Protective effect of Galectin-9 in murine model of lung emphysema: Involvement of neutrophil migration and MMP-9 production.
ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and pulmonary emphysema. Persistent inflammation and remodeling of the lungs and airways result in reduced lung function and a lower quality of life. Galectin (Gal)-9 plays a crucial role as an immune modulator in various diseases. However, its role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema is unknown. This study investigates whether Gal-9 is involved in pulmonary inflammation and changes in emphysema in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model.Gal-9 was administered to mice subcutaneously once daily from 1 day before PPE instillation to day 5. During the development of emphysema, lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. Histological and cytological findings, concentrations of chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the BALF, and the influence of Gal-9 treatment on neutrophils were analyzed.Gal-9 suppressed the pathological changes of PPE-induced emphysema. The mean linear intercept (Lm) of Gal-9-treated emphysema mice was significantly lower than that of PBS-treated emphysema mice (66.1 ± 3.3 ?m vs. 118.8 ± 14.8 ?m, respectively; p < 0.01). Gal-9 decreased the number of neutrophils and levels of MMP-9, MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in the BALF. The number of neutrophils in the BALF correlated significantly with MMPs levels. Interestingly, Gal-9 pretreatment in vitro inhibited the chemotactic activity of neutrophils and MMP-9 production from neutrophils. Furthermore, in Gal-9-deficient mice, PPE-induced emphysema progressed significantly compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice (108.7 ± 6.58 ?m vs. 77.19 ± 6.97 ?m, respectively; p < 0.01).These results suggest that Gal-9 protects PPE-induced inflammation and emphysema by inhibiting the infiltration of neutrophils and decreasing MMPs levels. Exogenous Gal-9 could be a potential therapeutic agent for COPD.
Project description:Cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice have been used to model airway inflammation and emphesema in humans; however, the impact of exposure duration, sex, and strain differences in susceptibility to progression of airway inflammation and to emphesema are poorly investigated. This study was designed to determine the association between inflammation and emphysema by exposing 2 strains of mice, C3H/HeN (C3H) and C57BL/6 (Bl/6), to filtered air (FA) or CS for 10, 16, or 22 weeks. Both genders and strains of CS-exposed mice developed pulmonary inflammation as characterized by cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the BALF. CS exposure caused persistently higher number of BALF macrophages in C3H compared to BL/6 mice, while more BALF neutrophils and persistently higher MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were observed in BL/6 mice. The mean linear intercept (Lm) increased progressively by 26%, 33%, and 55% at 10, 16, and 22 weeks, respectively, in CS-exposed C3H mice compared to the matched air controls. In BL/6 mice, although CS exposure also increased the Lm compared to FA controls, no further increase in Lm beyond the levels observed at 16 weeks of exposure was observed by 22 weeks. These findings suggest that extent of inflammation is not associated with severity of emphysema and underscores the importance of carefully selecting the mouse strains and endpoints when exploring effective treatments for emphesema.
Project description:Cluster of differentiation 69 (CD69), known as an early activation marker of lymphocytes, has been demonstrated to regulate inflammatory events in various disease models. Although the increased number of CD69-expressed T lymphocytes in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been reported, a functional role of CD69 in the pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. To address to this question, CD69-deficient (CD69KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to a mouse model of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema. In the two genotypes, PPE increased counts of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and induced emphysematous changes in the lung, whereas those two pathological signs were significantly enhanced in CD69KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the PPE-induced levels of IL-17 and IL-6 in BALF were significantly higher in CD69KO mice than in WT mice at the acute inflammatory phase. Immunofluorescent studies showed that IL-17 and IL-6 were predominantly expressed in CD4+ and ?? T cells and macrophages, respectively. Concomitant administration of IL-17- and IL-6-neutralizing antibodies significantly attenuated the PPE-induced emphysematous changes in the two genotypes. These findings suggest that CD69 negatively regulates the development of PPE-induced emphysema in part at least through modulating function of IL-17-producing T cells.
Project description:Several studies have implicated a causative role for specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the development and progression of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its severe sequela, emphysema. However, the precise function of any given MMP in emphysema remains an unanswered question. Emphysema results from the degradation of alveolar elastin - among other possible mechanisms - a process that is often thought to be caused by elastolytic proteinases made by macrophages. In this article, we discuss the data suggesting, supporting, or refuting causative roles of macrophage-derived MMPs, with a focus on MMPs-7, -9, -10, -12, and 28, in both the human disease and mouse models of emphysema. Findings from experimental models suggest that some MMPs, such as MMP-12, may directly breakdown elastin, whereas others, particularly MMP-10 and MMP-28, promote the development of emphysema by influencing the proteolytic and inflammatory activities of macrophages.
Project description:AIMS: To determine whether a serine protease inhibitor treatment can prevent or minimize emphysema in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) nasal instillation to induce emphysema and were treated with a serine protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A) before (Protocol 1) and after (Protocol 2) emphysema development. In both protocols, we evaluated lung function to evaluate the airway resistance (Raw), tissue damping (Gtis) and tissue elastance (Htis). The inflammatory profile was analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and through the use of morphometry; we measured the mean linear intercept (Lm) (to verify alveolar enlargement), the volume proportion of collagen and elastic fibers, and the numbers of macrophages and metalloprotease 12 (MMP-12) positive cells in the parenchyma. We showed that at both time points, even after the emphysema was established, the rBmTI-A treatment was sufficient to reverse the loss of elastic recoil measured by Htis, the alveolar enlargement and the increase in the total number of cells in the BALF, with a primary decrease in the number of macrophages. Although, the treatment did not control the increase in macrophages in the lung parenchyma, it was sufficient to decrease the number of positive cells for MMP-12 and reduce the volume of collagen fibers, which was increased in PPE groups. These findings attest to the importance of MMP-12 in PPE-induced emphysema and suggest that this metalloprotease could be an effective therapeutic target.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comprises chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Because tissue destruction is the prominent characteristic of emphysema, extracellular proteinases, particularly those with elastolytic ability, are often considered to be key drivers in this disease. Several human and mouse studies have implicated roles for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly macrophage-derived proteinases, in COPD pathogenesis. MMP-28 is expressed by the pulmonary epithelium and macrophage, and we have found that it regulates macrophage recruitment and polarization. We hypothesized that MMP-28 has contributory roles in emphysema via alteration of macrophage numbers and activation. Because of the established association of emphysema pathogenesis to macrophage influx, we evaluated the inflammatory changes and lung histology of Mmp28-/- mice exposed to 3 and 6 months of cigarette smoke. At earlier time points, we found altered macrophage polarization in the smoke-exposed Mmp28-/- lung consistent with other published findings that MMP-28 regulates macrophage activation. At both 3 and 6 months, Mmp28-/- mice had blunted inflammatory responses more closely resembling nonsmoked mice, with a reduction in neutrophil recruitment and CXCL1 chemokine expression. By 6 months, Mmp28-/- mice were protected from emphysema. These results highlight a previously unrecognized role for MMP-28 in promoting chronic lung inflammation and tissue remodeling induced by cigarette smoke and highlight another potential target to modulate COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emphysema in asymptomatic heavy smokers can be detected during CT-scan screening for lung cancer. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to possibly serve as biomarkers for emphysema. METHODS:The NYU Lung Cancer Biomarker Center enrolled study subjects over 50?years of age with lung cancer risk factors from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015. These subjects received chest multi-detector computed tomography, spirometry, and provided serum for immunoassays for metalloproteinases (MMP) -1,?-2,?-7,?-9, -10 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) -1 and -2. RESULTS:Three hundred sixteen study subjects were enrolled. Of the 222 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 46% had emphysema. Smokers with emphysema had increased pack-years of smoking compared to smokers without emphysema (51?±?24 pack-years (mean?±?sd) versus 37?±?20; p?<?0.0001). Smokers with emphysema also had lower FEV1/FVC percent compared to smokers without emphysema (68?±?11 (mean?±?sd) versus 75?±?8; p?<?0.0001). Increased age and pack-years of smoking were associated with increased odds of emphysema. None of the metalloproteinases or tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were useful to predict the presence of emphysema in smokers. CONCLUSION:Emphysema was detected by CT in almost half of heavy urban smokers. Serum MMP levels provided minimal additional information to improve the detection of mild emphysema among smokers given their clinical characteristics (age, pack-years, and FEV1/FVC ratio).
Project description:HIV1+ smokers develop emphysema at an earlier age and with a higher incidence than HIV1- smokers. Based on the knowledge that human alveolar macrophages (AM) are capable of producing proteases that degrade extracellular matrix components, we hypothesized that upregulation of AM matrix metalloproteinases may be associated with the emphysema of HIV1+ smokers. To test this hypothesis, microarray analysis was used to screen which MMP genes were expressed by AM isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema. For each of the MMP genes observed to be expressed (MMP-1, -2, -7, -9, -10, -12 and -14), TaqMan PCR was used to quantify the relative expression in AM from 4 groups of individuals: HIV1 healthy nonsmokers, HIV1- healthy smokers, HIV1- smokers with early emphysema and HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema. Strikingly, while AM gene expression of MMPs was higher in HIV1- individuals with emphysema in comparison with HIV1- healthy smokers, for the majority of the MMPs (-1, -7, -9, -10, -12), AM expression from HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema was significantly higher than HIV1- smokers with early emphysema. Consistent with these observations, HIV1+ individuals with early emphysema had higher levels of epithelial lining fluid MMPs (-2, -7, -9,-12) than the 3 HIV1 groups. Interestingly, the active forms of MMP-2, -9 and -12 were detected in epithelial lining fluid from HIV1+ individuals with early emphysema, but not in any of the other groups. Considering that the substrate specificity of the upregulated AM MMPs includes collagenases, gelatinases, matrilysins and elastase, these data suggest that upregulated AM MMP genes and activation of MMP proteins may contribute to the emphysema of HIV1+ individuals who smoke. Keywords: expression study Overall design: Asymptomatic HIV+ smokers with early emphysema
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Pulmonary emphysema is a major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Emphysema progression attributed not only to alveolar structure loss and pulmonary regeneration impairment, but also to excessive inflammatory response, proteolytic and anti-proteolytic activity imbalance, lung epithelial cells apoptosis, and abnormal lung remodeling. To ameliorate lung damage with higher efficiency in lung tissue engineering and cell therapy, pre-differentiating graft cells into more restricted cell types before transplantation could enhance their ability to anatomically and functionally integrate into damaged lung. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the regenerative and repair ability of lung alveolar epithelium in emphysema model by using lung epithelial progenitors which pre-differentiated from amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs). METHODS:Pre-differentiation of eGFP-expressing AFMSCs to lung epithelial progenitor-like cells (LEPLCs) was established under a modified small airway growth media (mSAGM) for 7-day induction. Pre-differentiated AFMSCs were intratracheally injected into porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema mice at day 14, and then inflammatory-, fibrotic-, and emphysema-related indices and pathological changes were assessed at 6 weeks after PPE administration. RESULTS:An optimal LEPLCs pre-differentiation condition has been achieved, which resulted in a yield of approximately 20% lung epithelial progenitors-like cells from AFMSCs in a 7-day period. In PPE-induced emphysema mice, transplantation of LEPLCs significantly improved regeneration of lung tissues through integrating into the lung alveolar structure, relieved airway inflammation, increased expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and reduced matrix metalloproteinases and lung remodeling factors when compared with mice injected with AFMSCs. Histopathologic examination observed a significant amelioration in DNA damage in alveolar cells, detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), the mean linear intercept, and the collagen deposition in the LEPLC-transplanted groups. CONCLUSION:Transplantation of predifferentiated AFMSCs through intratracheal injection showed better alveolar regeneration and reverse elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in PPE-induced pulmonary emphysema mice.
Project description:HIV1+ smokers develop emphysema at an earlier age and with a higher incidence than HIV1- smokers. Based on the knowledge that human alveolar macrophages (AM) are capable of producing proteases that degrade extracellular matrix components, we hypothesized that upregulation of AM matrix metalloproteinases may be associated with the emphysema of HIV1+ smokers. To test this hypothesis, microarray analysis was used to screen which MMP genes were expressed by AM isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema. For each of the MMP genes observed to be expressed (MMP-1, -2, -7, -9, -10, -12 and -14), TaqMan PCR was used to quantify the relative expression in AM from 4 groups of individuals: HIV1 healthy nonsmokers, HIV1- healthy smokers, HIV1- smokers with early emphysema and HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema. Strikingly, while AM gene expression of MMPs was higher in HIV1- individuals with emphysema in comparison with HIV1- healthy smokers, for the majority of the MMPs (-1, -7, -9, -10, -12), AM expression from HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema was significantly higher than HIV1- smokers with early emphysema. Consistent with these observations, HIV1+ individuals with early emphysema had higher levels of epithelial lining fluid MMPs (-2, -7, -9,-12) than the 3 HIV1 groups. Interestingly, the active forms of MMP-2, -9 and -12 were detected in epithelial lining fluid from HIV1+ individuals with early emphysema, but not in any of the other groups. Considering that the substrate specificity of the upregulated AM MMPs includes collagenases, gelatinases, matrilysins and elastase, these data suggest that upregulated AM MMP genes and activation of MMP proteins may contribute to the emphysema of HIV1+ individuals who smoke. Keywords: expression study Asymptomatic HIV+ smokers with early emphysema
Project description:Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have attracted considerable attention as critical mediators of pathological tissue remodeling processes. However it remains an unresolved challenge to detect their active forms in biological samples. To prove the efficacy of a recently developed MMP activity-based probe, we examined the content in MMP active forms of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALf) from male C57BL/6 mice exposed to ultrafine carbon black nanoparticles, a model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This probe was shown to label proteins, mostly expressed in BALf of mice exposed to nanoparticles. Using competition assays with a selective MMP-12 inhibitor as well as MMP-12 knock-out mice, one of these proteins was identified as the active form of the catalytic domain of MMP-12. This new probe can detect the active form of MMP-12 down to a threshold of 1 fmol. Radioactive counting showed the concentration of the active form of MMP-12 to be around 1 fmol/?l in BALf from nanoparticle-treated mice. A less sensitive probe would therefore not have detected MMP-12. As the probe can detect other MMPs in the femtomolar range, it is a potentially powerful tool for monitoring the levels of MMP active forms in various diseases.