Population-based approaches to treatment and readmission after spinal cord injury.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recent studies in surgical and non-surgical specialties have suggested that patients admitted on the weekend may have worse outcomes. In particular, patients with stroke and acute cardiovascular events have shown worse outcomes with weekend treatment. It is unclear whether this extends to patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study was designed to evaluate factors for readmission after index hospitalization for spinal cord injury. METHODS:This cohort was constructed from the State Inpatient Databases of California, New York, and Florida. For this study 14,396 patients with SCI were identified. The primary outcome measure evaluated was 30-day readmission. Secondary measures include in-hospital complications. Univariate and multivariate analysis were utilized to evaluate covariates. c2, Fisher's exact, and linear, logistic, and modified Poisson regression methods were utilized for statistical analysis. Propensity score methods were used with matched pairs analysis performed by the McNemar's Test. RESULTS:Weekend admission was not associated with increased 30- day readmission rates in multivariate analysis. Race and discharge to a facility (RR 1.60 [1.43-1.79]) or home with home care (RR 1.23 [1.07-1.42]), were statistically significant risk factors for readmission. Payor status did not affect rates of readmission. In propensity score matched pairs analysis, weekend admission was not associated with increased odds of 30-day readmission (OR 1.04 [0.89-1.21]). Patients admitted to high volume centers had significantly lower risk of readmission when compared with patients admitted to low volume centers. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the weekend effect, described previously in other patient populations, may not play as important a role in patients with SCI.
Project description:Despite extensive research on the "weekend effect" i.e., the increased mortality associated with hospital admission during weekend, knowledge about disease severity in previous studies is limited. The aim of this study is to examine patient characteristics, including disease severity, 30-day mortality, and length of stay (LOS), according to time of admission to an emergency department.Our study encompassed all patients admitted to a Danish emergency department in 2014-2015. Using data from electronic patient records, this study examines patient characteristics including age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, triage score, and primary diagnosis. Triage score and transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) were used as indicators of disease severity. LOS within the department and within the hospital was examined. Age- and sex-standardized 30-day mortality rates comparing patients with the same triage score admitted at daytime, evening, and nighttime on weekdays and on weekends were computed. To test differences, a Cox regression analysis was added.We included 35,459 patient visits, of which 10,435 (32%) started on a weekend. There were no large differences in baseline characteristics between patients admitted on weekdays and those admitted on weekends. The relative risk (RR) for being triaged orange or red was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.28, P?= 0.0017) for weekend admissions as compared with weekday admissions. Weekend admissions were twice as likely as weekday admissions to be transferred to the ICU (RR, 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.52, P?= 0.0000). No significant changes were found in LOS. The 30-day mortality rate increased with disease severity regardless of time of admission. When comparing the 30-day mortality rate for patients with the same triage score, the trend was toward a higher mortality when admission occurred during the weekend. Increasing mortality rate was significant for patients admitted at evening on weekends with a hazard ratio of 1.32 (95% CI 1.03-1.70, P?=?0.027) when compared with patients admitted on daytime on weekdays.When comparing weekday and weekend admissions, the 30-day mortality rate increased for patients admitted at evening on weekends after adjusting for comorbidity and triage score, indicating that the weekend effect was independent of changes in illness severity.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The effect of weekend versus weekday admission following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on process of care and mortality remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the 'weekend-effect' on outcomes using a multicentre dataset of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction/unstable?angina (NSTEMI/UA). DESIGN:This retrospective observational study used propensity score (PS) stratification to adjust estimates of weekend effect for observed confounding. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for binary outcomes and time-to-event endpoints were modelled using Cox proportional hazards to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). SETTING:Three tertiary cardiac centres in England and Wales that contribute to the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project. PARTICIPANTS:Between January 2010 and March 2016, 17?705 admissions met the study inclusion criteria, 4327 of which were at a weekend. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:Associations were studied between weekend admissions and the following primary outcome measures: in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality and long-term survival; secondary outcomes included several processes of care indicators, such as time to coronary angiography. RESULTS:After PS stratification adjustment, mortality outcomes were similar between weekend and weekday admission across patients with STEMI and NSTEMI/UA. Weekend admissions were less likely to be discharged within 1?day (HR 0.72, 95%?CI 0.66 to 0.78), but after 4?days the length of stay was similar (HR 0.97, 95%?CI 0.90 to 1.04). Fewer patients with NSTEMI/UA received angiography between 0 and 24?hours at a weekend (HR 0.71, 95%?CI 0.65 to 0.77). Weekend patients with STEMI were less likely to undergo an angiogram within 1?hour, but there was no significant difference after this time point. CONCLUSION:Patients with ACS had similar mortality and processes of care when admitted on a weekend compared with a weekday. There was evidence of a delay to angiography for patients with NSTEMI/UA admitted at the weekend.
Project description:In adult patients with leukemia, weekend admission is associated with increased inpatient mortality. It is unknown whether weekend diagnostic admissions in pediatric patients with leukemia demonstrate similar adverse outcomes.To estimate adverse clinical outcomes associated with weekend admission in the first hospitalization of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed leukemia.This retrospective cohort study from 1999 to 2011 featured index hospital admissions identified from the Pediatric Health Information System database. Participants were children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoid leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia.Weekend (Saturday and Sunday) or weekday index admission.Inpatient mortality, length of inpatient stay, time to chemotherapy, and organ-system failure in index admission.A total of 10?720 patients with acute lymphoid leukemia and 1323 patients with acute myeloid leukemia were identified; 2009 patients (16.7%) were admitted on the weekend. While the total daily number of patients receiving intensive care unit-level care was constant regardless of the day of admission, these patients represented a larger percentage of total admissions on weekends. In adjusted analyses, patients admitted on the weekend did not have an increased rate of mortality during the first admission (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.6). Patients whose initial admission for leukemia occurred during a weekend had a significantly increased length of stay (1.4-day increase; 95% CI, 0.7-2.1), time to initiation of chemotherapy (0.36-day increase; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5), and risk for respiratory failure (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) after adjusting for demographics, severity of illness, and hospital-level factors.While pediatric patients with newly diagnosed leukemia admitted on weekends do not have higher mortality rates, they have a prolonged length of stay, increased time to chemotherapy, and higher risk for respiratory failure. Patients who are severely ill at presentation represent a higher proportion of weekend index admissions. Optimizing weekend resources by increasing staffing and access to diagnostic and therapeutic resources may help to reduce hospital length of stay across all weekend admissions and may also ensure the availability of comprehensive care for those weekend admissions with higher acuity.
Project description:Background:Poorer patient outcomes for emergency general surgery have been observed in patients admitted to hospital over the weekend. This paper reports the outcomes of a Consultant-delivered service model for weekend admissions and its impact for patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. Methods:Operative data was analysed from a prospectively collected database over 5-years. Primary outcome measures were 30-day all-cause mortality and Clavien-Dindo class ?2 morbidity. Secondary outcomes included time from admission to diagnostic imaging and time to surgery, post-operative length of stay and requirement for Intensive Care Unit admission. Results:263 patients underwent an emergency laparotomy. Overall 30-day mortality was 4.6% and all-cause morbidity was 55.9%. The most common indications for laparotomy were mechanical small bowel obstruction (32.7%) and hollow viscus perforation (30.4%) of the 263 emergency laparotomies, 92 patients in the cohort were weekend admissions (Saturday or Sunday). There was no significant difference amongst patients admitted during the weekend in ASA grade, age, gender, or proportion of patients receiving a pre-operative computed tomography scan, when compared to those during the week. Compared to weekdays, weekend admission was not associated with a significant difference in mortality (5.3% and 3.3%, respectively p = 0.458), all-cause morbidity (p = 0.509), post-operative length of stay (p = 0.681), or Intensive Care Unit admission (p = 0.761). Conclusion:A Consultant Surgeon delivered emergency service can avoid the poor patient outcomes associated with weekend admissions and the 'weekend effect'.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare interventions on weekends have been associated with increased mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, but these findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized that patients admitted to hospital on weekends who have surgery have an increased risk of death compared with patients who are admitted and have surgery on weekdays. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This matched cohort study included 318,202 adult patients from Ontario health administrative and demographic databases, admitted to acute care hospitals from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015. A total of 159,101 patients who were admitted on weekends and underwent noncardiac surgery were classified by day of surgery (weekend versus weekday) and matched 1:1 to patients who both were admitted and had surgery on a weekday (Tuesday to Thursday); matching was based on age (in years), anesthesia basic unit value for the surgical procedure, median neighborhood household income quintile, resource utilization band (a ranking system of overall morbidity), rurality of home location, year of admission, and urgency of admission. Of weekend admissions, 16.2% (25,872) were elective and 53.9% (85,744) had surgery on the weekend of admission. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days of the date of hospital admission. The 30-day all-cause mortality for patients admitted on weekends who had noncardiac surgery was 2.6% (4,211/159,101) versus 2.5% (3,901/159,101) for those who were admitted and had surgery on weekdays (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.11; P = 0.03). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the increased odds of death according to the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed (weekend versus weekday). For urgent admissions on weekends (n = 133,229), there was no significant increase in odds of mortality when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09; P = 0.7) or on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.12; P = 0.2) compared to urgent admissions on weekdays. Elective admissions on weekends (n = 25,782) had increased risk of death both when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.98 to 5.49; P < 0.001) and when surgery was performed on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.81 to 4.03; P < 0.001). The main limitations of this study were the lack of data regarding reason for admission and cause of increased time interval from admission to surgery for some cases, the small number of deaths in some subgroups (i.e., elective surgery), and the possibility of residual unmeasured confounding from increased illness severity for weekend admissions. CONCLUSIONS:When patients have surgery during their hospitalization, admission on weekends in Ontario, Canada, was associated with a small but significant proportional increase in 30-day all-cause mortality, but there was significant heterogeneity in outcomes depending on the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed. An increased risk of death was found only for elective admissions on weekends; whether this is a function of patient-level factors or represents a true weekend effect needs to be further elucidated. These findings have potential implications for resource allocation in hospitals and the redistribution of elective surgery to weekends.
Project description:Background and purpose - There are numerous studies on the weekend effect for hip fracture patients, with conflicting results. We analyzed time of admission and discharge, and the association with mortality and length of hospital stay in more detail. Patients and methods - We used data from 61,211 surgically treated hip fractures in 55,211 patients, admitted to Norwegian hospitals 2008-2014. All patients were aged 50 years or older. Data were analyzed with Cox and Poisson regression. Results - Mortality within 30 days did not differ substantially by day of admission, although admissions on Sundays and holidays had a slightly increased mortality. The hazard ratios were 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.2) for Sundays, and 1.2 (CI 0.98-1.4) for holidays, relative to Mondays. For patients admitted between 6:00 am and 7:00 am the hazard ratio was 1.4 (CI 1.1-1.8) relative to patients admitted between 2:00?pm and 3:00?pm. Discharges during weekends and holidays were associated with a substantial higher mortality than weekday discharges. Patients admitted from Friday to Sunday generally stayed in hospital for a shorter time than patients admitted during other days. Interpretation - Our results indicate that the discussion on weekday versus weekend admission effects might have distracted attention from other important factors, such as time of day of admission, and day of discharge from hospital treatment.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Prognostic biomarkers in asthma are needed. The biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been associated with asthma control and with prognosis in acutely admitted medical patients. We investigated if suPAR and blood eosinophil counts at the time of admission for asthma are associated with readmission and mortality.<h4>Methods</h4>Our cohort comprised 1341 patients (median age 45.3, IQR 30.1-63.1) acutely admitted with a diagnosis of asthma to Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark (November 2013 to March 2017). Patients had suPAR and blood eosinophils measured at admission. Outcomes were 365-day readmission and all-cause mortality. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, C-reactive protein, and Charlson comorbidity score was used to assess the association of the two biomarkers with readmission and all-cause mortality.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to event-free patients, patients who were either readmitted (n?=?452, 42.3%) or died (n?=?57, 5.3%) had significantly higher suPAR concentrations (p?<?0.0001) and lower eosinophil counts (p?=?0.0031) at admission. The highest odds of readmission or mortality were observed for patients in either the 4th suPAR quartile (p?<?0.0001) or with eosinophil counts <?150 cells/?L at admission. Increasing levels of suPAR were associated with 365-day readmission (OR 1.3 [1.0-1.6]; p?=?0.05) and mortality (OR 2.9 [1.7-5.1]; p?=?0.0002). Eosinophil count >?300 cells/?L was significantly associated with lower odds of readmission (OR 0.64 [0.5-0.9]; p?=?0.005) and lower mortality (OR 0.7 [0.6-0.9]; p?=?0.0007).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients acutely admitted with asthma, elevated suPAR concentrations together with blood eosinophil count <?150 cells/?L at the time of hospital admission were associated with both 365-day all-cause readmission and mortality.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Previous studies have shown that patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after "office hours" are more likely to die. However these results have been challenged by numerous other studies. We therefore analysed this possible relationship between ICU admission time and in-hospital mortality in The Netherlands.<h4>Methods</h4>This article relates time of ICU admission to hospital mortality for all patients who were included in the Dutch national ICU registry (National Intensive Care Evaluation, NICE) from 2002 to 2008. We defined office hours as 08:00-22:00 hours during weekdays and 09:00-18:00 hours during weekend days. The weekend was defined as from Saturday 00:00 hours until Sunday 24:00 hours. We corrected hospital mortality for illness severity at admission using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, reason for admission, admission type, age and gender.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 149,894 patients were included in this analysis. The relative risk (RR) for mortality outside office hours was 1.059 (1.031-1.088). Mortality varied with time but was consistently higher than expected during "off hours" and lower during office hours. There was no significant difference in mortality between different weekdays of Monday to Thursday, but mortality increased slightly on Friday (RR 1.046; 1.001-1.092). During the weekend the RR was 1.103 (1.071-1.136) in comparison with the rest of the week.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Hospital mortality in The Netherlands appears to be increased outside office hours and during the weekends, even when corrected for illness severity at admission. However, incomplete adjustment for certain confounders might still play an important role. Further research is needed to fully explain this difference.
Project description:Background and objective:Hospital readmissions within 30?days are used as an indicator of quality of hospital care. We aimed to evaluate the ability of the LACE (Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidities based on Charlson comorbidity score and number of Emergency visits in the last 6?months) index to predict the risk of 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods:In this retrospective cohort study a LACE index score was calculated for patients with a principal diagnosis of CAP admitted to a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. The predictive ability of the LACE score for 30-day readmissions was assessed using receiver operator characteristic curves with C-statistic. Results:Of 3996 patients admitted to hospital for CAP at least once, 8.0% (n=327) died in hospital and 14.6% (n=584) were readmitted within 30?days. 17.8% (113 of 636) of all 30-day readmissions were again due to CAP, followed by readmissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure and chest pain. The LACE index had moderate discriminative ability to predict 30-day readmission (C-statistic=0.6395) but performed poorly for the prediction of 30-day readmissions due to CAP (C-statistic=0.5760). Conclusions:The ability of the LACE index to predict all-cause 30-day hospital readmissions is comparable to more complex pneumonia-specific indices with moderate discrimination. For the prediction of 30-day readmissions due to CAP, the performance of the LACE index and modified risk prediction models using readily available variables (sex, age, specific comorbidities, after-hours, weekend, winter or summer admission) is insufficient.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Higher mortality for patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) during the weekends has been occasionally reported with conflicting results that could be related to organisational factors. We investigated the effects of ICU organisational and staffing patterns on the potential association between weekend admission and outcomes in critically ill patients. METHODS:We included 59?614 patients admitted to 78 ICUs participating during 2013. We defined 'weekend admission' as any ICU admission from Friday 19:00 until Monday 07:00. We assessed the association between weekend admission with hospital mortality using a mixed logistic regression model controlling for both patient-level (illness severity, age, comorbidities, performance status and admission type) and ICU-level (decrease in nurse/bed ratio on weekend, full-time intensivist coverage, use of checklists on weekends and number of institutional protocols) confounders. We performed secondary analyses in the subgroup of scheduled surgical admissions. RESULTS:A total of 41?894 patients (70.3%) were admitted on weekdays and 17?720 patients (29.7%) on weekends. In univariable analysis, weekend admitted patients had higher ICU (10.9% vs 9.0%, P<0.001) and hospital (16.5% vs 13.5%, P<0.001) mortality. After adjusting for confounders, weekend admission was not associated with higher hospital mortality (OR 1.05, 95%?CI 0.99 to 1.12, P=0.095). However, a 'weekend effect' was still observed in scheduled surgical admissions, as well as in ICUs not using checklists during the weekends. For unscheduled admissions, no 'weekend effect' was observed regardless of ICU's characteristics. For scheduled surgical admissions, a 'weekend effect' was present only in ICUs with a low number of implemented protocols and those with a reduction in the nurse/bed ratio and not applying checklists during weekends. CONCLUSIONS:ICU organisational factors, such as decreased nurse-to-patient ratio, absence of checklists and fewer standardised protocols, may explain, in part, increases in mortality in patients admitted to the ICU mortality on weekends.