Exosomes derived from pancreatic cancer cells induce insulin resistance in C2C12 myotube cells through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway.
ABSTRACT: Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently suggested that pancreatic cancer-associated new-onset diabetes mellitus (PC-DM) represents a potential platform for early diagnose of pancreatic cancer (PC). Despite the studies performed, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains ambiguous. In this study, we explored the effects of two types of exosomes released by murine pancreatic cancer and ductal epithelial cells on murine skeletal muscle cells. The results show that PC-derived exosomes can readily enter C2C12 myotubes, triggering lipidosis and glucose intake inhibition. We also demonstrate that PC-derived exosomes can inhibit insulin and PI3K/Akt signalling, in which insulin-induced FoxO1 nuclear exclusion is preserved and Glut4 trafficking is impaired. Microarray and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses show that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) probably play key roles in this process, an assumption that is corroborated by in vitro studies. These results confirm that the insulin resistance (IR) of skeletal muscle cells is governed by PC-derived exosomes through the insulin and PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signalling pathways, where exosomal miRNAs potentially contribute to this phenomenon. These novel findings pave the way towards a comprehensive understanding of the cancer theories: "metabolic reprogramming" and "metabolic crosstalk".
Project description:Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently supported that pancreatic cancer associated new-onset diabetes mellitus (PC-DM) is probably an important clue for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). However, the mechanism underlying remains fragmentary. In this study, two types of exosomes released by murine pancreatic cancer cells and murine pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were isolated，and their effects on skeletal muscle cells were invested. The results showed that PC-derived exosomes can readily enter C2C12 myotubes, and then induce lipidosis, glucose intake inhibition. We also found that PC-derived exosomes can inhibit Insulin and PI3K/Akt signaling, in which insulin-induced FoxO1 nuclear exclusion is preserved while Glut4 trafficking is impaired. In addition, further microarray and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis prompted that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) probably play an critical role in this process, which also has been preliminarily demonstrated in vitro. Taking together, these results suggest that PC-derived exosomes induce insulin resistance (IR) of skeletal muscle cells through Insulin and PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway, and exosomal miRNAs are probably involved. The novel findings also support the theories of cancer “metabolic reprogramming” and “metabolic crosstalk”. Overall design: two types of exosomes released by murine pancreatic cancer cells (KPC cells) and murine pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (MPDC) were isolated. MPDC-exosomes were used as a control.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers with rapid disease progression. Further elucidation of its underlying molecular mechanisms and novel biomarkers for early detection is necessary. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that are released by multiple cell types acting as message carriers during intercellular communication and are promising biomarker candidates. However, the role of pancreatic cancer cell-derived exosomes in cancer progression and the application of these vesicles as novel diagnostic biomarkers have not been fully studied. In this study, we found that PC-1.0 (a highly malignant pancreatic cell line) cell-derived exosomes could be taken up by and enhance PC-1 (a moderately malignant pancreatic cell line) cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities. We identified ZIP4 as the most upregulated exosomal protein in PC-1.0 cells from our proteomic analysis. In vitro and in vivo (a subcutaneous BALB/c nude mouse model) studies showed that exosomal ZIP4 can significantly promote pancreatic cancer growth. Using clinical blood samples, we compared the diagnostic values of serum exosomal ZIP4 levels between malignant pancreatic cancer patients (n = 24) and benign pancreatic disease patients (n = 32, AUC = .89), and between biliary disease patients (n = 32, AUC = .8112) and healthy controls (n = 46, AUC = .8931). In conclusion, exosomal ZIP4 promotes cancer growth and is a novel diagnostic biomarker for pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a major health concern, with conventional cancer treatments exerting little influence on the disease course. MicroRNA-520b (miR-520b) functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of human cancers, whereas its anti-tumor property in the context of PC is still fundamental. The aim of this study is to identify the potential therapeutic role of miR-520b, transferred by exosomes, derived from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in PC progression. A gain-of-function study was performed to examine the roles of miR-520b in PC cell line SW1990, which suggested that miR-520b served as a tumor suppressor in PC. In order to confirm the role of exosomal miR-520b, exosomes were isolated from NF culture medium and cocultured with SW1990 cells. During the coculture experiments, we disrupted exosome secretion and upregulated exosomal miR-520b. The in vitro coculture studies revealed that miR-520b was transferred from NF-derived exosomes to PC cells and thereby suppressed PC cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and stimulated apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibited tumor growth and live metastasis upon elevated miR-520b in exosomes were observed in vivo. Conjointly, our study demonstrates that NF-derived exosomal miR-520b impedes the progression of PC, which contributes to a novel, therapeutic role of exosomal miR-520b for treating PC.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. Lack of early diagnostic markers makes timely detection of pancreatic cancer a highly challenging endeavor. Exosomes have emerged as information-rich cancer specific biomarkers. However, characterization of tumor-specific exosomes has been challenging. This study investigated the proof of principle that exosomes could be used for the detection of pancreatic cancer. Label-free analysis of exosomes purified from normal and pancreatic cancer cell lines was performed using surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and principal component differential function analysis (PC-DFA), to identify tumor-specific spectral signatures. This method differentiated exosomes originating from pancreatic cancer or normal pancreatic epithelial cell lines with 90% accuracy. The cell line trained PC-DFA algorithm was next applied to SERS spectra of serum-purified exosomes. This method exhibited up to 87% and 90% predictive accuracy for HC and EPC individual samples, respectively. Overall, our study identified utility of SERS spectral signature for deciphering exosomal surface signature.
Project description:Tumor-derived exosomes were considered to be potential candidates for tumor vaccines because they are abundant in immune-regulating proteins, whereas tumor exosomal miRNAs may induce immune tolerance, thereby having an opposite immune function.This study was designed to separate exosomal protein and depleted exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs), increasing the immune activity of exosomes for activating dendritic cell/cytokine-induced killer cells (DC/CIKs) against pancreatic cancer (PC).PC-derived exosomes (PEs) were extracted from cultured PANC-1 cell supernatants and then ruptured; this was followed by ultrafiltered exosome lysates (UELs). DCs were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), PE, and UEL, followed by co-culture with CIKs. The anti-tumor effects of DC/CIKs against PC were evaluated by proliferation and killing rates, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and perforin secretion. Exosomal miRNAs were depleted after lysis and ultrafiltration, while 128 proteins were retained, including several immune-activating proteins.UEL-stimulated DC/CIKs showed a higher killing rate than LPS- and PE-stimulated DC/CIKs.miRNA-depleted exosome proteins may be promising agonists for specifically activating DC/CIKs against PC.
Project description:The hypoxic microenvironment, an important feature of solid tumors, promotes tumor cells to release exosomes and enhances tumor angiogenesis. However, the detailed functions of hypoxic exosomes and the mechanisms underlying their effects in pancreatic cancer (PC) remain mysterious. Here, we observed that hypoxic exosomes derived from PC cells promoted cell migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) UCA1, a key factor, was highly expressed in exosomes derived from hypoxic PC cells and could be transferred to HUVECs through the exosomes. In addition, the expression levels of UCA1 in exosomes derived from PC patients' serum were higher than in healthy controls and were associated with poor survival of PC patients. Moreover, hypoxic exosomal UCA1 could promote angiogenesis and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. With respect to the functional mechanism, UCA1 acted as a sponge of microRNA (miR)-96-5p, relieving the repressive effects of miR-96-5p on the expression of its target gene AMOTL2. Collectively, these results indicate that hypoxic exosomal UCA1 could promote angiogenesis and tumor growth through the miR-96-5p/AMOTL2/ERK1/2 axis and therefore, serve as a novel target for PC treatment.
Project description:Rationale: Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles secreted by most cells that are found in blood and other bodily fluids, and which contain cytoplasmic material and membrane factors corresponding to their cell type of origin. Exosome membrane factors and contents have been reported to alter adjacent and distant cell behavior in multiple studies, but the impact of cancer-derived exosomes on chemoresistance is less clear. Methods: Exosomes isolated from three pancreatic cancer (PC) cell lines displaying variable gemcitabine (GEM) resistance (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3) were tested for their capacity to transmit chemoresistance among these cell lines. Comparative proteomics was performed to identify key exosomal proteins that conferred chemoresistance. Cell survival was assessed in GEM responsive PC cell lines treated with recombinant Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), a candidate chemoresistance transfer factor, or exosomes from a chemoresistant PC cell line treated with or without EphA2 shRNA. Results: Exosomes from chemoresistant PANC-1 cells increased the GEM resistance of MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cell cultures. Comparative proteomics determined that PANC-1 exosomes overexpressed Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) versus exosomes of less chemoresistant PC cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3. EphA2-knockdown in PANC-1 cells inhibited their ability to transmit exosome-mediated chemoresistance to MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3, while treatment of MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells with soluble EphA2 did not promote chemoresistance, indicating that membrane carried EphA2 was important for the EphA2 chemoresistance effect. Conclusion: Exosomal EphA2 expression could transmit chemoresistance and may potentially serve as a minimally-invasive predictive biomarker for PC treatment response. Further work should address whether additional exosomal factors regulate resistance to other cancer therapeutic agents for PC or other cancer types.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:New-onset diabetes and concomitant weight loss occurring several months before the clinical presentation of pancreatic cancer (PC) appear to be paraneoplastic phenomena caused by tumour-secreted products. Our recent findings have shown exosomal adrenomedullin (AM) is important in development of diabetes in PC. Adipose tissue lipolysis might explain early onset weight loss in PC. We hypothesise that lipolysis-inducing cargo is carried in exosomes shed by PC and is responsible for the paraneoplastic effects. Therefore, in this study we investigate if exosomes secreted by PC induce lipolysis in adipocytes and explore the role of AM in PC-exosomes as the mediator of this lipolysis. DESIGN:Exosomes from patient-derived cell lines and from plasma of patients with PC and non-PC controls were isolated and characterised. Differentiated murine (3T3-L1) and human adipocytes were exposed to these exosomes to study lipolysis. Glycerol assay and western blotting were used to study lipolysis. Duolink Assay was used to study AM and adrenomedullin receptor (ADMR) interaction in adipocytes treated with exosomes. RESULTS:In murine and human adipocytes, we found that both AM and PC-exosomes promoted lipolysis, which was abrogated by ADMR blockade. AM interacted with its receptor on the adipocytes, activated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases and promoted lipolysis by phosphorylating hormone-sensitive lipase. PKH67-labelled PC-exosomes were readily internalised into adipocytes and involved both caveolin and macropinocytosis as possible mechanisms for endocytosis. CONCLUSIONS:PC-secreted exosomes induce lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue; exosomal AM is a candidate mediator of this effect.
Project description:Exosomes play important roles in proliferation and microenvironment modulation of many types of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the inhibitory effect of CRC cells-derived exosomes in angiogenesis has not been fully discussed. In this study, the roles of microRNA-183-5p (miR-183-5p) in abundant in exosomes secreted from the CRC cells were investigated. Initially, microarray analysis was employed to determine the differentially expressed miRNAs. Exosomes isolated from CRC cells were co-cultured with HMEC-1 cells to explore the role of exosomes in angiogenesis. Further, the effects of CRC cell-derived exosomal miR-183-5p on proliferation, invasion and tube formation abilities of HMEC-1 cells were assessed. The preventative effect of exosomal miR-183-5p in vivo was measured in nude mice. Initially, it was found that FOXO1 was downregulated while miR-183-5p was upregulated in CRC. Additionally, the inhibition of miR-183-5p was suggested to suppress proliferation, invasion and tube formation abilities of HMEC-1 cells through upregulating FOXO1. Then, in vitro assays demonstrated that CRC cell-derived exosomes overexpressing miR-183-5p contributed to an enhanced proliferation, invasion and tube formation abilities of HMEC-1 cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments confirmed the tumor-promotive effects of CRC cell-derived exosomal miR-183-5p. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the CRC cell-derived exosomes overexpressing miR-183-5p aggravates CRC through the regulation of FOXO1. Exosomes overexpressing miR-183-5p might be a potential treatment biomarker for CRC.
Project description:Pancreatic cancers (PCs) are highly metastatic with poor prognosis, mainly due to delayed detection. We hypothesized that intercellular communication is critical for metastatic progression. Here, we show that PC-derived exosomes induce liver pre-metastatic niche formation in naïve mice and consequently increase liver metastatic burden. Uptake of PC-derived exosomes by Kupffer cells caused transforming growth factor β secretion and upregulation of fibronectin production by hepatic stellate cells. This fibrotic microenvironment enhanced recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages. We found that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was highly expressed in PC-derived exosomes, and its blockade prevented liver pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Compared to patients whose pancreatic tumors did not progress, MIF was markedly higher in exosomes from stage I PC patients who later developed liver metastasis. These findings suggest that exosomal MIF primes the liver for metastasis and may be a prognostic marker for the development of PC liver metastasis. Overall design: Normal pancreas and Pancreatic cancer exosomes education of human von Kupffer cells in vitro