Different Repeat Annual Influenza Vaccinations Improve the Antibody Response to Drifted Influenza Strains.
ABSTRACT: Seasonal influenza vaccine formulas change almost every year yet information about how this affects the antibody repertoire of vaccine recipients is inadequate. New vaccine virus strains are selected, replacing older strains to better match the currently circulating strains. But even while the vaccine is being manufactured the circulating strains can evolve. The ideal response to a seasonal vaccine would maintain antibodies toward existing strains that might continue to circulate, and to generate cross-reactive antibodies, particularly towards conserved influenza epitopes, potentially limiting infections caused by newly evolving strains. Here we use the hemagglutination inhibition assay to analyze the antibody repertoire in subjects vaccinated two years in a row with either identical vaccine virus strains or with differing vaccine virus strains. The data indicates that changing the vaccine formulation results in an antibody repertoire that is better able to react with strains emerging after the vaccine virus strains are selected. The effect is observed for both influenza A and B strains in groups of subjects vaccinated in three different seasons. Analyses include stratification by age and sex.
Project description:Current influenza vaccines do not provide effective protection against heterologous influenza viruses. The ability of the novel M2SR influenza vaccine to protect against drifted influenza viruses was evaluated in naïve ferrets and in ferrets with pre-existing immunity to influenza. In naïve ferrets, M2SR provided similar protection against drifted challenge viruses as the comparator vaccine, FluMist®. However, in ferrets with pre-existing immunity, M2SR provided superior protection than FluMist in two model systems. In the first model, ferrets were infected with influenza A H1N1pdm and influenza B viruses to mimic the diverse influenza exposure in humans. The pre-infected ferrets, seropositive to H1N1pdm and influenza B but seronegative to H3N2, were then vaccinated with H3N2 M2SR or monovalent H3N2 FluMist virus (A/Brisbane/10/2007, clade 1) and challenged 6?weeks later with a drifted H3N2 virus (clade 3C.2a). Antibody titers to Brisbane/10/2007 were higher in M2SR vaccinated ferrets than in FluMist vaccinated ferrets in the pre-infected ferrets whereas the opposite was observed in naïve ferrets. After challenge with drifted H3N2 virus, M2SR provided superior protection than FluMist monovalent vaccine. In the second model, the impact of homologous pre-existing immunity upon vaccine-induced protection was evaluated. Ferrets, pre-infected with H1N1pdm virus, were vaccinated 90?days later with H1N1pdm M2SR or FluMist monovalent vaccine and challenged 6?weeks later with a pre-pandemic seasonal H1N1 virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007 (Bris59). While cross-reactive serum IgG antibodies against the Bris59 HA were detected after vaccination, anti-Bris59 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were only detected post-challenge. M2SR provided better protection against Bris59 challenge than FluMist suggesting that homologous pre-existing immunity affected FluMist virus to a greater degree than M2SR. These results suggest that the single replication intranasal M2SR vaccine provides effective protection against drifted influenza A viruses not only in naïve ferrets but also in those with pre-existing immunity in contrast to FluMist viruses.
Project description:Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been circulating in human population for three epidemic seasons. During this time, monovalent pandemic and trivalent seasonal influenza vaccination against this virus have been offered to Finnish healthcare professionals. It is, however, unclear how well vaccine-induced antibodies recognize different strains of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in the population and whether the booster vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccine would broaden the antibody cross-reactivity.Influenza vaccine-induced humoral immunity against several isolates of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was analyzed in healthcare professionals. Age-dependent responses were also analyzed.Influenza viruses were selected to represent viruses that circulated in Finland during two consecutive influenza epidemic seasons 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Serum samples from vaccinated volunteers, age 20-64 years, were collected before and after vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted pandemic and non-adjuvanted trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine that was given 1 year later.Single dose of pandemic vaccine induced a good albeit variable antibody response. On day 21 after vaccination, depending on the virus strain, 14-75% of vaccinated had reached antibody titers (≥1:40) considered seroprotective. The booster vaccination 1 year later with a seasonal vaccine elevated the seroprotection rate to 57-98%. After primary immunization, younger individuals (20-48 years) had significantly higher antibody titers against all tested viruses than older persons (49-64 years) but this difference disappeared after the seasonal booster vaccination.Even a few amino acid changes in influenza A HA may compromise the vaccine-induced antibody recognition. Older adults (49 years and older) may benefit more from repeated influenza vaccinations.
Project description:Several vaccines are approved in the United States for seasonal influenza vaccination every year. Here we compare the impact of repeat influenza vaccination on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, antibody binding and affinity maturation to individual hemagglutinin (HA) domains, HA1 and HA2, across vaccine platforms. Fold change in HI and antibody binding to HA1 trends higher for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 but not against B strains in groups vaccinated with FluBlok compared with FluCelvax and Fluzone. Antibody-affinity maturation occurs against HA1 domain of H1N1pdm09, H3N2 and B following vaccination with all vaccine platforms, but not against H1N1pdm09-HA2. Importantly, prior year vaccination of subjects receiving repeat vaccinations demonstrated reduced antibody-affinity maturation to HA1 of all three influenza virus strains irrespective of the vaccine platform. This study identifies an important impact of repeat vaccination on antibody-affinity maturation following vaccination, which may contribute to lower vaccine effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines in humans.
Project description:Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeric hemagglutinins, consisting of globular head domains from exotic influenza A viruses and stalk domains from influenza B viruses. Sequential vaccination with these constructs in mice leads to the induction of broadly reactive antibodies that bind to the conserved stalk domain of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated mice are protected from lethal challenge with diverse influenza B viruses. Results from serum transfer experiments and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays indicate that this protection is antibody mediated and based on Fc effector functions. The present data suggest that chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccination is a viable strategy to broadly protect against influenza B virus infection.IMPORTANCE While current influenza virus vaccines are effective, they are affected by mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Furthermore, the antiviral drug oseltamivir is less effective for treating influenza B virus infections than for treating influenza A virus infections. A vaccine that induces broad and long-lasting protection against influenza B viruses is therefore urgently needed.
Project description:The efficacy of influenza vaccines may decline during years when the circulating viruses have antigenically drifted from those included in the vaccine.We carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines in healthy adults during the 2004-2005 influenza season and estimated both absolute and relative efficacies.A total of 1247 persons were vaccinated between October and December 2004. Influenza activity in Michigan began in January 2005 with the circulation of an antigenically drifted type A (H3N2) virus, the A/California/07/2004-like strain, and of type B viruses from two lineages. The absolute efficacy of the inactivated vaccine against both types of virus was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37 to 92) as measured by isolating the virus in cell culture, 75% (95% CI, 42 to 90) as measured by either isolating the virus in cell culture or identifying it through real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 67% (95% CI, 16 to 87) as measured by either isolating the virus or observing a rise in the serum antibody titer. The absolute efficacies of the live attenuated vaccine were 57% (95% CI, -3 to 82), 48% (95% CI, -7 to 74), and 30% (95% CI, -57 to 67), respectively. The difference in efficacy between the two vaccines appeared to be related mainly to reduced protection of the live attenuated vaccine against type B viruses.In the 2004-2005 season, in which most circulating viruses were dissimilar to those included in the vaccine, the inactivated vaccine was efficacious in preventing laboratory-confirmed symptomatic illnesses from influenza in healthy adults. The live attenuated vaccine also prevented influenza illnesses but was less efficacious. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00133523.)
Project description:Continuing evolution of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza viruses in wild birds with transmission to domestic poultry and humans poses a pandemic threat. There is an urgent need for a simple and rapid serological diagnostic assay which can differentiate between antibodies to seasonal and H5N1 strains and that could provide surveillance tools not dependent on virus isolation and nucleic acid technologies. Here we describe the establishment of H5N1 SeroDetect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid test assays based on three peptides in HA2 (488-516), PB1-F2 (2-75), and M2e (2-24) that are highly conserved within H5N1 strains. These peptides were identified by antibody repertoire analyses of H5N1 influenza survivors in Vietnam using whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs). To date, both platforms have demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting H5N1 infections (clade 1 and clade 2.3.4) in Vietnamese patients as early as 7 days and up to several years postinfection. H5N1 virus-uninfected individuals in Vietnam and the United States, including subjects vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines or with confirmed seasonal virus infections, did not react in the H5N1-SeroDetect assays. Moreover, sera from individuals vaccinated with H5N1 subunit vaccine with moderate anti-H5N1 neutralizing antibody titers did not react positively in the H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA or rapid test assays. The simple H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA and rapid tests could provide an important tool for large-scale surveillance for potential exposure to HP H5N1 strains in both humans and birds.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza viruses gradually accumulate point mutations, reducing the effectiveness of prior immune protection. METHODS:Children aged 9-14 years received 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Vaccination history, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers, and cell-mediated immune responses were assessed to investigate the cross-reactivity with past and future influenza virus strains. RESULTS:2010-2011 TIV induced significant T-cell responses and HI titers of ?160, with a fold-rise of ?4 and titers of ?100 maintained for >7 months in the majority of children. Pre-existing memory B cells in these children differentiated quickly to antibody-secreting cells to the new vaccine antigens. Children vaccinated in the previous year maintained high HI titers well into 2010, demonstrating elevated HI titers against A/Perth/16/2009, the future (in 2010-2011) H3N2 component. Prior vaccination enhanced CD8+ T-cell responses to A/Perth/16/2009. Children vaccinated with the prior 2009-2010 seasonal vaccine also demonstrated higher preexisting levels of interferon ?-secreting CD4+CD69+ T cells to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1). Children previously vaccinated with 2009-2010 seasonal influenza vaccine also showed greater expansion of tumor necrosis factor ?-secreting CD8+CD69+ T cells to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) upon vaccination in the 2010-2011 season than those who were not previously vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS:Seasonal influenza viruses continuously drift, which allows them to circumvent protective immunity, but conserved epitopes provide immunological cross-reactivity in children through either vaccination directly or through prime/boost in the prior influenza season.
Project description:Human influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated during the moderately severe 2014-2015 influenza season differed antigenically from the vaccine component, resulting in reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). To examine antibody responses to 2014-2015 inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among children and adolescents, we collected sera before and after vaccination from 150 children aged 3 to 17 years enrolled at health care facilities. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody responses to vaccine strains. We evaluated cross-reactive antibody responses against two representative A(H3N2) viruses that had antigenically drifted from the A(H3N2) vaccine component using microneutralization (MN) assays. Postvaccination antibody titers to drifted A(H3N2) viruses were higher following receipt of IIV (MN geometric mean titers [GMTs], 63 to 68; 38 to 45% achieved seroconversion) versus LAIV (MN GMT, 22; only 3 to 5% achieved seroconversion). In 9- to 17-year-olds, the highest MN titers were observed among IIV-vaccinated individuals who had received LAIV in the previous season. Among all IIV recipients aged 3 to 17 years, the strongest predictor of antibody responses to the drifted viruses was the prevaccination titers to the vaccine strain. The results of our study suggest that in an antigenically drifted influenza season, vaccination still induced cross-reactive antibody responses to drifted circulating A(H3N2) viruses, although higher antibody titers may be required for protection. Antibody responses to drifted A(H3N2) viruses following vaccination were influenced by multiple factors, including vaccine type and preexisting immunity from prior exposure.
Project description:Despite the annual public health burden of seasonal influenza and the continuing threat of a global pandemic posed by the emergence of highly pathogenic/pandemic strains, conventional influenza vaccines do not provide universal protection, and exhibit suboptimal efficacy rates, even when they are well matched to circulating strains. To address the need for a highly effective universal influenza vaccine, we have developed a novel M2-deficient single replication vaccine virus (M2SR) that induces strong cross-protective immunity against multiple influenza strains in mice. M2SR is able to infect cells and expresses all viral proteins except M2, but is unable to generate progeny virus. M2SR generated from influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) protected mice against lethal challenge with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1, homosubtypic) and influenza A/Aichi/2/1968 (H3N2, heterosubtypic). The vaccine induced strong systemic and mucosal antibody responses of both IgA and IgG classes. Strong virus-specific T cell responses were also induced. Following heterologous challenge, significant numbers of IFN-?-producing CD8 T cells, with effector or effector/memory phenotypes and specific for conserved viral epitopes, were observed in the lungs of vaccinated mice. A substantial proportion of the CD8 T cells expressed Granzyme B, suggesting that they were capable of killing virus-infected cells. Thus, our data suggest that M2-deficient influenza viruses represent a promising new approach for developing a universal influenza vaccine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza vaccine effectiveness was low in 2017-2018, yet circulating influenza A(H3N2) viruses were antigenically similar to cell-grown vaccine strains. Notably, most influenza vaccines are egg propagated. METHODS:Serum specimens were collected shortly after illness onset from 15 influenza A(H3N2) virus-infected cases and 15 uninfected hospitalized adults. Geometric mean titers against egg- and cell-grown influenza A/Hong Kong/4801/2014(H3N2) virus vaccine strains and representative circulating viruses (including A/Washington/16/2017) were determined by a microneutralization (MN) assay. Independent effects of strain-specific titers on susceptibility were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS:MN titers against egg-grown influenza A/Hong Kong virus were significantly higher among vaccinated individuals (173 vs 41; P = 0.01). In unadjusted models, a 2-fold increase in titers against egg-grown influenza A/Hong Kong virus was not significantly protective (29% reduction; P = .09), but a similar increase in the cell-grown influenza A/Washington virus antibody titer (3C.2a2) was protective (60% reduction; P = .02). Higher egg-grown influenza A/Hong Kong virus titers were not significantly associated with infection, when adjusted for antibody titers against influenza A/Washington virus (15% reduction; P = .61). A 54% reduction in the odds of infection was observed with a 2-fold increase in titer against influenza A/Washington virus (P = not significant), adjusted for the titer against egg-grown influenza A/Hong Kong virus titer. CONCLUSION:Individuals vaccinated in 2017-2018 had high antibody titers against the egg-adapted vaccine strain and lower titers against circulating viruses. Titers against circulating but not egg-adapted strains were correlated with protection.