Native MS Analysis of Bacteriorhodopsin and an Empty Nanodisc by Orthogonal Acceleration Time-of-Flight, Orbitrap and Ion Cyclotron Resonance.
ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight has been the de facto analyzer for solution and membrane-soluble protein native mass spectrometry (MS) studies; this however is gradually changing. Three MS instruments are compared, the Q-ToF, Orbitrap, and the FT-ICR, to analyze, under native instrument and buffer conditions, the seven-transmembrane helical protein bacteriorhodopsin-octylglucoside micelle and the empty nanodisc (MSP1D1-Nd) using both MS and tandem-MS modes of operation. Bacteriorhodopsin can be released from the octylglucoside-micelle efficiently on all three instruments (MS-mode), producing a narrow charge state distribution (z = 8+ to 10+) by either increasing the source lens or collision cell (or HCD) voltages. A lower center-of-mass collision energy (0.20-0.41 eV) is required for optimal bacteriorhodopsin liberation on the FT-ICR, in comparison to the Q-ToF and Orbitrap instruments (0.29-2.47 eV). The empty MSP1D1-Nd can be measured with relative ease on all three instruments, resulting in a highly complex spectrum of overlapping, polydisperse charge states. There is a measurable difference in MSP1D1-Nd charge state distribution (z = 15+ to 26+), average molecular weight (141.7 to 169.6 kDa), and phospholipid incorporation number (143 to 184) under low activation conditions. Utilizing tandem-MS, bacteriorhodopsin can be effectively liberated from the octylglucoside-micelle by collisional (Q-ToF and FT-ICR) or continuous IRMPD activation (FT-ICR). MSP1D1-Nd spectral complexity can also be significantly reduced by tandem-MS (Q-ToF and FT-ICR) followed by mild collisional or continuous IRMPD activation, resulting in a spectrum in which the charge state and phospholipid incorporation levels can easily be determined.
Project description:Membrane protein characterization is consistently hampered by challenges with expression, purification, and solubilization. Among several biophysical techniques employed for their characterization, native-mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful tool for the analysis of membrane proteins and complexes. Here, two MS platforms, the FT-ICR and Q-ToF, have been explored to analyze the homotetrameric water channel protein, AquaporinZ (AqpZ), under non-denaturing conditions. This 97 kDa membrane protein complex can be readily liberated from the octylglucoside (OG) detergent micelle under a range of instrument conditions on both MS platforms. Increasing the applied collision energy of the FT-ICR collision cell yielded varying degrees of tetramer (97 kDa) liberation from the OG micelles, as well as dissociation into the trimeric (72 kDa) and monomeric (24 kDa) substituents. Tandem-MS on the Q-ToF yielded higher intensity tetramer signal and, depending on the m/z region selected, the observed monomer signal varied in intensity. Precursor ion selection of an m/z range above the expected protein signal distribution, followed by mild collisional activation, is able to efficiently liberate AqpZ with a high S/N ratio. The tetrameric charge state distribution obtained on both instruments demonstrated superpositioning of multiple proteoforms due to varying degrees of N-terminal formylation. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Analysis of proteins and complexes under native mass spectrometric (MS) and solution conditions was typically performed using time-of-flight (ToF) analyzers, due to their routine high <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> transmission and detection capabilities. However, over recent years, the ability of Orbitrap-based mass spectrometers to transmit and detect a range of high molecular weight species is well documented. Herein, we describe how a 15 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (15 T FT-ICR MS) is more than capable of analyzing a wide range of ions in the high <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> scale (>5000), in both positive and negative instrument polarities, ranging from the inorganic cesium iodide salt clusters; a humanized IgG1<i>k</i> monoclonal antibody (mAb; 148.2 kDa); an IgG1-mertansine drug conjugate (148.5 kDa, drug-to-antibody ratio; DAR 2.26); an IgG1-siRNA conjugate (159.1 kDa; ribonucleic acid to antibody ratio; RAR 1); the membrane protein aquaporin-Z (97.2 kDa) liberated from a C8E4 detergent micelle; the empty MSP1D1-nanodisc (142.5 kDa) and the tetradecameric chaperone protein complex GroEL (806.2 kDa; GroEL dimer at 1.6 MDa). We also investigate different regions of the FT-ICR MS that impact ion transmission and desolvation. Finally, we demonstrate how the transmission of these species and resultant spectra are highly consistent with those previously generated on both quadrupole-ToF (Q-ToF) and Orbitrap instrumentation. This report serves as an impactful example of how FT-ICR mass analyzers are competitive to Q-ToFs and Orbitraps for high mass detection at high <i>m</i>/<i>z</i>.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Although mass spectrometry (MS) is routinely used to determine deamination in peptide mixtures, the effects of the choice of ionisation source have not yet been investigated. In particular, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) has become a popular tool with which to measure levels of glutamine deamidation in ancient proteins. Here we use model synthetic peptides to rigorously compare MALDI and electrospray ionisation (ESI).<h4>Methods</h4>We used two synthetic peptides, with glutamine (Q) in one substituted for glutamic acid (E) in the other, to investigate the suitability of MALDI and ESI sources for the assessment of deamidation in peptides using MS. We also compared measurements of the same Q- and E-containing peptide mixtures using two different mass analysers (time-of-flight (TOF) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)).<h4>Results</h4>When standard mixtures of the Q- and E-containing peptides were analysed using MALDI, under-representation of the E-containing peptide was observed. This observation was consistent between analyses carried out using either TOF or FT-ICR-MS. When the same mixtures were analysed using ESI FT-ICR-MS, no ionisation bias was observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MALDI may not be a suitable ionisation method for the determination of deamidation in peptide mixtures. However, ESI was successfully used to determine the ratio in known mixtures of Q- and E-containing peptides. These preliminary observations warrant further investigation into ionisation bias when measuring deamidation in other peptide sequences.
Project description:A new strategy has been developed for characterization of the most challenging complex mixtures to date, using a combination of custom-designed experiments and a new data pre-processing algorithm. In contrast to traditional methods, the approach enables operation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with constant ultrahigh resolution at hitherto inaccessible levels (approximately 3 million FWHM, independent of <i>m</i>/<i>z</i>). The approach, referred to as OCULAR, makes it possible to analyze samples that were previously too complex, even for high field FT-ICR MS instrumentation. Previous FT-ICR MS studies have typically spanned a broad mass range with decreasing resolving power (inversely proportional to <i>m</i>/<i>z</i>) or have used a single, very narrow <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> range to produce data of enhanced resolving power; both methods are of limited effectiveness for complex mixtures spanning a broad mass range, however. To illustrate the enhanced performance due to OCULAR, we show how a record number of unique molecular formulae (244?779 elemental compositions) can be assigned in a single, non-distillable petroleum fraction without the aid of chromatography or dissociation (MS/MS) experiments. The method is equally applicable to other areas of research, can be used with both high field and low field FT-ICR MS instruments to enhance their performance, and represents a step-change in the ability to analyze highly complex samples.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Plant extracts are a reservoir of pharmacologically active substances; however, conventional analytical methods can analyze only a small portion of an extract. Here, we report a high-throughput analytical method capable of determining most phytochemicals in a plant extract and of providing their molecular formulae from a single experiment using ultra-high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHR ESI MS). UHR mass profiling was used to analyze natural compounds in a 70% ethanol ginseng extract, which was directly infused into a 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer for less than 10 min without a separation process.<h4>Results</h4>The UHR FT-ICR MS yielded a mass accuracy of 0.5 ppm and a mass resolving power (m/?m) of 1,000,000-270,000 for the range m/z 290-1,100. The mass resolution was sufficient to resolve the isotopic fine structure (IFS) of many compounds in the extract. After noise removal from 1,552 peaks, 405 compounds were detected. The molecular formulae of 123 compounds, including 33 ginsenosides, were determined using the observed IFS, exact monoisotopic mass, and exact mass difference. Liquid chromatography (LC)/FT-ICR MS of the extract was performed to compare the high-throughput performance of UHR ESI FT-ICR MS. The LC/FT-ICR MS detected only 129 compounds, including 19 ginsenosides. The result showed that UHR ESI FT-ICR MS identified three times more compounds than LC/FT-ICR MS and in a relatively shorter time. The molecular formula determination by UHR FT-ICR MS was validated by LC and tandem MS analyses of three known ginsenosides.<h4>Conclusions</h4>UHR mass profiling of a plant extract by 15 T FT-ICR MS showed that multiple compounds were simultaneously detected and their molecular formulae were decisively determined by a single experiment with ultra-high mass resolution and mass accuracy. Simultaneous molecular determination of multiple natural products by UHR ESI FT-ICR MS would be a powerful method to profile a wide range of natural compounds.
Project description:Thousands of chemically distinct compounds are encountered in fossil oil samples that require rapid screening and accurate identification. In the present paper, we show for the first time, the advantages of gas chromatography (GC) separation in combination with atmospheric-pressure laser ionization (APLI) and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for the screening of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fossil oils. In particular, reference standards of organics in shale oil, petroleum crude oil, and heavy sweet crude oil were characterized by GC-APLI-FT-ICR MS and APLI-FT-ICR MS. Results showed that, while APLI increases the ionization efficiency of PAHs, when compared to other ionization sources, the complexity of the fossil oils reduces the probability of ionizing lower-concentration compounds during direct infusion. When gas chromatography precedes APLI-FT-ICR MS, an increase (more than 2-fold) in the ionization efficiency and an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of lower-concentration fractions are observed, giving better molecular coverage in the m/z 100-450 range. That is, the use of GC prior to APLI-FT-ICR MS resulted in higher molecular coverage, higher sensitivity, and the ability to separate and characterize molecular isomers, while maintaining the ultrahigh resolution and mass accuracy of the FT-ICR MS separation.
Project description:A novel dual cell linear ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) and its performance characteristics are reported. A linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a LTQ-Velos mass spectrometer. This modified instrument features efficient ion accumulation and fast MS/MS acquisition capabilities of dual cell linear RF ion trap instruments coupled to the high mass accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range of a FT-ICR for improved proteomic coverage. The ion accumulation efficiency is demonstrated to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed with LTQ-FT Ultra instrumentation. The proteome coverage with yeast was shown to increase over the previous instrument generation by 50% (100% increase on the peptide level). In addition, many lower abundance level yeast proteins were only detected with this modified instrument. This novel configuration also enables beam type CID fragmentation using a dual cell RF ion trap mass spectrometer. This technique involves accelerating ions between traps while applying an elevated DC offset to one of the traps to accelerate ions and induce fragmentation. This instrument design may serve as a useful option for labs currently considering purchasing new instrumentation or upgrading existing instruments.A novel hybrid mass spectrometer that allows increased MS/MS acquisition rates with high mass measurement accuracy and new ion fragmentation methods greatly improves the number of proteins, posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions that can be identified from cells.
Project description:Current histological and anatomical analysis techniques, including fluorescence in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and fluorescent fusion protein, have revealed great distribution diversity of mRNA and proteins in the brain. However, the distributional pattern of small biomolecules, such as lipids, remains unclear. To this end, we have developed and optimised imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a combined technique incorporating mass spectrometry and microscopy, which is capable of comprehensively visualising biomolecule distribution. We demonstrated the differential distribution of phospholipids throughout the cell body and axon of neuronal cells using IMS analysis. In this study, we used solarix XR, a high mass resolution and highly sensitive MALDI-FT-ICR-MS capable of detecting higher number of molecules than conventional MALDI-TOF-MS instruments, to create a molecular distribution dataset. We examined the diversity of biomolecule distribution in rat brains using IMS and hypothesised that unsupervised machine learning reconstructs brain structures such as the grey and white matters. We have demonstrated that principal component analysis (PCA) can reassemble the grey and white matters without assigning brain anatomical regions. Hierarchical clustering allowed us to classify the 10 groups of observed molecules according to their distributions. Furthermore, the group of molecules specifically localised in the cerebellar cortex was estimated to be composed of phospholipids.
Project description:A comparison of different data-independent fragmentation methods combined with LC coupled to high-resolution FT-ICR-MS/MS is presented for top-down MS of protein mixtures. Proteins composing the 20S and 19S proteasome complexes and their PTMs were identified using a 15 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The data-independent fragmentation modes with LC timescales allowed for higher duty-cycle measurements that better suit online LC-FT-ICR-MS. Protein top-down dissociation was effected by funnel-skimmer collisionally activated dissociation (FS-CAD) and CASI (continuous accumulation of selected ions)-CAD. The N-termini for 9 of the 14 20S proteasome proteins were found to be modified, and the ?3 protein was found to be phosphorylated; these results are consistent with previous reports. Mass-measurement accuracy with the LC-FT-ICR system for the 20- to 30-kDa 20S proteasome proteins was 1 ppm. The intact mass of the 100-kDa Rpn1 subunit from the 19S proteasome complex regulatory particle was measured with a deviation of 17 ppm. The CASI-CAD technique is a complementary tool for intact-protein fragmentation and is an effective addition to the growing inventory of dissociation methods that are compatible with online protein separation coupled to FT-ICR-MS.
Project description:MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a powerful analytical method for achieving 2D localization of compounds from thin sections of typically but not exclusively biological samples. The dynamically harmonized ICR cell (ParaCell) was recently introduced to achieve extreme spectral resolution capable of providing the isotopic fine structure of ions detected in complex samples. The latest improvement in the ICR technology also includes 2ω detection, which significantly reduces the transient time while preserving the nominal mass resolving power of the ICR cell. High-resolution MS images acquired on FT-ICR instruments equipped with 7T and 9.4T superconducting magnets and the dynamically harmonized ICR cell operating at suboptimal parameters suffered severely from the pixel-to-pixel shifting of <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> peaks due to space-charge effects. The resulting profile average mass spectra have depreciated mass measurement accuracy and mass resolving power under the instrument specifications that affect the confidence level of the identified ions. Here, we propose an analytical workflow based on the monitoring of the total ion current to restrain the pixel-to-pixel <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> shift. Adjustment of the laser parameters is proposed to maintain high spectral resolution and mass accuracy measurement within the instrument specifications during MSI analyses. The optimized method has been successfully employed in replicates to perform high-quality MALDI MS images at resolving power (FWHM) above 1,000,000 in the lipid mass range across the whole image for superconducting magnets of 7T and 9.4T using 1 and 2ω detection. Our data also compare favorably with MALDI MSI experiments performed on higher-magnetic-field superconducting magnets, including the 21T MALDI FT-ICR prototype instrument of the NHMFL group at Tallahassee, Florida.