degree of IC infiltration, quantified densities of IC subsets, and gene expression profiles in anal SCCs from HIV-positive vs HIV-negative patients.Approximately half of 40 tumor specimens from 23 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative patients (29 men and 11 women; mean [SD] age, 51 [9.9] years) demonstrated tumor cell PD-L1 expression, regardless of HIV status. Median IC densities were not significantly decreased in HIV-associated tumors for any cellular subset studied. Both adaptive (IC-associated) and constitutive PD-L1 expression patterns were observed. Immune cell PD-L1 expression correlated with increasing intensity of IC infiltration (r?=?0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-0.78; P?<?.001) and with CD8+ T-cell density (r?=?0.35; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; P?=?.03). Gene expression profiling revealed comparable levels of IFNG in the TME of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. A significant increase in IL18 expression levels was observed in HIV-associated anal SCCs (fold change, 12.69; P?<?.001).HIV status does not correlate with the degree or composition of IC infiltration or PD-L1 expression in anal SCC. These findings demonstrate an immune-reactive TME in anal SCCs from HIV-positive patients and support clinical investigations of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade in anal SCC, irrespective of patient HIV status.
Project description:Almost 25% of lung cancers (LCs) occur in never-smokers. LC inflammatory profile, based on plasma C-reactive protein levels (CRP), predicts mortality, independently by smoking-status. We hypothesized that: CRP could be associated with tumor immune contexture (TIC) in never-smokers and both these two parameters may improve their prognosis. Sixty-eight never-smokers LC patients with high or low CRP were selected. The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), the human leukocyte antigens (HLA-DR and HLA-I), CD8, CD4, CD3, CD33, CD163, and CD68 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on surgical samples given TIC evaluation. The classification model based on TIC scores was generated by Classification and Regression Tree analysis. Tumor mutational burden was evaluated by targeted next-generation sequencing. Exclusively high CRP (H-CRP) subset showed PD-L1 expression in 35% of LC as well as lower HLA-I and HLA-DR in their stromal cells. CD3, CD4, CD8, HLA-I, HLA-DR tumor cells staining were associated with a "low inflammatory profile" subset. CRP and LC immune profiles drive clinical outcome: 5-year survival 88% against 8% was associated with low and high-risk profiles (p < 0.0001). Clinical outcome prediction in never-smoker LC patients may be improved by both CRP and tumor immune contexture evaluation.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a poor prognosis due to late detection and resistance to conventional therapies. Published studies show that the PDA tumor microenvironment is predominantly infiltrated with immune suppressive cells and signals that if altered, would allow effective immunotherapy. However, single-agent checkpoint inhibitors including agents that alter immune suppressive signals in other human cancers such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and its ligand PD-L1, have failed to demonstrate objective responses when given as single agents to PDA patients. We recently reported that inhibition of the CTLA-4 pathway when given together with a T cell inducing vaccine gives objective responses in metastatic PDA patients. In this study, we evaluated blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. We found that PD-L1 is weakly expressed at a low frequency in untreated human and murine PDAs but treatment with a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor secreting PDA vaccine (GVAX) significantly upregulates PD-L1 membranous expression after treatment of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, combination therapy with vaccine and PD-1 antibody blockade improved murine survival compared with PD-1 antibody monotherapy or GVAX therapy alone. Furthermore, PD-1 blockade increased effector CD8 T lymphocytes and tumor-specific interferon-? production of CD8 T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Immunosuppressive pathways, including regulatory T cells and CTLA-4 expression on T cells were overcome by the addition of vaccine and low-dose cyclophosphamide to PD-1 blockade. Collectively, our study supports combining PD-1 or PD-L1 antibody therapy with a T cell inducing agent for PDA treatment.
Project description:Recently, we reported that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression is predominantly regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as one of the oncogenic regulations of HLA class I expression. In the present study, we examined mechanisms of how HLA class I and PD-L1 are regulated by MAPK inhibitors and interferon-? (IFN-?). Furthermore, we evaluated the expression of major signal transduction molecules by Western blot and anti-tumor CTL activity by a cytotoxic assay when HLA class I and PD-L1 were modulated by MAPK inhibitors and/or IFN-?. As a result, we confirmed, as a more general phenomenon, that the inhibition of MAPK could upregulate HLA class I expression in a panel of human solid tumors (n = 26). Of note, we showed that MAPK inhibitors act on the upregulation of HLA class I expression through a different pathway from IFN-?; there was an additive effect in the upregulation of HLA class I when treated with the combination of MAPK inhibitors and IFN-?, and there was no overlapping activation of JAK2/STAT1 and Erk1/2 molecules when treated with either IFN-? or MAPK inhibitors. Furthermore, we showed that IFN-?-treatment impaired the tumor-specific CTL activity due to the upregulation of PD-L1 in spite of the upregulation of HLA class I, while MAPK inhibitors can augment the tumor-specific CTL activity due to the upregulated HLA class I without PD-L1 alterations. In conclusion, in addition to the original anti-proliferative activity, MAPK inhibitors may work toward the enhancement of T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity through the upregulation of HLA class I without the upregulation of PD-L1.