Scaffolding of long read assemblies using long range contact information.
ABSTRACT: Long read technologies have revolutionized de novo genome assembly by generating contigs orders of magnitude longer than that of short read assemblies. Although assembly contiguity has increased, it usually does not reconstruct a full chromosome or an arm of the chromosome, resulting in an unfinished chromosome level assembly. To increase the contiguity of the assembly to the chromosome level, different strategies are used which exploit long range contact information between chromosomes in the genome.We develop a scalable and computationally efficient scaffolding method that can boost the assembly contiguity to a large extent using genome-wide chromatin interaction data such as Hi-C.we demonstrate an algorithm that uses Hi-C data for longer-range scaffolding of de novo long read genome assemblies. We tested our methods on the human and goat genome assemblies. We compare our scaffolds with the scaffolds generated by LACHESIS based on various metrics.Our new algorithm SALSA produces more accurate scaffolds compared to the existing state of the art method LACHESIS.
Project description:The genus Rhododendron (Ericaceae), which includes horticulturally important plants such as azaleas, is a highly diverse and widely distributed genus of >1,000 species. Here, we report the chromosome-scale de novo assembly and genome annotation of Rhododendron williamsianum as a basis for continued study of this large genus. We created multiple short fragment genomic libraries, which were assembled using ALLPATHS-LG. This was followed by contiguity preserving transposase sequencing (CPT-seq) and fragScaff scaffolding of a large fragment library, which improved the assembly by decreasing the number of scaffolds and increasing scaffold length. Chromosome-scale scaffolding was performed by proximity-guided assembly (LACHESIS) using chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) data. Chromosome-scale scaffolding was further refined and linkage groups defined by restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of the parents and progeny of a genetic cross. The resulting linkage map confirmed the LACHESIS clustering and ordering of scaffolds onto chromosomes and rectified large-scale inversions. Assessments of the R. williamsianum genome assembly and gene annotation estimate them to be 89% and 79% complete, respectively. Predicted coding sequences from genome annotation were used in syntenic analyses and for generating age distributions of synonymous substitutions/site between paralgous gene pairs, which identified whole-genome duplications (WGDs) in R. williamsianum. We then analyzed other publicly available Ericaceae genomes for shared WGDs. Based on our spatial and temporal analyses of paralogous gene pairs, we find evidence for two shared, ancient WGDs in Rhododendron and Vaccinium (cranberry/blueberry) members that predate the Ericaceae family and, in one case, the Ericales order.
Project description:<h4>Motivation</h4>Long read sequencing and Bionano Genomics optical maps are two techniques that, when used together, make it possible to reconstruct entire chromosome or chromosome arms structure. However, the existing tools are often too conservative and organization of contigs into scaffolds is not always optimal.<h4>Results</h4>We developed BiSCoT (Bionano SCaffolding COrrection Tool), a tool that post-processes files generated during a Bionano scaffolding in order to produce an assembly of greater contiguity and quality. BiSCoT was tested on a human genome and four publicly available plant genomes sequenced with Nanopore long reads and improved significantly the contiguity and quality of the assemblies. BiSCoT generates a fasta file of the assembly as well as an AGP file which describes the new organization of the input assembly.<h4>Availability</h4>BiSCoT and improved assemblies are freely available on GitHub at http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/biscot and Pypi at https://pypi.org/project/biscot/.
Project description:Long-read sequencing can overcome the weaknesses of short reads in the assembly of eukaryotic genomes; however, at present additional scaffolding is needed to achieve chromosome-level assemblies. We generated Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) long-read data of the genomes of three relatives of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and assembled all three genomes into only a few hundred contigs. To improve the contiguities of these assemblies, we generated BioNano Genomics optical mapping and Dovetail Genomics chromosome conformation capture data for genome scaffolding. Despite their technical differences, optical mapping and chromosome conformation capture performed similarly and doubled N50 values. After improving both integration methods, assembly contiguity reached chromosome-arm-levels. We rigorously assessed the quality of contigs and scaffolds using Illumina mate-pair libraries and genetic map information. This showed that PacBio assemblies have high sequence accuracy but can contain several misassemblies, which join unlinked regions of the genome. Most, but not all, of these misjoints were removed during the integration of the optical mapping and chromosome conformation capture data. Even though none of the centromeres were fully assembled, the scaffolds revealed large parts of some centromeric regions, even including some of the heterochromatic regions, which are not present in gold standard reference sequences.
Project description:Genomes assembled de novo from short reads are highly fragmented relative to the finished chromosomes of Homo sapiens and key model organisms generated by the Human Genome Project. To address this problem, we need scalable, cost-effective methods to obtain assemblies with chromosome-scale contiguity. Here we show that genome-wide chromatin interaction data sets, such as those generated by Hi-C, are a rich source of long-range information for assigning, ordering and orienting genomic sequences to chromosomes, including across centromeres. To exploit this finding, we developed an algorithm that uses Hi-C data for ultra-long-range scaffolding of de novo genome assemblies. We demonstrate the approach by combining shotgun fragment and short jump mate-pair sequences with Hi-C data to generate chromosome-scale de novo assemblies of the human, mouse and Drosophila genomes, achieving--for the human genome--98% accuracy in assigning scaffolds to chromosome groups and 99% accuracy in ordering and orienting scaffolds within chromosome groups. Hi-C data can also be used to validate chromosomal translocations in cancer genomes.
Project description:We describe a method that exploits contiguity preserving transposase sequencing (CPT-seq) to facilitate the scaffolding of de novo genome assemblies. CPT-seq is an entirely in vitro means of generating libraries comprised of 9216 indexed pools, each of which contains thousands of sparsely sequenced long fragments ranging from 5 kilobases to > 1 megabase. These pools are "subhaploid," in that the lengths of fragments contained in each pool sums to ?5% to 10% of the full genome. The scaffolding approach described here, termed fragScaff, leverages coincidences between the content of different pools as a source of contiguity information. Specifically, CPT-seq data is mapped to a de novo genome assembly, followed by the identification of pairs of contigs or scaffolds whose ends disproportionately co-occur in the same indexed pools, consistent with true adjacency in the genome. Such candidate "joins" are used to construct a graph, which is then resolved by a minimum spanning tree. As a proof-of-concept, we apply CPT-seq and fragScaff to substantially boost the contiguity of de novo assemblies of the human, mouse, and fly genomes, increasing the scaffold N50 of de novo assemblies by eight- to 57-fold with high accuracy. We also demonstrate that fragScaff is complementary to Hi-C-based contact probability maps, providing midrange contiguity to support robust, accurate chromosome-scale de novo genome assemblies without the need for laborious in vivo cloning steps. Finally, we demonstrate CPT-seq as a means of anchoring unplaced novel human contigs to the reference genome as well as for detecting misassembled sequences.
Project description:Scaffolding genomes into complete chromosome assemblies remains challenging even with the rapidly increasing sequence coverage generated by current next-generation sequence technologies. Even with scaffolding information, many genome assemblies remain incomplete. The genome of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a fish model system in evolutionary genetics and genomics, is not completely assembled despite scaffolding with high-density linkage maps. Here, we first test the ability of a Hi-C based proximity-guided assembly (PGA) to perform a de novo genome assembly from relatively short contigs. Using Hi-C based PGA, we generated complete chromosome assemblies from a distribution of short contigs (20-100 kb). We found that 96.40% of contigs were correctly assigned to linkage groups (LGs), with ordering nearly identical to the previous genome assembly. Using available bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, we provide evidence that some of the few discrepancies between the Hi-C assembly and the existing assembly are due to structural variation between the populations used for the 2 assemblies or errors in the existing assembly. This Hi-C assembly also allowed us to improve the existing assembly, assigning over 60% (13.35 Mb) of the previously unassigned (~21.7 Mb) contigs to LGs. Together, our results highlight the potential of the Hi-C based PGA method to be used in combination with short read data to perform relatively inexpensive de novo genome assemblies. This approach will be particularly useful in organisms in which it is difficult to perform linkage mapping or to obtain high molecular weight DNA required for other scaffolding methods.
Project description:Ever decreasing costs along with advances in sequencing and library preparation technologies enable even small research groups to generate chromosome-level assemblies today. Here we report the generation of an improved chromosome-level assembly for the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) that was carried out during a practical university master's course. The Siamese fighting fish is a popular aquarium fish and an emerging model species for research on aggressive behavior. We updated the current genome assembly by generating a new long-read nanopore-based assembly with subsequent scaffolding to chromosome-level using previously published Hi-C data. The use of ?35x nanopore-based long-read data sequenced on a MinION platform (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) allowed us to generate a baseline assembly of only 1,276 contigs with a contig N50 of 2.1 Mbp, and a total length of 441 Mbp. Scaffolding using the Hi-C data resulted in 109 scaffolds with a scaffold N50 of 20.7 Mbp. More than 99% of the assembly is comprised in 21 scaffolds. The assembly showed the presence of 96.1% complete BUSCO genes from the Actinopterygii dataset indicating a high quality of the assembly. We present an improved full chromosome-level assembly of the Siamese fighting fish generated during a university master's course. The use of ?35× long-read nanopore data drastically improved the baseline assembly in terms of continuity. We show that relatively in-expensive high-throughput sequencing technologies such as the long-read MinION sequencing platform can be used in educational settings allowing the students to gain practical skills in modern genomics and generate high quality results that benefit downstream research projects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The long-range sequencing information captured by linked reads, such as those available from 10× Genomics (10xG), helps resolve genome sequence repeats, and yields accurate and contiguous draft genome assemblies. We introduce ARKS, an alignment-free linked read genome scaffolding methodology that uses linked reads to organize genome assemblies further into contiguous drafts. Our approach departs from other read alignment-dependent linked read scaffolders, including our own (ARCS), and uses a kmer-based mapping approach. The kmer mapping strategy has several advantages over read alignment methods, including better usability and faster processing, as it precludes the need for input sequence formatting and draft sequence assembly indexing. The reliance on kmers instead of read alignments for pairing sequences relaxes the workflow requirements, and drastically reduces the run time. RESULTS:Here, we show how linked reads, when used in conjunction with Hi-C data for scaffolding, improve a draft human genome assembly of PacBio long-read data five-fold (baseline vs. ARKS NG50?=?4.6 vs. 23.1 Mbp, respectively). We also demonstrate how the method provides further improvements of a megabase-scale Supernova human genome assembly (NG50?=?14.74 Mbp vs. 25.94 Mbp before and after ARKS), which itself exclusively uses linked read data for assembly, with an execution speed six to nine times faster than competitive linked read scaffolders (~?10.5 h compared to 75.7 h, on average). Following ARKS scaffolding of a human genome 10xG Supernova assembly (of cell line NA12878), fewer than 9 scaffolds cover each chromosome, except the largest (chromosome 1, n?=?13). CONCLUSIONS:ARKS uses a kmer mapping strategy instead of linked read alignments to record and associate the barcode information needed to order and orient draft assembly sequences. The simplified workflow, when compared to that of our initial implementation, ARCS, markedly improves run time performances on experimental human genome datasets. Furthermore, the novel distance estimator in ARKS utilizes barcoding information from linked reads to estimate gap sizes. It accomplishes this by modeling the relationship between known distances of a region within contigs and calculating associated Jaccard indices. ARKS has the potential to provide correct, chromosome-scale genome assemblies, promptly. We expect ARKS to have broad utility in helping refine draft genomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Scaffolding is an essential step in the genome assembly process. Current methods based on large fragment paired-end reads or long reads allow an increase in contiguity but often lack consistency in repetitive regions, resulting in fragmented assemblies. Here, we describe a novel tool to link assemblies to a genome map to aid complex genome reconstruction by detecting assembly errors and allowing scaffold ordering and anchoring. RESULTS:We present MaGuS (map-guided scaffolding), a modular tool that uses a draft genome assembly, a Whole Genome Profiling™ (WGP) map, and high-throughput paired-end sequencing data to estimate the quality and to enhance the contiguity of an assembly. We generated several assemblies of the Arabidopsis genome using different scaffolding programs and applied MaGuS to select the best assembly using quality metrics. Then, we used MaGuS to perform map-guided scaffolding to increase contiguity by creating new scaffold links in low-covered and highly repetitive regions where other commonly used scaffolding methods lack consistency. CONCLUSIONS:MaGuS is a powerful reference-free evaluator of assembly quality and a WGP map-guided scaffolder that is freely available at https://github.com/institut-de-genomique/MaGuS. Its use can be extended to other high-throughput sequencing data (e.g., long-read data) and also to other map data (e.g., genetic maps) to improve the quality and the contiguity of large and complex genome assemblies.
Project description:The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly.We used a combination of advanced genomic technologies to iteratively resolve conflicts and super-scaffold the M. murinus genome.We improved the M. murinus genome assembly to a scaffold N50 of 93.32 Mb. Whole genome alignments between our primary super-scaffolds and 23 human chromosomes revealed patterns that are congruent with historical comparative cytogenetic data, thus demonstrating the accuracy of our de novo scaffolding approach and allowing assignment of scaffolds to M. murinus chromosomes. Moreover, we utilized our independent datasets to discover and characterize sequences associated with centromeres across the mouse lemur genome. Quality assessment of the final assembly found 96% of mouse lemur canonical transcripts nearly complete, comparable to other published high-quality reference genome assemblies.We describe a new assembly of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome with chromosome-scale scaffolds produced using a hybrid bioinformatic and sequencing approach. The approach is cost effective and produces superior results based on metrics of contiguity and completeness. Our results show that emerging genomic technologies can be used in combination to characterize centromeres of non-model species and to produce accurate de novo chromosome-scale genome assemblies of complex mammalian genomes.