Multiple Ligand-Bound States of a Phosphohexomutase Revealed by Principal Component Analysis of NMR Peak Shifts.
ABSTRACT: Enzymes sample multiple conformations during their catalytic cycles. Chemical shifts from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) are hypersensitive to conformational changes and ensembles in solution. Phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) is a ubiquitous four-domain enzyme that catalyzes phosphoryl transfer across phosphohexose substrates. We compared states the enzyme visits during its catalytic cycle. Collective responses of Pseudomonas PMM/PGM to phosphosugar substrates and inhibitor were assessed using NMR-detected titrations. Affinities were estimated from binding isotherms obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). Relationships among phosphosugar-enzyme associations emerge from PCA comparisons of the titrations. COordiNated Chemical Shifts bEhavior (CONCISE) analysis provides novel discrimination of three ligand-bound states of PMM/PGM harboring a mutation that suppresses activity. Enzyme phosphorylation and phosphosugar binding appear to drive the open dephosphorylated enzyme to the free phosphorylated state, and on toward ligand-closed states. Domain 4 appears central to collective responses to substrate and inhibitor binding. Hydrogen exchange reveals that binding of a substrate analogue enhances folding stability of the domains to a uniform level, establishing a globally unified structure. CONCISE and PCA of NMR spectra have discovered novel states of a well-studied enzyme and appear ready to discriminate other enzyme and ligand binding states.
Project description:The enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes an intramolecular phosphoryl transfer across its phosphosugar substrates, which are precursors in the synthesis of exoproducts involved in bacterial virulence. Previous structural studies of PMM/PGM have established a key role for conformational change in its multistep reaction, which requires a dramatic 180° reorientation of the intermediate within the active site. Here hydrogen-deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry and small angle x-ray scattering were used to probe the conformational flexibility of different forms of PMM/PGM in solution, including its active, phosphorylated state and the unphosphorylated state that occurs transiently during the catalytic cycle. In addition, the effects of ligand binding were assessed through use of a substrate analog. We found that both phosphorylation and binding of ligand produce significant effects on deuterium incorporation. Phosphorylation of the conserved catalytic serine has broad effects on residues in multiple domains and is supported by small angle x-ray scattering data showing that the unphosphorylated enzyme is less compact in solution. The effects of ligand binding are generally manifested near the active site cleft and at a domain interface that is a site of conformational change. These results suggest that dephosphorylation of the enzyme may play two critical functional roles: a direct role in the chemical step of phosphoryl transfer and secondly through propagation of structural flexibility. We propose a model whereby increased enzyme flexibility facilitates the reorientation of the reaction intermediate, coupling changes in structural dynamics with the unique catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.
Project description:A domain needed for the catalytic efficiency of an enzyme model of simple processivity and domain-domain interactions has been characterized by NMR. This domain 4 from phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) closes upon glucose phosphate and mannose phosphate ligands in the active site, and can modestly reconstitute activity of enzyme truncated to domains 1-3. This enzyme supports biosynthesis of the saccharide-derived virulence factors (rhamnolipids, lipopolysaccharides, and alginate) of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR chemical shift assignments of domain 4 of PMM/PGM suggest preservation and independence of its structure when separated from domains 1-3. The face of domain 4 that packs with domain 3 is perturbed in NMR spectra without disrupting this fold. The perturbed residues overlap both the most highly coevolved positions in the interface and residues lining a cavity at the domain interface.
Project description:Two complexes of the enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a slow substrate and with an inhibitor have been characterized by X-ray crystallography. Both ligands induce an interdomain rearrangement in the enzyme that creates a highly buried active site. Comparisons with enzyme-substrate complexes show that the inhibitor xylose 1-phosphate utilizes many of the previously observed enzyme-ligand interactions. In contrast, analysis of the ribose 1-phosphate complex reveals a combination of new and conserved enzyme-ligand interactions for binding. The ability of PMM/PGM to accommodate these two pentose phosphosugars in its active site may be relevant for future efforts towards inhibitor design.
Project description:Proteins exist as an ensemble of conformers that are distributed on free energy landscapes resembling folding funnels. While the most stable conformers populate low energy basins, protein function is often carried out through low-populated conformational states that occupy high energy basins. Ligand binding shifts the populations of these states, changing the distribution of these conformers. Understanding how the equilibrium among the states is altered upon ligand binding, interaction with other binding partners, and/or mutations and post-translational modifications is of critical importance for explaining allosteric signaling in proteins. Here, we propose a statistical analysis of the linear trajectories of NMR chemical shifts (CONCISE, COordiNated ChemIcal Shifts bEhavior) for the interpretation of protein conformational equilibria. CONCISE enables one to quantitatively measure the population shifts associated with ligand titrations and estimate the degree of collectiveness of the protein residues' response to ligand binding, giving a concise view of the structural transitions. The combination of CONCISE with thermocalorimetric and kinetic data allows one to depict a protein's approximate conformational energy landscape. We tested this method with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, a ubiquitous enzyme that undergoes conformational transitions upon both nucleotide and pseudo-substrate binding. When complemented with chemical shift covariance analysis (CHESCA), this new method offers both collective response and residue-specific correlations for ligand binding to proteins.
Project description:The aim of this article is to analyze conformational changes by comparing 10 different structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM), a four-domain enzyme in which both substrate binding and catalysis require substantial movement of the C-terminal domain. We focus on changes in interdomain and active site crevices using a method called computational solvent mapping rather than superimposing the structures. The method places molecular probes (i.e., small organic molecules containing various functional groups) around the protein to find hot spots. One of the most important hot spots is in the active site, consistent with the ability of the enzyme to bind both glucose and mannose phosphosugar substrates. The protein has eight additional hot spots at domain-domain interfaces and hinge regions. The locations and nature of six of these hot spots vary between the open, half-open, and closed conformers of the enzyme, in good agreement with the ligand-induced conformational changes. In the closed structures the number of probe clusters at the hinge region significantly depends on the position of the phosphorylated oxygen in the substrate (e.g., glucose 1-phosphate versus glucose 6-phosphate), but the protein remains almost unchanged in terms of the overall RMSD, indicating that computational solvent mapping is a more sensitive approach to detect changes in binding sites and interdomain crevices. Focusing on multidomain proteins we show that the subresolution conformational differences revealed by the mapping are in fact significant, and present a general statistical method of analysis to determine the significance of rigid body domain movements in X-ray structures.
Project description:Glucokinase phosphorylated a series of C-1 fluorinated ?-d-gluco-heptuloses. These phosphorylated products were discovered to be inhibitors of ?-phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (?PMM/PGM) and ?-phosphoglucomutase (?PGM). Inhibition potency with both mutases inversely correlated to the degree of fluorination. Structural analysis with ?PMM demonstrated the inhibitor binding to the active site, with the phosphate in the phosphate binding site and the anomeric hydroxyl directed to the catalytic site.
Project description:Four orthologous genes (TK1108, TK1404, TK1777, and TK2185) that can be annotated as phosphomannomutase (PMM) genes (COG1109) have been identified in the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1. We previously found that TK1777 actually encodes a phosphopentomutase. In order to determine which of the remaining three orthologues encodes a phosphoglucomutase (PGM), we examined the PGM activity in T. kodakaraensis cells and identified the gene responsible for this activity. Heterologous gene expression and purification and characterization of the recombinant protein indicated that TK1108 encoded a protein with high levels of PGM activity (690 U mg(-1)), along with high levels of PMM activity (401 U mg(-1)). Similar analyses of the remaining two orthologues revealed that their protein products exhibited neither PGM nor PMM activity. PGM activity and transcription of TK1108 in T. kodakaraensis were found to be higher in cells grown on starch than in cells grown on pyruvate. Our results clearly indicate that, among the four PMM gene orthologues in T. kodakaraensis, only one gene, TK1108, actually encodes a protein with PGM and PMM activities.
Project description:Evidence is presented that binding isotherms, simple or biphasic, can be extracted directly from noninterpreted, complex 2D NMR spectra using principal component analysis (PCA) to reveal the largest trend(s) across the series. This approach renders peak picking unnecessary for tracking population changes. In 1:1 binding, the first principal component captures the binding isotherm from NMR-detected titrations in fast, slow, and even intermediate and mixed exchange regimes, as illustrated for phospholigand associations with proteins. Although the sigmoidal shifts and line broadening of intermediate exchange distorts binding isotherms constructed conventionally, applying PCA directly to these spectra along with Pareto scaling overcomes the distortion. Applying PCA to time-domain NMR data also yields binding isotherms from titrations in fast or slow exchange. The algorithm readily extracts from magnetic resonance imaging movie time courses such as breathing and heart rate in chest imaging. Similarly, two-step binding processes detected by NMR are easily captured by principal components 1 and 2. PCA obviates the customary focus on specific peaks or regions of images. Applying it directly to a series of complex data will easily delineate binding isotherms, equilibrium shifts, and time courses of reactions or fluctuations.
Project description:The enzymes phosphomannomutase (PMM), phospho-N-acetylglucosamine mutase (PAGM) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) reversibly catalyse the transfer of phosphate between the C6 and C1 hydroxyl groups of mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and glucose respectively. Although genes for a candidate PMM and a PAGM enzymes have been found in the Trypanosoma brucei genome, there is, surprisingly, no candidate gene for PGM. The TbPMM and TbPAGM genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the TbPMM enzyme was crystallized and its structure solved at 1.85 Å resolution. Antibodies to the recombinant proteins localized endogenous TbPMM to glycosomes in the bloodstream form of the parasite, while TbPAGM localized to both the cytosol and glycosomes. Both recombinant enzymes were able to interconvert glucose-phosphates, as well as acting on their own definitive substrates. Analysis of sugar nucleotide levels in parasites with TbPMM or TbPAGM knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) suggests that, in vivo, PGM activity is catalysed by both enzymes. This is the first example in any organism of PGM activity being completely replaced in this way and it explains why, uniquely, T. brucei has been able to lose its PGM gene. The RNAi data for TbPMM also showed that this is an essential gene for parasite growth.
Project description:The alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily is composed of four related enzymes that catalyze a reversible, intramolecular phosphoryl transfer on their sugar substrates. The enzymes in this superfamily play important and diverse roles in carbohydrate metabolism in organisms from bacteria to humans. Recent structural and mechanistic studies of one member of this superfamily, phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have provided new insights into enzyme mechanism and substrate recognition. Here we use sequence-sequence and sequence-structure comparisons via evolutionary trace analysis to examine 71 members of the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily. These analyses show that key residues in the active site, including many of those involved in substrate contacts in the P. aeruginosa PMM/PGM complexes, are conserved throughout the enzyme family. Several important regions show class-specific differences in sequence that appear to be correlated with differences in substrate specificity exhibited by subgroups of the family. In addition, we describe the translocation of a 20-residue segment containing the catalytic phosphoserine of phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase, which uniquely identifies members of this subgroup.