Promiscuous binding by Hsp70 results in conformational heterogeneity and fuzzy chaperone-substrate ensembles.
ABSTRACT: The Hsp70 chaperone system is integrated into a myriad of biochemical processes that are critical for cellular proteostasis. Although detailed pictures of Hsp70 bound with peptides have emerged, correspondingly detailed structural information on complexes with folding-competent substrates remains lacking. Here we report a methyl-TROSY based solution NMR study showing that the Escherichia coli version of Hsp70, DnaK, binds to as many as four distinct sites on a small 53-residue client protein, hTRF1. A fraction of hTRF1 chains are also bound to two DnaK molecules simultaneously, resulting in a mixture of DnaK-substrate sub-ensembles that are structurally heterogeneous. The interactions of Hsp70 with a client protein at different sites results in a fuzzy chaperone-substrate ensemble and suggests a mechanism for Hsp70 function whereby the structural heterogeneity of released substrate molecules enables them to circumvent kinetic traps in their conformational free energy landscape and fold efficiently to the native state.
Project description:The Hsp70 chaperone system plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis by binding to client protein molecules. We have recently shown by methyl-TROSY NMR methods that the Escherichia coli Hsp70, DnaK, can form multiple bound complexes with a small client protein, hTRF1. In an effort to characterize the interactions further we report here the results of an NMR-based titration study of hTRF1 and DnaK, where both molecular components are monitored simultaneously, leading to a binding model. A central finding is the formation of a previously undetected 3:1 hTRF1-DnaK complex, suggesting that under heat shock conditions, DnaK might be able to protect cytosolic proteins whose net concentrations would exceed that of the chaperone. Moreover, these results provide new insight into the heterogeneous ensemble of complexes formed by DnaK chaperones and further emphasize the unique role of NMR spectroscopy in obtaining information about individual events in a complex binding scheme by exploiting a large number of probes that report uniquely on distinct binding processes.
Project description:The 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) chaperone system is ubiquitous, highly conserved, and involved in a myriad of diverse cellular processes. Its function relies on nucleotide-dependent interactions with client proteins, yet the structural features of folding-competent substrates in their Hsp70-bound state remain poorly understood. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to study the human telomere repeat binding factor 1 (hTRF1) in complex with Escherichia coli Hsp70 (DnaK). In the complex, hTRF1 is globally unfolded with up to 40% helical secondary structure in regions distal to the binding site. Very similar conformational ensembles are observed for hTRF1 bound to ATP-, ADP- and nucleotide-free DnaK. The patterns in substrate helicity mirror those found in the unfolded state in the absence of denaturants except near the site of chaperone binding, demonstrating that DnaK-bound hTRF1 retains its intrinsic structural preferences. To our knowledge, our study presents the first atomic resolution structural characterization of a client protein bound to each of the three nucleotide states of DnaK and establishes that the large structural changes in DnaK and the associated energy that accompanies ATP binding and hydrolysis do not affect the overall conformation of the bound substrate protein.
Project description:The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) family of chaperones bind cognate substrates to perform a variety of different processes that are integral to cellular homeostasis. Although detailed structural information is available on the chaperone, the structural features of folding competent substrates in the bound form have not been well characterized. Here we use paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) NMR spectroscopy to probe the existence of long-range interactions in one such folding competent substrate, human telomere repeat binding factor (hTRF1), which is bound to DnaK in a globally unfolded conformation. We show that DnaK binding modifies the energy landscape of the substrate by removing long-range interactions that are otherwise present in the unbound, unfolded conformation of hTRF1. Because the unfolded state of hTRF1 is only marginally populated and transiently formed, it is inaccessible to standard NMR approaches. We therefore developed a (1)H-based CEST experiment that allows measurement of PREs in sparse states, reporting on transiently sampled conformations. Our results suggest that DnaK binding can significantly bias the folding pathway of client substrates such that secondary structure forms first, followed by the development of longer-range contacts between more distal parts of the protein.
Project description:ClpB/Hsp100 is an ATP-dependent disaggregase that solubilizes and reactivates protein aggregates in cooperation with the DnaK/Hsp70 chaperone system. The ClpB-substrate interaction is mediated by conserved tyrosine residues located in flexible loops in nucleotide-binding domain-1 that extend into the ClpB central pore. In addition to the tyrosines, the ClpB N-terminal domain (NTD) was suggested to provide a second substrate-binding site; however, the manner in which the NTD recognizes and binds substrate proteins has remained elusive. Herein, we present an NMR spectroscopy study to structurally characterize the NTD-substrate interaction. We show that the NTD includes a substrate-binding groove that specifically recognizes exposed hydrophobic stretches in unfolded or aggregated client proteins. Using an optimized segmental labeling technique in combination with methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) NMR, the interaction of client proteins with both the NTD and the pore-loop tyrosines in the 580-kDa ClpB hexamer has been characterized. Unlike contacts with the tyrosines, the NTD-substrate interaction is independent of the ClpB nucleotide state and protein conformational changes that result from ATP hydrolysis. The NTD interaction destabilizes client proteins, priming them for subsequent unfolding and translocation. Mutations in the NTD substrate-binding groove are shown to have a dramatic effect on protein translocation through the ClpB central pore, suggesting that, before their interaction with substrates, the NTDs block the translocation channel. Together, our findings provide both a detailed characterization of the NTD-substrate complex and insight into the functional regulatory role of the ClpB NTD in protein disaggregation.
Project description:The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays a vital role in cellular processes, including protein folding and assembly, and helps prevent aggregation under physiological and stress-related conditions. Although the structural changes undergone by full-length client proteins upon interaction with DnaK (i.e., Escherichia coli Hsp70) are fundamental to understand chaperone-mediated protein folding, these changes are still largely unexplored. Here, we show that multiple conformations of the SRC homology 3 domain (SH3) client protein interact with the ADP-bound form of the DnaK chaperone. Chaperone-bound SH3 is largely unstructured yet distinct from the unfolded state in the absence of DnaK. The bound client protein shares a highly flexible N terminus and multiple slowly interconverting conformations in different parts of the sequence. In all, there is significant structural and dynamical heterogeneity in the DnaK-bound client protein, revealing that proteins may undergo some conformational sampling while chaperone-bound. This result is important because it shows that the surface of the Hsp70 chaperone provides an aggregation-free environment able to support part of the search for the native state.
Project description:Hsp90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that remodels hundreds of client proteins, many involved in the progression of cancer and other diseases. It functions with the Hsp70 chaperone and numerous cochaperones. The bacterial Hsp90 functions with an Hsp70 chaperone, DnaK, but is independent of Hsp90 cochaperones. We explored the collaboration between Escherichia coli Hsp90 and DnaK and found that the two chaperones form a complex that is stabilized by client protein binding. A J-domain protein, CbpA, facilitates assembly of the Hsp90Ec-DnaK-client complex. We identified E. coli Hsp90 mutants defective in DnaK interaction in vivo and show that the purified mutant proteins are defective in physical and functional interaction with DnaK. Understanding how Hsp90 and Hsp70 collaborate in protein remodeling will provide the groundwork for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting multiple chaperones and cochaperones.
Project description:Most known proteins have at least one local Hsp70 chaperone binding site. Does this mean that all proteins interact with Hsp70 as they fold? This study makes an initial step to address the above question by examining the interaction of the E.coli Hsp70 chaperone (known as DnaK) and its co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE with a slow-folding E.coli substrate, RNase H(D). Importantly, this protein is a nonobligatory client, and it is able to fold in vitro even in the absence of chaperones. We employ stopped-flow mixing, chromatography, and activity assays to analyze the kinetic perturbations induced by DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE (K/J/E) on the folding of RNase H(D). We find that K/J/E slows down RNase H(D)'s apparent folding, consistent with the presence of transient chaperone-substrate interactions. However, kinetic retardation is moderate for this slow-folding client and it is expected to be even smaller for faster-folding substrates. Given that the interaction of folding-competent substrates such as RNase H(D) with the K/J/E chaperones is relatively short-lived, it does not significantly interfere with the timely production of folded biologically active substrate. The above mode of action is important because it preserves K/J/E bioavailability, enabling this chaperone system to act primarily by assisting the folding of other misfolded and (or) aggregation-prone cellular proteins that are unable to fold independently. When refolding is carried out in the presence of K/J and absence of the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE, some of the substrate population becomes trapped as a chaperone-bound partially unfolded state.
Project description:The 70 kDa and 90 kDa heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 are two abundant and highly conserved ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that participate in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In <i>Escherichia coli</i>, Hsp90 (Hsp90Ec) and Hsp70 (DnaK) directly interact and collaborate in protein remodeling. Previous work has produced a model of the direct interaction of both chaperones. The locations of the residues involved have been confirmed and the model has been validated. In this study, we investigate the allosteric communication between Hsp90Ec and DnaK and how the chaperones couple their conformational cycles. Using elastic network models (ENM), normal mode analysis (NMA), and a structural perturbation method (SPM) of asymmetric and symmetric DnaK-Hsp90Ec, we extract biologically relevant vibrations and identify residues involved in allosteric signaling. When one DnaK is bound, the dominant normal modes favor biological motions that orient a substrate protein bound to DnaK within the substrate/client binding site of Hsp90Ec and release the substrate from the DnaK substrate binding domain. The presence of one DnaK molecule stabilizes the entire Hsp90Ec protomer to which it is bound. Conversely, the symmetric model of DnaK binding results in steric clashes of DnaK molecules and suggests that the Hsp90Ec and DnaK chaperone cycles operate independently. Together, this data supports an asymmetric binding of DnaK to Hsp90Ec.
Project description:The conserved, ATP-dependent bacterial DnaK chaperones process client substrates with the aid of the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. However, in the absence of structural information, how these proteins communicate with each other cannot be fully delineated. For the study reported here, we solved the crystal structure of a full-length Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 GrpE homodimer in complex with a nearly full-length G. kaustophilus HTA426 DnaK that contains the interdomain linker (acting as a pseudo-substrate), and the N-terminal nucleotide-binding and C-terminal substrate-binding domains at 4.1-Å resolution. Each complex contains two DnaKs and two GrpEs, which is a stoichiometry that has not been found before. The long N-terminal GrpE α-helices stabilize the linker of DnaK in the complex. Furthermore, interactions between the DnaK substrate-binding domain and the N-terminal disordered region of GrpE may accelerate substrate release from DnaK. These findings provide molecular mechanisms for substrate binding, processing, and release during the Hsp70 chaperone cycle.
Project description:Molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the folding, unfolding, and remodeling of other proteins. In eukaryotes, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) proteins are essential ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that remodel and activate hundreds of client proteins with the assistance of cochaperones. In Escherichia coli, the activity of the Hsp90 homolog, HtpG, has remained elusive. To explore the mechanism of action of E. coli Hsp90, we used in vitro protein reactivation assays. We found that E. coli Hsp90 promotes reactivation of heat-inactivated luciferase in a reaction that requires the prokaryotic Hsp70 chaperone system, known as the DnaK system. An Hsp90 ATPase inhibitor, geldanamycin, inhibits luciferase reactivation demonstrating the importance of the ATP-dependent chaperone activity of E. coli Hsp90 during client protein remodeling. Reactivation also depends upon the ATP-dependent chaperone activity of the DnaK system. Our results suggest that the DnaK system acts first on the client protein, and then E. coli Hsp90 and the DnaK system collaborate synergistically to complete remodeling of the client protein. Results indicate that E. coli Hsp90 and DnaK interact in vivo and in vitro, providing additional evidence to suggest that E. coli Hsp90 and the DnaK system function together.