Efficacy of piroxicam for postoperative pain after lower third molar surgery associated with CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), predominantly CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association of polymorphisms in the CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9 genes with the clinical efficacy of oral piroxicam (20 mg daily for 4 days) after lower third molar surgeries with regard to postoperative pain, swelling, trismus, adverse reactions, need for rescue medication and the volunteer's overall satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS:For this purpose, 102 volunteers were genotyped for CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms. Briefly, genomic DNA was isolated from saliva collected from volunteers subjected to invasive lower third molar surgeries, and the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative parameters were collected and analyzed. RESULTS:An equal amount of piroxicam sufficiently managed postoperative pain and inflammatory symptoms, with visual analog pain scores typically <40 mm for all genotypes investigated. Furthermore, only two out of 102 volunteers heterozygous for CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9*3 reported adverse side effects. CONCLUSION:In general, slow metabolizers of piroxicam, who were volunteers with mutant alleles, were indifferent from normal metabolizers with the wild-type alleles and therefore did not require specialized piroxicam doses to manage postoperative pain and inflammation.
Project description:We have studied the global frequency distributions of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 132 kb of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 in approximately 2500 individuals representing 45 populations. Five of the SNPs were in noncoding sequences; the other five involved the more common missense variants (four in CYP2C8, one in CYP2C9) that change amino acids in the gene products. One haplotype containing two CYP2C8 coding variants and one CYP2C9 coding variant reaches an average frequency of 10% in Europe; a set of haplotypes with a different CYP2C8 coding variant reaches 17% in Africa. In both cases these haplotypes are found in other regions of the world at <1%. This considerable geographic variation in haplotype frequencies impacts the interpretation of CYP2C8/CYP2C9 association studies, and has pharmacogenomic implications for drug interactions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Evaluate the effectiveness of LLL (Low level laser therapy) in auriculotherapy points for pain reduction following lower third molar extractions. STUDY DESIGN:Randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. METHODS:Eighty-four bilateral, symmetrical third molar surgeries were performed in 42 healthy patients using a split-mouth design. In the immediate postoperative period, each side was randomly treated in a single-blind method with an LLL at the auriculotherapy points or simulation of its use (contralateral side) over a 21-day interval. This protocol was repeated 24 and 48 hours after surgery. All patients used the same analgesic (paracetamol) but only in case of pain. The primary variable was postoperative pain according to the visual analogue scale, and the secondary variables were mouth opening, edema, local temperature, dysphagia, and the presence of infection (systemic temperature, lymphadenopathy). These variables were evaluated at baseline and at 24 hours, 48 hours and seven days after surgery. Adverse effects were recorded and reported. RESULTS:There was no difference between the groups in relation to any of the evaluated parameters (p>0.05). CONCLUSION:For this experimental model, application of a low-intensity laser at auriculotherapy points did not prevent postoperative pain following lower third molar surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; the registration number is NCT02657174 and the Unique Protocol ID number is 1.100.869. (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/template/EditRecord.vm?epmode=View&listmode=Edit&uid=U0002BEY&ts=11&sid=S0006026&cx=6g4wff).
Project description:Our recent studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6-metabolized drugs, whereas effects were less evident on CYP3A4/5. Therefore, the effect of CKD on the disposition of CYP1A2-metabolized, CYP2C8-metabolized, CYP2C9-metabolized, CYP2C19-metabolized, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)-transported drugs was investigated. We identified dedicated CKD studies with 6, 5, 6, 4, and 12 "model" substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and OATP, respectively. Our analyses suggest that clearance of OATP substrates decreases as kidney function declines. Similar trends were seen for CYP2C8; but overlap between some CYP2C8 and OATP substrates highlights that their interplay needs further investigation. In contrast, the effect of CKD on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 was variable and modest compared to CYP2C8 and OATP. This improved understanding of elimination-pathway-dependency in CKD is important to inform the need and conduct of PK studies in these patients for nonrenally eliminated drugs.
Project description:In addition to the known effects on drug metabolism and response, functional polymorphisms of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) play a role in cancer. Genes coding for XME act as low-penetrance genes and confer modest but consistent and significant risks for a variety of cancers related to the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Consistent evidence supports a role for polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 gene as a protecting factor for colorectal cancer susceptibility. It has been shown that CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 overlap in substrate specificity. Because CYP2C8 has the common functional polymorphisms rs11572080 and rs10509681 (CYP2C8*3), it could be speculated that part of the findings attributed to CYP2C9 polymorphisms may actually be related to the presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the CYP2C8 polymorphism in colorectal cancer. We analyzed the influence of the CYP2C8*3 allele in the risk of developing colorectal cancer in genomic DNA from 153 individuals suffering colorectal cancer and from 298 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Our findings do not support any effect of the CYP2C8*3 allele (OR for carriers of functional CYP2C8 alleles?=?0.50 (95% CI?=?0.16-1.59; p?=?0.233). The absence of a relative risk related to CYP2C8*3 did not vary depending on the tumor site. We conclude that the risk of developing colorectal cancer does not seem to be related to the commonest functional genetic variation in the CYP2C8 gene.
Project description:Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preoperative administration of single-dose of paracetamol-codeine, in the relieving of acute postoperative pain after the surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consisted of 32 Caucasian outpatients, giving a total of 64 bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibles. Patients were randomized in two experimental groups to receive a preoperative oral dose of paracetamol-codeine (analgesic group) or a placebo (placebo group) at the first and second surgeries. Study participants were asked to record pain intensity scores during the operation and the next 2 days, the time of the first request for rescue analgesic, and the total number of postoperative-supplement paracetamol-codeine tablets. Results. The pain intensity score on the first day was significantly lower in the analgesic group than in the placebo group (p < 0.001). The time to using rescue therapy was significantly longer in the analgesic group than in the placebo group (p = 0.004). The number of paracetamol-codeine tablets used postoperatively did not differ between the analgesic and placebo groups (p = 0.104). Conclusions. Preoperative paracetamol-codeine is effective in providing immediate postoperative pain control after third molar surgery and in delaying the initial onset of pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (Registration Number): NCT03049878.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chloroquine/primaquine is the current therapy to eliminate Plasmodium vivax infection in the Amazon region. AIMS:This study investigates CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms influence on cloroquine/primaquine treatment. PATIENTS & METHODS:Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to determine the genetic influence in parasitemia and/or gametocytemia clearance over treatment time in 164 patients. RESULTS:An effect of CYP2C8 low-activity alleles on treatment was observed (p = 0.01). From baseline to first day of treatment, wild-type individuals achieved greater reduction of gametocytes than low-activity allele carriers. CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 genes showed a trend for gametocytemia and parasitemia clearance rates. CONCLUSION:Future studies should be performed to access the extent of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms influence on cloroquine/primaquine treatment.
Project description:Relacorilant is a selective modulator of the glucocorticoid receptor in development for the treatment of several serious diseases. The widely used cocktail method was employed to assess relacorilant's effect on various cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 as well as induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 were assessed in vitro (relacorilant concentrations up to 10 µM). A clinical study in healthy subjects (n = 27) evaluated the inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9 in vivo by administering single doses of probe CYP substrates (midazolam, pioglitazone, and tolbutamide) alone and in combination with relacorilant (350 mg). Pharmacokinetic sampling was conducted, and safety was assessed throughout the study. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using 90% confidence intervals of the geometric least squares mean ratios of test (probe substrate with relacorilant) vs reference (probe substrate alone) using boundaries of 80% to 125%. In vitro, relacorilant inhibited CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9 but did not meaningfully affect the activity of the other CYP enzymes evaluated. Consistent with the in vitro data, relacorilant was shown to be a strong CYP3A inhibitor in vivo (>8-fold increase in midazolam area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration and area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity). Coadministration of relacorilant with drugs highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance is expected to increase the concentrations of these drugs. Importantly, clinical evaluation of relacorilant showed no inhibition of CYP2C8 or CYP2C9 in vivo. Accordingly, drugs that are substrates of only CYP2C8 and/or CYP2C9 can be coadministered with relacorilant without dose adjustment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CYP2C8/9 polymorphisms may influence breast cancer-free survival after diagnosis due to their role in the metabolism of tamoxifen, paclitaxel, and other chemotherapy. cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8/9 metabolise arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which enhance migration and invasion in vitro and promote angiogenesis in vivo. We aimed to investigate the frequency of CYP2C8/9 polymorphisms in relation to breast tumour characteristics and disease-free survival. METHODS: A prospective series of 652 breast cancer patients from southern Sweden was genotyped for CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C9*3. Blood samples and questionnaires were obtained pre- and postoperatively. Clinical information and tumour characteristics were obtained from patients' charts and pathology reports. RESULTS: Frequencies of CYP2C8/9 polymorphisms were similar to healthy European populations. Significantly less node involvement (P=0.002) and fewer PR+ tumours (P=0.012) were associated with CYP2C8*4. Median follow-up was 25 months and 52 breast cancer-related events were reported. In a multivariate model, CYP2C8/9*3/*1*/*2/*1 was the only factor associated with increased risk for early events in 297 tamoxifen-treated, ER-positive patients, adjusted HR 2.54 (95%CI 1.11-5.79). The effect appeared to be driven by CYP2C8*3, adjusted HR 8.56 (95%CI 1.53-51.1). CONCLUSION: Polymorphic variants of CYP2C8/9 may influence breast tumour characteristics and disease-free survival in tamoxifen-treated patients.
Project description:Like flavonoids, biflavonoids, dimeric flavonoids, and polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. However, there is limited data on their effects on cytochrome P450 (P450) and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzyme activities. In this study we evaluate the inhibitory potential of five biflavonoids against nine P450 activities (P450s1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A) in human liver microsomes (HLMs) using cocktail incubation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most strongly inhibited P450 activity was CYP2C8-mediated amodiaquine N-dealkylation with IC50 ranges of 0.019~0.123 ?M. In addition, the biflavonoids-selamariscina A, amentoflavone, robustaflavone, cupressuflavone, and taiwaniaflavone-noncompetitively inhibited CYP2C8 activity with respective Ki values of 0.018, 0.083, 0.084, 0.103, and 0.142 ?M. As selamariscina A showed the strongest effects, we then evaluated it against six UGT isoforms, where it showed weaker inhibition (UGTs1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7, IC50 1.7 ?M). Returning to the P450 activities, selamariscina A inhibited CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac hydroxylation and tolbutamide hydroxylation with respective Ki values of 0.032 and 0.065 ?M in a competitive and noncompetitive manner. However, it only weakly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A with respective Ki values of 3.1, 7.9, and 4.5 ?M. We conclude that selamariscina A has selective and strong inhibitory effects on the CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 isoforms. This information might be useful in predicting herb-drug interaction potential between biflavonoids and co-administered drugs mainly metabolized by CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. In addition, selamariscina A might be used as a strong CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 inhibitor in P450 reaction-phenotyping studies to identify drug-metabolizing enzymes responsible for the metabolism of new chemicals.
Project description:Background Genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 2C subfamily metabolizing epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, vasoactive substances with a wide range of biological actions in the cardiovascular system, contributes to the molecular basis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and CAD risk has been extensively investigated in Chinese, Japanese, Korean and other Asian populations whereas a few studies have been done in Europeans. The present study investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are important risk factors of CAD in a Russian population. Methods DNA samples from 1,255 unrelated subjects comprising 561 patients with angiographically diagnosed CAD and 694 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were genotyped for six SNPs such as rs7909236, rs1934953 of CYP2C8, rs9332242, rs4918758 and rs61886769 of CYP2C9 and rs4244285 of CYP2C19 using by the Mass-ARRAY 4 system. Results SNP rs4918758 of CYP2C9 was associated with decreased risk of CAD with odds ratio 0.61 adjusted for sex and age (codominant genetic model, 95% CI: 0.41–0.92, P=0.038, Q =0.20). Log-likelihood ratio test pointed out epistatic interactions between SNPs rs9332242 and rs61886769 of CYP2C9 at a codominant genetic model (Pinteraction =0.02). Moreover, SNP rs9332242 of CYP2C9 showed a trend towards association with increased CAD risk in cigarette smokers (P=0.049, Q =0.29). Bioinformatic analysis using the SNP prediction tool revealed a regulatory potential for all SNPs associated with CAD. Conclusions To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that polymorphisms rs4918758 and rs9332242 of CYP2C9 represent significant genetic markers of CAD susceptibility in Europeans. A validation of genetic markers associated with CAD risk in different races and ethnicities may cut corners between discovery and clinical qualification of such markers for the purposes of translational medicine. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation.