Argonaute Utilization for miRNA Silencing Is Determined by Phosphorylation-Dependent Recruitment of LIM-Domain-Containing Proteins.
ABSTRACT: As core components of the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), Argonaute (AGO) proteins interact with TNRC6 proteins, recruiting other effectors of translational repression/mRNA destabilization. Here, we show that LIMD1 coordinates the assembly of an AGO-TNRC6 containing miRISC complex by binding both proteins simultaneously at distinct interfaces. Phosphorylation of AGO2 at Ser 387 by Akt3 induces LIMD1 binding, which in turn enables AGO2 to interact with TNRC6A and downstream effector DDX6. Conservation of this serine in AGO1 and 4 indicates this mechanism may be a fundamental requirement for AGO function and miRISC assembly. Upon CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LIMD1, AGO2 miRNA-silencing function is lost and miRNA silencing becomes dependent on a complex formed by AGO3 and the LIMD1 family member WTIP. The switch to AGO3 utilization occurs due to the presence of a glutamic acid residue (E390) on the interaction interface, which allows AGO3 to bind to LIMD1, AJUBA, and WTIP irrespective of Akt signaling.
Project description:The trinucleotide repeat containing 6 (TNRC6) family of proteins are core components of RNA interference (RNAi) and consist of three paralogs (TNRC6A, TNRC6B, and TNRC6C). The TNRC6 paralogs associate with argonaute (AGO) protein, the core RNAi factor, and bridge its interactions with other proteins. We obtained TNRC6A and TNRC6B single and double knockout cell lines to investigate how the TNRC6 paralogs contribute to RNAi. We found that TNRC6 proteins are not required for gene silencing when duplex RNAs are fully complementary. TNRC6 expression was necessary for regulation by a microRNA. TNRC6A, but not TNRC6B, expression was necessary for transcriptional activation by a duplex RNA targeting a gene promoter. By contrast, AGO2 is required for all three gene expression pathways. TNRC6A can affect the Dicer localization in cytoplasm versus the nucleus, but none of the three TNRC6 paralogs was necessary for nuclear localization of AGO2. Our data suggest that the roles of the TNRC6 paralogs differ in some details and that TNRC6 is not required for clinical therapeutic silencing mechanisms that involve fully complementary duplex RNAs.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) guide Argonaute (Ago) proteins to distinct target mRNAs leading to translational repression and mRNA decay. Ago proteins interact with a member of the GW protein family, referred to as TNRC6A-C in mammals, which coordinate downstream gene-silencing processes. The cytoplasmic functions of TNRC6 and Ago proteins are reasonably well established. Both protein families are found in the nucleus as well. Their detailed nuclear functions, however, remain elusive. Furthermore, it is not clear which import routes Ago and TNRC6 proteins take into the nucleus. Using different nuclear transport assays, we find that Ago as well as TNRC6 proteins shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. While import receptors might function redundantly to transport Ago2, we demonstrate that TNRC6 proteins are imported by the Importin-β pathway. Finally, we show that nuclear localization of both Ago2 and TNRC6 proteins can depend on each other suggesting actively balanced cytoplasmic Ago - TNRC6 levels.
Project description:In recent years there have been major advances with respect to the identification of the protein components and mechanisms of microRNA (miRNA) mediated silencing. However, the complete and precise repertoire of components and mechanism(s) of action remain to be fully elucidated. Herein we reveal the identification of a family of three LIM domain-containing proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba and WTIP (Ajuba LIM proteins) as novel mammalian processing body (P-body) components, which highlight a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Furthermore, we reveal that LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP bind to Ago1/2, RCK, Dcp2, and eIF4E in vivo, that they are required for miRNA-mediated, but not siRNA-mediated gene silencing and that all three proteins bind to the mRNA 5' m(7)GTP cap-protein complex. Mechanistically, we propose the Ajuba LIM proteins interact with the m(7)GTP cap structure via a specific interaction with eIF4E that prevents 4EBP1 and eIF4G interaction. In addition, these LIM-domain proteins facilitate miRNA-mediated gene silencing by acting as an essential molecular link between the translationally inhibited eIF4E-m(7)GTP-5(')cap and Ago1/2 within the miRISC complex attached to the 3'-UTR of mRNA, creating an inhibitory closed-loop complex.
Project description:GW182 family proteins play important roles in microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA silencing. They directly interact with Argonaute (Ago) proteins in processing bodies (P bodies), cytoplasmic foci involved in mRNA degradation and storage. Recently, we revealed that a human GW182 family protein, TNRC6A, is a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, and its subcellular localization is regulated by its own nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal. Regarding the further controlling mechanism of TNRC6A subcellular localization, we found that TNRC6A protein is tethered in P bodies by direct interaction with Ago2 under Ago2 overexpression condition in HeLa cells. Furthermore, it was revealed that such Ago proteins might be strongly tethered in the P bodies through Ago-bound small RNAs. Thus, our results indicate that TNRC6A subcellular localization is substantially controlled by the interaction with Ago proteins. Furthermore, it was also revealed that the TNRC6A subcellular localization affects the RNA silencing activity.
Project description:Double-stranded RNAs that are complementary to non-coding transcripts at gene promoters can activate or inhibit gene expression in mammalian cells. Understanding the mechanism for modulating gene expression by promoter-targeted antigene RNAs (agRNAs) will require identification of the proteins involved in recognition. Previous reports have implicated argonaute (AGO) proteins, but identifications have differed with involvement of AGO1, AGO2, or both AGO1 and AGO2 being reported by different studies. The roles of AGO3 and AGO4 have not been investigated. Here, we examine the role of AGO 1-4 in gene silencing and activation of the progesterone receptor (PR) gene. Expression of AGO2 is necessary for efficient gene silencing or activation and AGO2 is recruited to the non-coding transcript that overlaps the promoter during both gene silencing and activation. Expression of AGO1, AGO3 and AGO4 are not necessary for gene silencing or activation nor are AGO1, AGO3, or AGO4 recruited to the target non-coding transcript during gene activation. These data indicate that AGO2 is the primary AGO variant involved in modulating expression of PR by agRNAs.
Project description:TNRC6 is a scaffolding protein that bridges interactions between small RNAs, argonaute (AGO) protein, and effector proteins to control gene expression. There are three paralogs in mammalian cells, <i>TNRC6A</i>, <i>TNRC6B</i>, and <i>TNRC6C</i> These paralogs have ∼40% amino acid sequence identity and the extent of their unique or redundant functions is unclear. Here, we use knockout cell lines, enhanced crosslinking immunoprecipitation (eCLIP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to explore the roles of TNRC6 paralogs in RNA-mediated control of gene expression. We find that the paralogs are largely functionally redundant and changes in levels of gene expression are well-correlated with those observed in <i>AGO</i> knockout cell lines. Splicing changes observed in <i>AGO</i> knockout cell lines are also observed in <i>TNRC6</i> knockout cells. These data further define the roles of the TNRC6 isoforms as part of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which post-transcriptionally suppress target mRNAs expression and/or translation to modulate pathophyological processes. Expression and function of miRNAs are fine-tuned by a conserved biogenesis machinery involves two RNase-dependent processing steps of miRNA maturation and the final step of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC)-mediated target silencing. A functional miRISC requires Argonaute 2 (AGO2) as an essential catalytic component which plays central roles in miRISC function. We uncovered a post-translational regulatory mechanism of AGO2 by E-cadherin. Mechanistically, E-cadherin activates ERK to phosphorylate AGO2, along with enhanced protein glycosylation. Consequently, the phosphorylated AGO2 was stabilized and ultimately resulted in induced miRISC activity on gene silencing. This study revealed a novel pathway for miRNA regulation through an E-cadherin-mediated miRISC activation.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of neuronal development, network connectivity, and synaptic plasticity. While many neuronal miRNAs were previously shown to modulate neuronal morphogenesis, little is known regarding the regulation of miRNA function. In a large-scale functional screen, we identified two novel regulators of neuronal miRNA function, Nova1 and Ncoa3. Both proteins are expressed in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of developing hippocampal neurons. We found that Nova1 and Ncoa3 stimulate miRNA function by different mechanisms that converge on Argonaute (Ago) proteins, core components of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). While Nova1 physically interacts with Ago proteins, Ncoa3 selectively promotes the expression of Ago2 at the transcriptional level. We further show that Ncoa3 regulates dendritic complexity and dendritic spine maturation of hippocampal neurons in a miRNA-dependent fashion. Importantly, both the loss of miRNA activity and increased dendrite complexity upon Ncoa3 knockdown were rescued by Ago2 overexpression. Together, we uncovered two novel factors that control neuronal miRISC function at the level of Ago proteins, with possible implications for the regulation of synapse development and plasticity.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. For example, miRNAs repress gene expression by recruiting the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), a ribonucleoprotein complex that contains miRNA-engaged Argonaute (Ago) and the scaffold protein GW182. Recently, ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5 (UBR5) has been identified as a component of miRISC. UBR5 directly interacts with GW182 proteins and participates in miRNA silencing by recruiting downstream effectors, such as the translation regulator DEAD-box helicase 6 (DDX6) and transducer of ERBB2,1/2,2 (Tob1/2), to the Ago-GW182 complex. However, the regulation of miRISC-associated UBR5 remains largely elusive. In the present study, we showed that UBR5 down-regulates the levels of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3), a key component of Toll-like receptor signaling, via the miRNA pathway. We further demonstrated that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) is an upstream regulator of UBR5. p90RSK phosphorylates UBR5 at Thr<sup>637</sup>, Ser<sup>1227</sup>, and Ser<sup>2483</sup>, and this phosphorylation is required for the translational repression of TRAF3 mRNA. Phosphorylated UBR5 co-localized with GW182 and Ago2 in cytoplasmic speckles, which implies that miRISC is affected by phospho-UBR5. Collectively, these results indicated that the p90RSK-UBR5 pathway stimulates miRNA-mediated translational repression of TRAF3. Our work has added another layer to the regulation of miRISC.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) silence the expression of their mRNA targets mainly by promoting mRNA decay. The mechanism, kinetics and participating enzymes for miRNA-mediated decay in mammalian cells remain largely unclear. Combining the approaches of transcriptional pulsing, RNA tethering, overexpression of dominant-negative mutants, and siRNA-mediated gene knockdown, we show that let-7 miRNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs), which contain the proteins Argonaute (Ago) and TNRC6 (also known as GW182), trigger very rapid mRNA decay by inducing accelerated biphasic deadenylation mediated by Pan2-Pan3 and Ccr4-Caf1 deadenylase complexes followed by Dcp1-Dcp2 complex-directed decapping in mammalian cells. When tethered to mRNAs, all four human Ago proteins and TNRC6C are each able to recapitulate the two deadenylation steps. Two conserved human Ago2 phenylalanines (Phe470 and Phe505) are critical for recruiting TNRC6 to promote deadenylation. These findings indicate that promotion of biphasic deadenylation to trigger mRNA decay is an intrinsic property of miRISCs.