The impact of non-genetic and genetic factors on a stable warfarin dose in Thai patients.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of non-genetic and genetic factors on the variability of stable warfarin doses in Thai patients.A total of 250 Thai patients with stable warfarin doses were enrolled in the study. Demographics and clinical data, e.g., age, body mass index, indications for warfarin and concomitant medications, were documented. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622, and UGT1A1 rs887829 genes were detected from gDNA using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays.The patients with variant genotypes of VKORC1 - 1639G > A required significantly lower warfarin stable weekly doses (SWDs) than those with wild-type genotype (p < 0.001). Similarly, the patients with CYP2C9*3 variant allele required significantly lower warfarin SWDs than those with homozygous wild-type (p = 0.006). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the SWDs between the patients who carried variant alleles of CYP4F2 rs2108622 and UGT1A1 rs887829 as compared to wild-type allele carriers. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that CYP4F2 rs2108622 TT genotype accounted for a modest part of warfarin dose variability (1.2%). In contrast, VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622 genotypes and non-genetic factors accounted for 51.3% of dose variability.VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 rs2108622 polymorphisms together with age, body mass index, antiplatelet drug use, amiodarone use, and current smoker status explained 51.3% of individual variability in stable warfarin doses. In contrast, the UGT1A1 rs887829 polymorphism did not contribute to dose variability.
Project description:AIMS:To investigate the influence of polymorphisms in CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and F2 genes on warfarin dose-response and develop a model including genetic and non-genetic factors for warfarin dose prediction needed for each patient. METHODS:A total of 279 patients of European ancestry on warfarin medication were investigated. Genotypes for -1639G>A, 1173C>T, and 3730G>A SNPs in the VKORC1 gene, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, 1347C>T in the CYP4F2 gene and 494C>T in the F2 gene were determined by allelic discrimination with Taqman 5'-nuclease assays. RESULTS:The CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene, -1639G>A and 1173C>T in the VKORC1 gene and 494C>T in the F2 gene are responsible for lower anticoagulant doses. In contrast, 1347C>T in the CYP4F2 gene and 3730G>A in the VKORC1 gene are responsible for higher doses of warfarin. An algorithm including genetic, biological and pharmacological factors that explains 63.3% of warfarin dose variation was developed. CONCLUSION:The model suggested has one of the highest coefficients of determination among those described in the literature.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate whether the VKORC1*3 (rs7294/9041 G?>?A), VKORC1*4 (rs17708472/6009 C?>?T), and CYP4F2 (rs2108622/1347 C?>?T) polymorphisms were associated with elevated warfarin maintenance dose requirements in patients with myocardial infarction (n = 105) from the Warfarin Aspirin Reinfarction Study (WARIS-II). We found significant associations between elevated warfarin dose requirements and VKORC1*3 and VKORC1*4 polymorphisms (P = .001 and P = .004, resp.), whereas CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T) showed a weak association on higher warfarin dose requirements (P = .09). However, analysing these variant alleles in a regression analysis together with our previously reported data on VKORC1*2, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, gave no significant associations for neither VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4 nor CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T). In conclusion, in patients with myocardial infarction, the individual contribution to warfarin dose requirements from VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4, and CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T) polymorphisms was negligible. Our results indicate that pharmacogenetic testing for VKORC1*2, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 is more informative regarding warfarin dose requirements than testing for VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4, and CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T) polymorphisms.
Project description:WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Genetic polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are known to influence warfarin dosage. * Recent studies among Caucasians showed that polymorphisms of CYP4F2 also play a role in warfarin pharmacogenetics. * The contribution of CYP4F2 variants to the variability inwarfarin dose requirement in Chinese subjects remains to be investigated. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * This research was to study the effect of CYP4F2 variants on warfarin requirements in the Han Chinese population. * This study developed a multiple regression model including CYP2C9, VKORC1 3673G>A, CYP4F2 genotypes and age, weight, combination use of amiodarone which could explain 56.1% of the individual variability in warfarin dose CYP4F2 could explain 4% of the variance in warfarin dose. * We found that one novel genotypic polymorphism 5417G>T for Asp36Tyr, which was identified as an important marker of warfarin resistance, was absent in the Han Chinese population in our study. AIMS The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the CYP4F2 on the daily stable warfarin dose requirement in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement (MHVR). METHODS From March 2007 to November 2008, 222 Han Chinese MHVR patients were recruited in our study. VKORC1 3673G>A, 5417G>T, CYP2C9*3 and CYP4F2 rs2108622 were genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Polymorphisms of VKORC1 9041G>A were detected by direct sequencing. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the contribution of CYP4F2. RESULTS The CYP4F2 rs2108622 CT/TT group took a significantly higher stable warfarin dose (3.2 mg day(-1)) than the CC group (2.9 mg day(-1), 95% CI 0.2, 1.0, P= 0.033). The multiple linear regression model included VKORC1 3673G>A, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 genotypes and clinical characteristics. The model could explain 56.1% of the variance in stable warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with MHVR. CYP4F2 contributed about 4% to the variance in the warfarin dose. There was no variation in the SNPs of VKORC1 5417G>T. CONCLUSION CYP4F2 is a minor significant factor of individual variability in the stable warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with MHVR. The effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on variability in the stable warfarin dose had also been confirmed.
Project description:AIM:To determine whether VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 genotypes contribute to warfarin therapy in patients during initiation and maintenance anticoagulation treatment after heart valve surgery. METHODS:287 Chinese patients with warfarin treatment more than three month after heart valve replacement operations were enrolled. Blood was collected from each subject for DNA extraction and genotyping. Analyzing the relationship between genotypes and warfarin curative effect. RESULTS:Their mean age was 48.0 ± 10.5 years old. During the initiation phase, the growth rate of INR was partial correlated with VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650, respectively. Compared with AG or GG genotypes of VKORC1 c.-1639 carriers, patients with VKORC1 c.-1639AA reached target INR therapeutic range faster (P<0.001) and has a high risk of overanticoagulation (P<0.001). Carriers of at least one CYP2C9 *3 allele reached the target INR therapeutic range and supra-therapeutic INR were faster than CYP2C9 wild-type carriers (P=0.032, P=0.032, respectively). CYP4F2 rs2108622 could significantly influence on time to the target INR therapeutic range and time to INR above 3.0 after hierarchical analysis with VKORC1, CYP2C9 and ORM1 (P=0.011, P=0.044, respectively). VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650 were significantly influence the %TTR in three months (P=0.031, P=0.008, P=0.001, respectively). During the maintenance phase, VKORC1 c.-1639AA carriers spent more time at supra-therapeutic INRs (P<0.001). CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 gene variants did not affect outcome parameters in maintenance phase. CONCLUSIONS:This study found that genetic factors could significantly affected on warfarin therapy in Chinese. Meanwhile, genetic variations play a more important role in the initial phase than did in maintenance phase of warfarin therapy.
Project description:The effects of genetic variants on warfarin dosing vary among different ethnic groups, especially in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to recruit patients through a rigorous experimental design and to perform a comprehensive screen to identify gene polymorphisms that may influence warfarin dosing in northern Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Consenting patients (n?=?183) with a stable warfarin dose were included in this study. Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 genes involved in warfarin pharmacological pathways were genotyped using the Illumina SNP GoldenGate Assay, and their associations with warfarin dosing were assessed using univariate regression analysis with post hoc comparison using least significant difference analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed by incorporating patients' clinical and genetic data to create a new algorithm for warfarin dosing. From the 96 SNPs analyzed, VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP1A2 rs2069514, CYP3A4 rs28371759, and APOE rs7412 were associated with higher average warfarin maintenance doses, whereas CYP2C9 rs1057910, EPHX1 rs2260863, and CYP4F2 rs2189784 were associated with lower warfarin doses (P?<?0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis could estimate 44.4% of warfarin dose variability consisting of, in decreasing order, VKORC1 rs9923231 (14.2%), CYP2C9*3 (9.6%), body surface area (6.7%), CYP1A2 rs2069514 (3.7%), age (2.7%), CYP3A4 rs28371759 (2.5%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (1.9%), APOE rs7412 (1.7%), and VKORC1 rs2884737 (1.4%). In the dosing algorithm we developed, we confirmed the strongest effects of VKORC1, CYP2C9 on warfarin dosing. In the limited sample set, we also found that novel genetic predictors (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, APOE, EPHX1, CYP4F2, and VKORC1 rs2884737) may be associated with warfarin dosing. Further validation is needed to assess our results in larger independent northern Chinese samples.
Project description:CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are two major genetic factors associated with inter-individual variability in warfarin dose. Additionally, genes in the warfarin metabolism pathway have also been associated with dose variance. We analyzed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes to identify genetic factors that might confer warfarin sensitivity in Indonesian patients.Direct sequencing method was used to identify SNPs in CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1, PROC and GGCX genes in warfarin-treated patients. Multiple linear regressions were performed to model the relationship warfarin daily dose requirement with genetic and non-genetic variables measured and used to develop a novel algorithm for warfarin dosing.From the 40 SNPs analyzed, CYP2C9 rs17847036 and VKORC1 rs9923231 showed significant association with warfarin sensitivity. In our study population, no significant correlation could be detected between CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9C-65 (rs9332127), CYP4F2 rs2108622, GGCX rs12714145, EPHX1 rs4653436 and PROC rs1799809 with warfarin sensitivity.VKORC1 rs9923231 AA and CYP2C9 rs17847036 GG genotypes were associated with low dosage requirements of most patients (2.05 ± 0.77 mg/day and 2.09 ± 0.70 mg/day, respectively). CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants as well as non-genetic factors such as age, body weight and body height account for 15.4% of variance in warfarin dose among our study population. Additional analysis of this combination could allow for personalized warfarin treatment in ethnic Indonesians.
Project description:Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant that has a narrow therapeutic range because of both genetic and environmental factors. CYP2C9( *)2 (p.R144C), CYP2C9( *)3 (p.I359L), and the VKORC1 promoter (g.-1639G-->A) polymorphisms occur frequently in patients who are warfarin "sensitive" and require lower doses, whereas patients with VKORC1 missense mutations are warfarin "resistant" and require higher doses. To compare the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 allele and genotype frequencies among 260 Ashkenazi (AJ) and 80 Sephardi Jewish (SJ) individuals, we genotyped six CYP2C9 and eight VKORC1 alleles by using the Tag-It Mutation Detection Kit and PCR-RFLP assays. The "sensitive"CYP2C9( *)2 and ( *)3 alleles had significantly higher frequencies in SJ than in AJ individuals, 0.194 and 0.144 versus 0.127 and 0.081, respectively (p <or= 0.001). In contrast, the VKORC1 p.D36Y mutation, which predicts warfarin "resistance," had a significantly higher frequency in AJ than in SJ individuals, 0.043 versus 0.006, respectively (p <or= 0.025). Of note, 11.3% of AJ individuals predicted to be CYP2C9 extensive metabolizers and 8.7% of those predicted to be intermediate and poor metabolizers were VKORC1 p.D36Y carriers who require markedly higher warfarin doses. Thus, approximately 10% of all AJ individuals would be misclassified when only genotyping CYP2C9( *)2, ( *)3, and VKORC1 g.-1639G-->A, underscoring the importance of screening for p.D36Y prior to initiating warfarin anticoagulation in AJ individuals. Taken together, our findings show that approximately 85% of AJ and approximately 90% of SJ individuals have at least one "sensitive" (CYP2C9( *)2, ( *)3, VKORC1 g.-1639G-->A) or "resistant" (VKORC1 p.D36Y) allele, indicating that each group has different warfarin pharmacogenetics and would benefit from genotype-based dose predictions.
Project description:AIMS:CYP4F2*3 (p.V433M) has been associated with higher warfarin dose requirements; however, its frequency, like other CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants, has not been systematically assessed in major racial/ethnic populations. Thus, we determined the individual and combined frequencies of important CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 variants in several racial/ethnic groups. MATERIALS & METHODS:Healthy African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) blood donors were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *8, *11 and *13), VKORC1 (g.-1639G>A) and CYP4F2 (*3 [p.V433M] and rs2189784). RESULTS:The combined frequencies of variant CYP2C9 alleles were 0.133, 0.078, 0.212, 0.178 and 0.212 among African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, respectively. CYP4F2*3 frequencies were prevalent (0.233-0.342) among Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, while significantly less frequent among African-Americans (0.117; p < 0.0001). In addition, CYP4F2*3 was in linkage disequilibrium with rs2189784, an allele recently associated with time-to-therapeutic international normalized ratio, among all studied populations. Importantly, 87-95% of Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals had a variant CYP2C9, VKORC1 and/or CYP4F2*3 allele, compared with only 53% of African-Americans (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with other racial/ethnic populations studied, only approximately one in 80 African-Americans were CYP4F2*3 homozygous, indicating that this population would benefit less from dosing algorithms that include this variant. In addition, the unique allele frequency profiles identified among the different populations partly explain why genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms perform less well for African-Americans and suggest that other unidentified genetic and/or nongenetic factors that influence warfarin dosage may exist in this population.
Project description:Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n?=?551), warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%), CYP2C9*3(7.0%), body surface area(4.2%), age(2.7%), target INR(1.4%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%), amiodarone use(0.6%), diabetes mellitus(0.6%), and digoxin use(0.5%), which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n?=?236), the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r?=?0.609, P<0.001). Our algorithm could improve the personalized management of warfarin use in Northern Chinese patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Warfarin is a commonly used oral anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index and various genetic and clinical factors that influence interpatient variability in dose requirements. This study investigated the impact of genetic and nongenetic factors on warfarin dose requirements in Egyptians. METHODS:DNA was extracted from 207 patients taking warfarin for more than 2 months and genotyped for VKORC1 (3673 G>A), CYP2C9 *2*3*4*5*8, CYP4F2 (V33M; rs2108622), APOE (rs429358, rs7412), and CALU(rs339097) gene polymorphisms. Linear regression modeling was conducted to identify the genetic and nongenetic factors that independently influence warfarin dose requirements. RESULTS:VKORC1 3673 AA or GA genotype (P<0.0001), one or two variant alleles of CYP2C9 gene (P=0.0004), APOE ?2 haplotype (P=0.01), and increasing age (P<0.0001) were all associated with lower warfarin dose, whereas smoking (P=0.025) and pulmonary embolism (P=0.0059) showed association with higher warfarin doses. These factors explained 31% of the warfarin dose variability. This is the first independent confirmation of the association of the CALU rs339097 variant with higher warfarin dose requirement, although inclusion of this single nucleotide polymorphism in the multiple regression model failed to achieve significance (P=0.066). CYP4F2 (V33M) polymorphism was not significant (P=0.314), despite its high frequency in the studied population (42%). CONCLUSION:The study shows that VKORC1, CYP2C9 polymorphisms, APOE ?2 variant, and several clinical/demographic variables are important determinants of warfarin dose requirements in Egyptian patients. The percentage of variability explained by these factors is lower than in those of European ancestry, but similar to the variability explained in Asians and African ancestry.