Longitudinal increases of brain metabolite levels in 5-10 year old children.
ABSTRACT: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reveal significant changes in brain structure and structural networks that occur together with cognitive and behavioral maturation in childhood. However, the underlying cellular changes accompanying brain maturation are less understood. Examining regional age-related changes in metabolite levels provides insight into the physiology of neurodevelopment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures localize brain metabolism. The majority of neuroimaging studies of healthy development are from the developed world. In a longitudinal MRS study of 64 South African children aged 5 to 10 years old (29 female; 29 HIV exposed, uninfected), we examined the age-related trajectories of creatine (Cr+PCr), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), the combined NAA+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), choline (GPC+PCh), glutamate (Glu) and the combined Glu+glutamine (Glu+Gln) in voxels within gray and white matter, as well as subcortically in the basal ganglia (BG). In frontal gray matter, we found age-related increases in Cr+PCr, NAA, NAA+NAAG and Glu+Gln levels pointing to synaptic activity likely related to learning. In the BG we observed increased levels of Glu, Glu+Gln and NAA+NAAG with age that point to subcortical synaptic reorganization. In white matter, we found increased levels of Cr+PCr, NAA, NAA+NAAG, Glu and Glu+Gln with age, implicating these metabolites in ongoing myelination. We observed no sex-age or HIV exposure-age interactions, indicating that physiological changes are independent of sex during this time period. The metabolite trajectories presented, therefore, provide a critical benchmark of normal cellular growth for a low socioeconomic pediatric population in the developing world against which pathology and abnormal development may be compared.
Project description:We examined the longitudinal effects of primary HIV infection (PHI) and responses to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the brain using high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).Cerebral metabolites were measured longitudinally with 4T proton MRS and assessed for ART effects in participants with PHI. Levels of glutamate (Glu), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (MI), and choline-containing metabolites (Cho) were measured relative to creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr) in anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, frontal white matter, and parietal gray matter.Fifty-three participants recruited at median 3.7 months post HIV transmission were followed a median 6.0 months. A total of 23 participants initiated ART during follow-up. Prior to ART, increases per month were observed in Cho/Cr (slope = 0.0012, p = 0.005) and MI/Cr (slope = 0.0041, p = 0.005) in frontal white matter as well as increases in MI/Cr (slope = 0.0041, p < 0.001) and NAA/Cr (slope = 0.0024, p = 0.030) in parietal gray matter. After initiation of ART, prior positive slopes were no longer significantly different from zero, while Glu/Cr in basal ganglia decreased (slope = -0.0038, p = 0.031).Early in HIV infection, increases of Cho/Cr and MI/Cr in treatment-naive participants suggest progressive inflammation and gliosis in the frontal white matter and parietal gray matter, which is attenuated after initiation of ART. Elevated baseline Glu/Cr in basal ganglia may signal excitotoxicity; its subsequent stabilization and downward trajectory with ART may lend further support for early ART initiation.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART).<h4>Methods</h4>Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (tCHO), creatine (CR), myoinositol (MI), and glutamate and glutamine (GLX) were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31) and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26) and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10) from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital gray matter (OGM), and basal ganglia (BG). Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART.<h4>Results</h4>After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection) compared to control (p = 0.0014), as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023). A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022) with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months.<h4>Interpretation</h4>We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury.
Project description:There is currently no treatment for restoring lost neurological function after stroke. A growing number of studies have highlighted the potential of stem cells. However, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect have yet to be explored in sufficient detail. In this study, we transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors (iPSC-NPs) in rat temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) we monitored the effect of cells and assessed lesion volume and metabolite changes in the brain. We monitored concentration changes of myo-inositol (Ins), Taurine (Tau), Glycerophosphocholine+Phosphocholine (GPC+PCh), N-acetyl-aspartate+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA+NAAG), Creatine+Phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr), and Glutamate+Glutamine (Glu+Gln) in the brains of control and iPSC-NP-transplanted rats. Based on initial lesion size, animals were divided into small lesion and big lesion groups. In the small lesion control group (SCL), lesion size after 4 months was three times smaller than initial measurements. In the small lesion iPSC-NP-treated group, lesion volume decreased after 1 month and then increased after 4 months. Although animals with small lesions significantly improved their motor skills after iPSC-NP transplantation, animals with big lesions showed no improvement. However, our MRI data demonstrate that in the big lesion iPSC-NP-treated (BTL) group, lesion size increased only up until 1 month after MCAO induction and then decreased. In contrast, in the big lesion control group, lesion size increased throughout the whole experiment. Significantly higher concentrations of Ins, Tau, GPC+PCh, NAA+NAAG, Cr+PCr, and Glu+Gln were found in in contralateral hemisphere in BTL animals 4 months after cell injection. Lesion volume decreased at this time point. Spectroscopic results of metabolite concentrations in lesion correlated with volumetric measurements of lesion, with the highest negative correlation observed for NAA+NAAG. Altogether, our results suggest that iPSC-NP transplantation decreases lesion volume and regulates metabolite concentrations within the normal range expected in healthy tissue. Further research into the ability of iPSC-NPs to differentiate into tissue-specific neurons and its effect on the long-term restoration of lesioned tissue is necessary.
Project description:We investigated glutamate-related neuronal dysfunction in the anterior cingulate (AC) early in schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic treatment. A total of 14 minimally treated schizophrenia patients and 10 healthy subjects were studied with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the AC, frontal white matter and thalamus at 4 T. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and Gln/Glu ratios were determined and corrected for the partial tissue volume. Patients were treated with antipsychotic medication following a specific algorithm and (1)H-MRS was repeated after 1, 6 and 12 months. There were group x region interactions for baseline NAA (P=0.074) and Gln/Glu (P=0.028): schizophrenia subjects had lower NAA (P=0.045) and higher Gln/Glu (P=0.006) in the AC before treatment. In addition, AC Gln/Glu was inversely related to AC NAA in the schizophrenia (P=0.0009) but not in the control group (P=0.92). Following antipsychotic treatment, there were no further changes in NAA, Gln/Glu or any of the other metabolites in any of the regions studied. We conclude that early in the illness, schizophrenia patients already show abnormalities in glutamatergic metabolism and reductions in NAA consistent with glutamate-related excitotoxicity.
Project description:As acute ethanol exposure inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate (Glu) receptors, sudden withdrawal from chronic alcohol use may lead to an increased activation of these receptors with excitotoxic effects. In the longer term, brain levels of Glu and its metabolites, such as glutamine (Gln), are likely to be chronically altered by alcohol, possibly providing a measure of overall abnormal Glu-Gln cycling. However, few studies have assessed concentrations of these metabolites in clinical populations of individuals with alcohol use disorders. Glu and Gln levels were compared in groups of 17 healthy controls and in 13 participants with alcohol dependence. Within the alcohol-dependent group, seven participants had current alcohol use disorder (AUD), and six had AUD in remission for at least 1 year (AUD-R). Neurometabolite concentrations were measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in a predominantly gray matter voxel that included the bilateral anterior cingulate gyri. Tissue segmentation provided an assessment of the proportion of gray matter in the (1)H-MRS voxel. The Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC) and Form-90 were administered to all participants to quantify alcohol consequences and use. Glu level was lower and Gln level was higher in the AUD and AUD-R groups relative to the control group; creatine, choline, myo-inositol, and total N-acetyl groups, primarily N-acetylaspartate did not differ across groups. These results were not confounded by age, sex, or proportion of gray matter in the (1)H-MRS voxel. Neurometabolite concentrations did not differ between AUD and AUD-R groups. Subsequent regressions in the combined clinical group, treating voxel gray matter proportion as a covariate, revealed that total score on the DrInC was positively correlated with Gln but negatively correlated with both Glu and gray matter proportion. Regression analyses, including DrInC scores and smoking variables, identified a marginal independent effect of smoking on Gln. The current findings of higher Gln and lower Glu in the combined AUD and AUD-R groups might indicate a perturbation of the Glu-Gln cycle in alcohol use disorders. The absence of differences in mean Glu and Gln between the AUD and AUD-R groups suggests that altered Glu-Gln metabolism may either predate the onset of abuse or persist during prolonged abstinence.
Project description:Evaluate brain metabolites, which reflect neuroinflammation, and relate to neurodevelopmental outcomes in healthy term neonates exposed to chorioamnionitis.Thirty-one healthy term neonates with documented fetal inflammatory response after maternal chorioamnionitis underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with voxels placed in basal ganglia (BG) and frontal white matter. Bayley III examinations were performed at 12 months of age.Infants with below average outcomes did not show the same increase in NAA/Cho ratios postnatally as the group with normal outcomes. Decreased NAA/Cho and increased Lac/Cr in BG correlated with lower motor and cognitive composite scores, respectively, controlling for postnatal age. In males, increased lactate/NAA in BG were associated with lower motor scores. Funisitis severity was associated with decreased NAA/Cho and increased mI/NAA in males.In healthy term newborns with chorioamnionitis, MRS ratios shortly after birth may provide evidence of occult neuroinflammation, which may be associated with worse performance on 1-year neurodevelopmental tests.
Project description:Commonly used neuroimaging approaches in humans exploit hemodynamic or metabolic indicators of brain function. However, fundamental gaps remain in our ability to relate such hemo-metabolic reactivity to neurotransmission, with recent reports providing paradoxical information regarding the relationship among basal perfusion, functional imaging contrast, and neurotransmission in awake humans. Here, sequential magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+macromolecules normalized by the complex N-acetyl aspartate-N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid: [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG]), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of perfusion, fractional gray-matter volume, and arterial arrival time (AAT) are recorded in human visual cortex from a controlled cohort of young adult male volunteers with neurocognitive battery-confirmed comparable cognitive capacity (3 T; n=16; age=23±3 years). Regression analyses reveal an inverse correlation between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.46; P=0.037), yet no relationship between AAT and [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] (R=-0.12; P=0.33). Perfusion measurements that do not control for AAT variations reveal reduced correlations between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.13; P=0.32). These findings largely reconcile contradictory reports between perfusion and inhibitory tone, and underscore the physiologic origins of the growing literature relating functional imaging signals, hemodynamics, and neurotransmission.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is associated with metabolite abnormalities in anterior brain regions, but it is unclear if these abnormalities are apparent in other regions. Additionally, relationships between regional brain metabolite levels and measures of decision making, risk taking, and impulsivity in smokers and nonsmokers have not been investigated.In young to middle-aged (predominately male) nonsmokers (n = 30) and smokers (n = 35), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine-containing compounds (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), and glutamate (Glu) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were compared via 4-tesla proton single volume magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Groups also were compared on NAA, choline-containing compounds, Cr, and mI concentrations in the gray matter and white matter of the four cerebral lobes and subcortical nuclei/regions with 1.5-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Associations of regional metabolite levels with neurocognitive, decision-making, risk-taking, and self-reported impulsivity measures were examined.Smokers showed lower DLPFC NAA, Cr, mI and Glu concentrations and lower lenticular nuclei NAA level; smokers also demonstrated greater age-related decreases of DLPFC NAA and anterior cingulate cortex and DLPFC Glu levels. Smokers exhibited poorer decision making and greater impulsivity. Across the sample, higher NAA and Glu in the DLPFC and NAA concentrations in multiple lobar gray matter and white matter regions and subcortical nuclei were associated with better neurocognition and lower impulsivity.This study provides additional novel evidence that chronic smoking in young and middle-aged individuals is associated with significant age-related neurobiological abnormalities in anterior frontal regions implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders.
Project description:The main objective of this study was to utilize high field (7T) in vivo proton magnetic resonance imaging to increase the ability to detect metabolite changes in people with ALS, specifically, to quantify levels of glutamine and glutamine separately. The second objective of this study was to correlate metabolic markers with clinical outcomes of disease progression. 13 ALS participants and 12 age-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent 7 Tesla MRI and MRS. Single voxel MR spectra were acquired from the left precentral gyrus using a very short echo time (TE = 5 ms) STEAM sequence. MRS data was quantified using LCModel and correlated to clinical outcome markers. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and total NAA (tNA, NAA + NAAG) were decreased by 17% in people with ALS compared to HC (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) indicating neuronal injury and/or loss in the precentral gyrus. tNA correlated with disease progression as measured by forced vital capacity (FVC) (P = 0.014; R? = 0.66) and tNA/tCr correlated with overall functional decline as measured by worsening of the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) (P = 0.004; R? = -0.74). These findings underscore the importance of NAA as a reliable biomarker for neuronal injury and disease progression in ALS. Glutamate (Glu) was 15% decreased in people with ALS compared to HC (P = 0.02) while glutamine (Gln) concentrations were similar between the two groups. Furthermore, the decrease in Glu correlated with the decrease in FVC (P = 0.013; R? = 0.66), a clinical marker of disease progression. The decrease in Glu is most likely driven by intracellular Glu loss due to neuronal loss and degeneration. Neither choline containing components (Cho), a marker for cell membrane turnover, nor myo-Inositol (mI), a suspected marker for neuroinflammation, showed significant differences between the two groups. However, mI/tNA was correlated with upper motor neuron burden (P = 0.004, R? = 0.74), which may reflect a relative increase of activated microglia around motor neurons. In summary, 7T 1H MRS is a powerful non-invasive imaging technique to study molecular changes related to neuronal injury and/or loss in people with ALS.