Extracellular vesicles released following heat stress induce bystander effect in unstressed populations.
ABSTRACT: Cells naïve to stress can display the effects of stress, such as DNA damage and apoptosis, when they are exposed to signals from stressed cells; this phenomenon is known as the bystander effect. We previously showed that bystander effect induced by ionising radiation are mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Bystander effect can also be induced by other types of stress, including heat shock, but it is unclear whether EVs are involved. Here we show that EVs released from heat shocked cells are also able to induce bystander damage in unstressed populations. Naïve cells treated with media conditioned by heat shocked cells showed higher levels of DNA damage and apoptosis than cells treated with media from control cells. Treating naïve cells with EVs derived from media conditioned by heat shocked cells also induced a bystander effect when compared to control, with DNA damage and apoptosis increasing whilst the level of cell viability was reduced. We demonstrate that treatment of naïve cells with heat shocked cell-derived EVs leads to greater invasiveness in a trans-well Matrigel assay. Finally, we show that naïve cells treated with EVs from heat-shocked cells are more likely to survive a subsequent heat shock, suggesting that these EVs mediate an adaptive response. We propose that EVs released following stress mediate an intercellular response that leads to apparent stress in neighbouring cells but also greater robustness in the face of a subsequent insult.
Project description:Radiation-induced bystander effect is a biological response in nonirradiated cells receiving signals from cells exposed to ionising radiation. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyse whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from irradiated mice could induce modifications in the redox status and expression of radiation-response genes in bystander mice. C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 0.1-Gy and 2-Gy X-rays, and EVs originating from mice irradiated with the same doses were injected into naïve, bystander mice. Lipid peroxidation in the spleen and plasma reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels increased 24 h after irradiation with 2 Gy. The expression of antioxidant enzyme genes and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (iNOS2) decreased, while cell cycle arrest-, senescence- and apoptosis-related genes were upregulated after irradiation with 2 Gy. In bystander mice, no significant alterations were observed in lipid peroxidation or in the expression of genes connected to cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. However, there was a systemic increase in the circulating ROM level after an intravenous EV injection, and EVs originating from 2-Gy-irradiated mice caused a reduced expression of antioxidant enzyme genes and iNOS2 in bystander mice. In conclusion, we showed that ionising radiation-induced alterations in the cellular antioxidant system can be transmitted in vivo in a bystander manner through EVs originating from directly irradiated animals.
Project description:Tumor cells exhibit therapeutic stress resistance-associated secretory phenotype involving extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as oncosomes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Such a secretory phenotype occurs in response to cell stress and cancer therapeutics. HSPs are stress-responsive molecular chaperones promoting proper protein folding, while also being released from cells with EVs as well as a soluble form known as alarmins. We have here investigated the secretory phenotype of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells using proteome analysis. We have also examined the roles of the key co-chaperone CDC37 in the release of EV proteins including CD9 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key event in tumor progression. EVs derived from CRPC cells promoted EMT in normal prostate epithelial cells. Some HSP family members and their potential receptor CD91/LRP1 were enriched at high levels in CRPC cell-derived EVs among over 700 other protein types found by mass spectrometry. The small EVs (30-200 nm in size) were released even in a non-heated condition from the prostate cancer cells, whereas the EMT-coupled release of EVs (200-500 nm) and damaged membrane vesicles with associated HSP90? was increased after heat shock stress (HSS). GAPDH and lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of membrane leakage/damage, were also found in conditioned media upon HSS. During this stress response, the intracellular chaperone CDC37 was transcriptionally induced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which activated the CDC37 core promoter, containing an interspecies conserved heat shock element. In contrast, knockdown of CDC37 decreased EMT-coupled release of CD9-containing vesicles. Triple siRNA targeting CDC37, HSP90?, and HSP90? was required for efficient reduction of this chaperone trio and to reduce tumorigenicity of the CRPC cells in vivo. Taken together, we define "stressome" as cellular stress-induced all secretion products, including EVs (200-500 nm), membrane-damaged vesicles and remnants, and extracellular HSP90 and GAPDH. Our data also indicated that CDC37 is crucial for the release of vesicular proteins and tumor progression in prostate cancer.
Project description:The present study was set out to address the therapeutic efficacy of human adipose tissue stem cells derived extracellular vesicles (hADSC-Evs) in a mouse model of dry eye disease and to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved. hADSC-Evs eye drops were topically administered to mice that subjected to desiccating stress (DS). Clinical parameters of ocular surface damage were assessed with fluorescein staining, tear production and PAS staining. For in vitro studies, cell viability assay and TUNEL staining were performed in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) treated with hADSC-Evs under hyperosmotic media. In addition, immunofluorescent staining, Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blots were used to evaluated NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1? expression levels. Compared with vehicle control mice, topical hADSC-Evs treated mice showed decreased corneal epithelial defects, increased tear production, decreased goblet cell loss, as well as reduced inflammatory cytokines production. In vitro, hADSC-Evs could protect HCECs against hyperosmotic stress-induced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, hADSC-Evs treatment suppressed the DS induced rises in NLRP3 inflammasome formation, caspase-1 activation and IL-1? maturation. In conclusion, hADSC-Evs eye drops effectively suppress NLRP3 inflammatory response and alleviate ocular surface damage in dry eye disease.
Project description:Radiation-induced bystander effects refer to the induction of biological changes in cells not directly hit by radiation implying that the number of cells affected by radiation is larger than the actual number of irradiated cells. Recent in vitro studies suggest the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in mediating radiation-induced bystander signals, but in vivo investigations are still lacking. Here, we report an in vivo study investigating the role of EVs in mediating radiation effects. C57BL/6 mice were total-body irradiated with X-rays (0.1, 0.25, 2?Gy), and 24?h later, EVs were isolated from the bone marrow (BM) and were intravenously injected into unirradiated (so-called bystander) animals. EV-induced systemic effects were compared to radiation effects in the directly irradiated animals. Similar to direct radiation, EVs from irradiated mice induced complex DNA damage in EV-recipient animals, manifested in an increased level of chromosomal aberrations and the activation of the DNA damage response. However, while DNA damage after direct irradiation increased with the dose, EV-induced effects peaked at lower doses. A significantly reduced hematopoietic stem cell pool in the BM as well as CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte pool in the spleen was detected in mice injected with EVs isolated from animals irradiated with 2?Gy. These EV-induced alterations were comparable to changes present in the directly irradiated mice. The pool of TLR4-expressing dendritic cells was different in the directly irradiated mice, where it increased after 2?Gy and in the EV-recipient animals, where it strongly decreased in a dose-independent manner. A panel of eight differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNA) was identified in the EVs originating from both low- and high-dose-irradiated mice, with a predicted involvement in pathways related to DNA damage repair, hematopoietic, and immune system regulation, suggesting a direct involvement of these pathways in mediating radiation-induced systemic effects. In conclusion, we proved the role of EVs in transmitting certain radiation effects, identified miRNAs carried by EVs potentially responsible for these effects, and showed that the pattern of changes was often different in the directly irradiated and EV-recipient bystander mice, suggesting different mechanisms.
Project description:Elevated summer temperature is reported to be the leading cause of stress in dairy and beef cows, which negatively affects various reproductive functions. Follicular cells respond to heat stress (HS) by activating the expression of heat shock family proteins (HSPs) and other antioxidants. HS is reported to negatively affect the bi-directional communication between the follicular cells and the oocyte, which is partly mediated by follicular fluid extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from surrounding cells. As carriers of bioactive molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, and lipids), the involvement of EVs in mediating the stress response in follicular cells is not fully understood. Here we used an in vitro model to decipher the cellular and EV-coupled miRNAs of bovine granulosa cells in response to HS. Moreover, the protective role of stress-related EVs against subsequent HS was assessed. For this, bovine granulosa cells from smaller follicles were cultured in vitro and after sub-confluency, cells were either kept at 37 °C or subjected to HS (42 °C). Results showed that granulosa cells exposed to HS increased the accumulation of ROS, total oxidized protein, apoptosis, and the expression of HSPs and antioxidants, while the viability of cells was reduced. Moreover, 14 and 6 miRNAs were differentially expressed in heat-stressed granulosa cells and the corresponding EVs, respectively. Supplementation of stress-related EVs in cultured granulosa cells has induced adaptive response to subsequent HS. However, this potential was not pronounced when the cells were kept under 37 °C. Taking together, EVs generated from granulosa cells exposed to HS has the potential to shuttle bioactive molecules to recipient cells and make them robust to subsequent HS.
Project description:The innate immune system is crucial for eventual control of infections, but may also contribute to pathology. Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular Gram-positive bacteria and a major cause of food-borne disease. However, important knowledge on the interactions between L. monocytogenes and the immune system is still missing. Here, we report that Listeria DNA is sorted into extracellular vesicles (EVs) in infected cells and delivered to bystander cells to stimulate the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. This was also observed during infections with Francisella tularensis and Legionella pneumophila. We identify the multivesicular body protein MVB12b as a target for TANK-binding kinase 1 phosphorylation, which is essential for the sorting of DNA into EVs and stimulation of bystander cells. EVs from Listeria-infected cells inhibited T-cell proliferation, and primed T?cells for apoptosis. Collectively, we describe a pathway for EV-mediated delivery of foreign DNA to bystander cells, and suggest that intracellular bacteria exploit this pathway to impair antibacterial defence.
Project description:Uncoupling of NO production from NADPH oxidation by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is enhanced in hyperglycemic endothelium, potentially due to dissociation of heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90), and cellular glucose homeostasis is enhanced by a ROS-induced positive feed back mechanism. In this study we investigated how such an uncoupling impacts oxygen metabolism and how the oxidative phosphorylation can be preserved by heat shock (42 °C for 2 h, hyperthermia) in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Normal and heat-shocked bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to normoglycemia (NG, 5.0 mM) or hyperglycemia (30 mM). With hyperglycemia treatment, O(2) consumption rate was reduced (from V(O(2)max) = 7.51 ± 0.54 to 2.35 ± 0.27 mm Hg/min/10(6) cells), whereas in heat-shocked cells, O(2) consumption rate remained unaltered (8.19 ± 1.01 mm Hg/min/10 × 10(6) cells). Heat shock was found to enhance Hsp90/endothelial NOS interactions and produce higher NO. Moreover, ROS generation in the hyperglycemic condition was also reduced in heat-shocked cells. Interestingly, glucose uptake was reduced in heat-shocked cells as a result of decrease in Glut-1 protein level. Glucose phosphate dehydrogenase activity that gives rise to NADPH generation was increased by hyperthermia, and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was preserved. In conclusion, the present study provides a novel mechanism wherein the reduced oxidative stress in heat-shocked hyperglycemic cells down-regulates Glut-1 and glucose uptake, and fine-tuning of this pathway may be a potential approach to use for therapeutic benefit of diabetes mellitus.
Project description:When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), unexposed cells that share media with damaged cells exhibit similar effects to irradiated cells including increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Hypothesizing that this effect, known as the radiation-induced bystander effect, may be a specific instance of communication between damaged and undamaged cells regardless of damage source, we demonstrated that exposure of target cells to non-IR induces bystander damage in non-targeted cells as measured by gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 focal formation. Initially, bystander damage was found primarily in S-phase cells, but at later times, non-S-phase cells were also affected. In addition, media from undamaged malignant and senescent cells also was found to induce DSBs in primary cultures. Media conditioned on cells targeted with either ionizing or non-IR as well as on undamaged malignant and senescent cells contained elevated levels of several cytokines. One of these, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and nitric oxide (NO) were found to elevate numbers of gamma-H2AX/53BP1 foci in normal cell cultures similar to levels found in bystander cells, and this elevation was abrogated by NO synthase inhibitors, TGF-beta blocking antibody and antioxidants. These findings support the hypothesis that damage in bystander cells results from their exposure to cytokines or reactive compounds released from stressed cells, regardless of damage source. These results have implications for oncogenesis in that they indicate that damaged normal cells or undamaged tumor cells may induce genomic instability, leading to an increased risk of oncogenic transformation in other cells with which they share media or contact directly.
Project description:The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells) that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to pursue this field of science.
Project description:Newts can regenerate amputated limbs and cardiac tissue, unlike mammals which lack broad regenerative capacity. Several signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival during newt tissue regeneration have been elucidated, however the factors that coordinate signaling between cells, as well as the conservation of these factors in other animals, are not well defined. Here we report that media conditioned by newt limb explant cells (A1 cells) protect mammalian cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The cytoprotective effect of A1-conditioned media was negated by exposing A1 cells to GW4869, which suppresses the generation of extracellular vesicles (EVs). A1-EVs are similar in diameter (~100-150 nm), structure, and share several membrane surface and cargo proteins with mammalian exosomes. However, isolated A1-EVs contain significantly higher levels of both RNA and protein per particle than mammalian EVs. Additionally, numerous cargo RNAs and proteins are unique to A1-EVs. Of particular note, A1-EVs contain numerous mRNAs encoding nuclear receptors, membrane ligands, as well as transcription factors. Mammalian cardiomyocytes treated with A1-EVs showed increased expression of genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway, a pivotal player in survival signaling. We conclude that newt cells secrete EVs with diverse, distinctive RNA and protein contents. Despite ~300 million years of evolutionary divergence between newts and mammals, newt EVs confer cytoprotective effects on mammalian cardiomyocytes.