Comparison of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior in Two Similar Ferritic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys.
ABSTRACT: The ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) behavior of two similar Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) stainless steels was analyzed following the Cottrell-Petch model. Both alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) but by different forming routes. One was manufactured as hot rolled tube, and the other in the form of hot extruded bar. The two hot forming routes considered do not significantly influence the microstructure, but cause differences in the texture and the distribution of oxide particles. These have little influence on tensile properties; however, the DBT temperature and the upper shelf energy (USE) are significantly affected because of delamination orientation with regard to the notch plane. Whereas in hot rolled material the delaminations are parallel to the rolling surface, in the hot extruded material, they are randomly oriented because the material is transversally isotropic.
Project description:Fe-based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are oriented to applications where high operating temperatures and good corrosion resistance is paramount. However, their use is compromised by their fracture toughness, which is lower than other competing ferritic-martenstic steels. In addition, the route required in manufacturing these alloys generates texture in the material, which induces a strong anisotropy in properties. The V-notched Charpy tests carried out on these alloys, to evaluate their impact toughness, reveal that delaminations do not follow the path that would be expected. There are many hypotheses about what triggers these delaminations, but the most accepted is that the joint action of particles in the grain boundaries, texture induced in the manufacturing process, and the actual microstructure of these alloys are responsible. In this paper we focused on the actual role of crystallographic texture on impact toughness in these materials. A finite elements simulation is carried out to solely analyze the role of texture and eliminate other factors, such as grain boundaries and the dispersed particles. The work allows us to conclude that crystallographic texture plays an important role in the distribution of stresses in the Charpy specimens. The observed delaminations might be explained on the basis that the crack in the grain, causing the delamination, is directly related to the shear stresses τ12 on both sides of the grain boundary, while the main crack propagation is a consequence of the normal stress to the crack.
Project description:Severe plastic deformation (SPD) has led to the discovery of ever stronger materials, either by bulk modification or by surface deformation under sliding contact. These processes increase the strength of an alloy through the transformation of the deformation substructure into submicrometric grains or twins. Here, surface SPD was induced by plastic deformation under frictional contact with a spherical tool in a hot rolled CuAlBe-shape memory alloy. This created a microstructure consisting of a few course martensite variants and ultrafine intersecting bands of secondary martensite and/or austenite, increasing the nanohardness of hot-rolled material from 2.6 to 10.3 GPa. In as-cast material the increase was from 2.4 to 5 GPa. The friction coefficient and surface damage were significantly higher in the hot rolled condition. Metallographic evidence showed that hot rolling was not followed by recrystallisation. This means that a remaining dislocation substructure can lock the martensite and impedes back-transformation to austenite. In the as-cast material, a very fine but softer austenite microstructure was found. The observed difference in properties provides an opportunity to fine-tune the process either for optimal wear resistance or for maximum surface hardness. The modified hot-rolled material possesses the highest hardness obtained to date in nanostructured non-ferrous alloys.
Project description:In this work, a near ?-type Ti5.1Al2.5Cr0.5Fe4.5Mo1.1Sn1.8Zr2.9Zn alloy was hot-rolled at the temperature of 800-880 °C with a thickness reduction of 87.5% and then heat-treated with the strategy of 880 °C/1 h/air cooling (AC) + 650 °C/3 h/AC. The microstructure difference between the hot-rolled and heat-treated titanium alloys and its influence on the ballistic impact behavior of the hot-rolled and heat-treated titanium alloys were analyzed. The microstructural investigation revealed that the average size of the acicular secondary ? phase (?s) dropped from 75 to 42 nm, and the corresponding amount of this phase increased significantly after heat treatment. In addition, the dislocation density of the ? and ? phases decreased from 0.3340 × 1015/m2 and 4.6746 × 1015/m2 for the hot-rolled titanium alloy plate to 0.2806 × 1015/m2 and 1.8050 × 1015/m2 for the heat-treated one, respectively. The high strength of the heat-treated titanium alloy was maintained, owing to the positive contribution of the acicular secondary ? phase. Furthermore, the critical fracture strain increased sharply from 19.9% for the hot-rolled titanium alloy plate to 23.1% for the heat-treated one, thereby overcoming (to some extent) the constraint of the strength-ductility trade-off. This is mainly attributed to the fact that the dislocation density and the difference between the dislocation densities of the ? and ? phases decreased substantially, and deformation localization was effectively suppressed after heat treatment. Damage to the hot-rolled and heat-treated titanium alloy plates after the penetration of a 7.62 mm ordinary steel core projectile at a distance of 100 m was assessed via industrial computer tomography and microstructure observation. The results revealed that a large crack (volume: 2.55 mm3) occurred on the rear face and propagated toward the interior of the hot-rolled titanium alloy plate. The crack tip was connected to a long adiabatic shear band with a depth of 3 mm along the thickness direction. However, good integrity of the heat-treated titanium alloy plate was maintained, owing to its excellent deformation capability. Ultimately, the failure mechanism of the hot-rolled and heat-treated titanium alloy plates was revealed by determining the crack-forming reasons in these materials.
Project description:As more manufacturing processes and research institutions adopt customized manufacturing as a key element in their design strategies and finished products, the resulting mechanical properties of parts produced through additive manufacturing (AM) must be characterized and understood. In material extrusion (MatEx), the most recently extruded polymer filament must bond to the previously extruded filament via polymer diffusion to form a "weld". The strength of the weld limits the performance of the manufactured part and is controlled through processing conditions. Under-standing the role of processing conditions, specifically extruder velocity and extruder temperature, on the overall strength of the weld will allow optimization of MatEx-AM parts. Here, the fracture toughness of a single weld is determined through a facile "trouser tear" Mode III fracture experiment. The actual weld thickness is observed directly by optical microscopy characterization of cross sections of MatEx-AM samples. Representative data of weld strength as a function of printing parameters on a commercial 3D printer demonstrates the robustness of the method.
Project description:Additively manufactured (AM) materials and hot rolled materials are typically orthotropic, and exhibit anisotropic elastic properties. This paper elucidates the anisotropic elastic properties (Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio) of Ti6Al4V alloy in four different conditions: three AM (by selective laser melting, SLM, electron beam melting, EBM, and directed energy deposition, DED, processes) and one wrought alloy (for comparison). A specially designed polygon sample allowed measurement of 12 sound wave velocities (SWVs), employing the dynamic pulse-echo ultrasonic technique. In conjunction with the measured density values, these SWVs enabled deriving of the tensor of elastic constants (<i>C</i><sub>ij</sub>) and the three-dimensional (3D) Young's moduli maps. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and micro-computed tomography (μCT) were employed to characterize the grain size and orientation as well as porosity and other defects which could explain the difference in the measured elastic constants of the four materials. All three types of AM materials showed only minor anisotropy. The wrought (hot rolled) alloy exhibited the highest density, virtually pore-free μCT images, and the highest ultrasonic anisotropy and polarity behavior. EBSD analysis revealed that a thin β-phase layer that formed along the elongated grain boundaries caused the ultrasonic polarity behavior. The finding that the elastic properties depend on the manufacturing process and on the angle relative to either the rolling direction or the AM build direction should be taken into account in the design of products. The data reported herein is valuable for materials selection and finite element analyses in mechanical design. The pulse-echo measurement procedure employed in this study may be further adapted and used for quality control of AM materials and parts.
Project description:Defects in electron beam melting (EBM) manufactured Alloy 718 are inevitable to some extent, and are of concern as they can degrade mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, EBM-manufactured Alloy 718 is typically subjected to post-treatment to improve the properties of the as-built material. Although hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) is usually employed to close the defects, it is widely known that HIPing cannot close open-to-surface defects. Therefore, in this work, a hypothesis is formulated that if the surface of the EBM-manufactured specimen is suitably coated to encapsulate the EBM-manufactured specimen, then HIPing can be effective in healing such surface-connected defects. The EBM-manufactured Alloy 718 specimens were coated by high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) spraying using Alloy 718 powder prior to HIPing to evaluate the above approach. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) analysis of the defects in the same coated sample before and after HIPing showed that some of the defects connected to the EBM specimen surface were effectively encapsulated by the coating, as they were closed after HIPing. However, some of these surface-connected defects were retained. The reason for such remnant defects is attributed to the presence of interconnected pathways between the ambient and the original as-built surface of the EBM specimen, as the specimens were not coated on all sides. These pathways were also exaggerated by the high surface roughness of the EBM material and could have provided an additional path for argon infiltration, apart from the uncoated sides, thereby hindering complete densification of the specimen during HIPing.
Project description:The objective was to modify functional properties of breadfruit flours using twin-screw extrusion and test the physicochemical properties of the extruded flours. Extruded breadfruit flours were produced with twin-screw extrusion using different last barrel temperature (80 °C or 120 °C) and feed moisture content (17% or 30%). These conditions resulted in four extruded flours with different mechanical (specific mechanical energy, SME) and thermal (melt temperature) energies. At temperatures below the gelatinization of the native starch (<70 °C), swelling power was increased in all extruded treatments. Solubility was dramatically increased in high-SME extruded flours at all tested temperatures. Water holding capacity was dramatically increased in the low-SME extruded flours. A two-fold higher cold peak viscosity was obtained for low SME-high temperature extruded flour compared with the other extruded flours. Low SME-low temperature extruded flour still exhibited a hot peak viscosity, which occurred earlier than in native flour. Setback was decreased in all extruded flours, especially in high-SME treatments. The incorporation of extruded flours into soy protein gels did not affect cooking loss, while hardness and springiness decreased with the addition of extruded flours. Overall, extrusion of breadfruit flour altered functional flour properties, including water holding capacity and pasting properties, and modified the texture of soy protein gels.
Project description:Zinc (Zn) matrix composite has been newly discovered categories of biodegradable materials. With a combination of chemical stability, thermal stability and biocompatibility, ceramic nanoparticles outperformed intermetallics of zinc alloys with inherent advantages of retaining a proper corrosion rate and an exceptional ductility. Compared with Zn alloys, Zn matrix nanocomposites showed an unprecedented strengthening without sacrifices of corrosion rate, which were introduced by intermetallics. In this work, in situ titanium diboride (TiB<sub>2</sub>) reinforced Zn nanocomposite was prepared via a few cost-effective and economical methods: flux-assisted synthesis (FAS), ultrasound-assisted nanoparticle homogenization and hot rolling. 3 vol.% of TiB<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles were synthesized with an average size of 454nm, followed by molten salt assisted ultrasound homogenization and hot rolling. Hot-rolled (HR) Zn-TiB<sub>2</sub> performed high strength and high ductility, mostly due to precipitation strengthening (Orowan strengthening). Yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) increased by 90% and 45%, respectively, while the elongation to failure retained 23%. The mechanical performance of Zn-TiB<sub>2</sub> made it promise to serve as an innovative biodegradable material for load-bearing applications.
Project description:The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of hot⁻rolled Mg⁻xSn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca (x = 1, 3 and 5 wt.%) alloys were investigated for possible application as biodegradable implants. The hot⁻rolled Mg⁻xSn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca alloys consisted of α-Mg matrix and Mg₂Sn phase. The number of the Mg₂Sn particles significantly increased and the grains were gradually refined (14.2 ± 1.5, ~10.7 ± 0.7 and ~6.6 ± 1.1 μm), while the recrystallized fraction significantly decreased with the increase in the Sn content, the Mg⁻1Sn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca alloy was almost completely recrystallized. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile yield strength (TYS) increased slightly, reaching maximum values of 247 MPa and 116 MPa, respectively, for the Mg⁻5Sn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca alloy, and the elongation decreased with the increase in the Sn content; the Mg⁻1Sn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca alloy showed the highest elongation (15.3%). In addition, immersion tests and electrochemical measurements in Hank's solution revealed that the corrosion rates of Mg⁻xSn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca alloys increased with the increase in the Sn content. A model of the corrosion behavior was discussed for hot⁻rolled Mg⁻xSn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca alloys in Hank's solution. Among the Mg⁻xSn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca (x = 1, 3 and 5 wt.%) alloys, Mg⁻1Sn⁻1Zn⁻0.5Ca alloy exhibits optimal corrosion resistance and appropriate mechanical properties.
Project description:Material properties of implants such as volume porosity and nanoscale surface modification have been shown to enhance cell-material interactions in vitro and osseointegration in vivo. Porous tantalum (Ta) and titanium (Ti) coatings are widely used for non-cemented implants, which are fabricated using different processing routes. In recent years, some of those implants are being manufactured using additive manufacturing. However, limited knowledge is available on direct comparison of additively manufactured porous Ta and Ti structures towards early stage osseointegration. In this study, we have fabricated porous Ta and Ti6Al4V (Ti64) implants using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) with similar volume fraction porosity to compare the influence of surface characteristics and material chemistry on in vivo response using a rat distal femur model for 5 and 12 weeks. We have also assessed whether surface modification on Ti64 can elicit similar in vivo response as porous Ta in a rat distal femur model for 5 and 12 weeks. The harvested implants were histologically analyzed for osteoid surface per bone surface. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was done to assess the bone-implant interface. The results presented here indicate comparable performance of porous Ta and surface modified porous Ti64 implants towards early stage osseointegration at 5 weeks post implantation through seamless bone-material interlocking. However, a continued and extended efficacy of porous Ta is found in terms of higher osteoid formation at 12 weeks post-surgery.