Construction of a fur null mutant and RNA-sequencing provide deeper global understanding of the Aliivibrio salmonicida Fur regulon.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor and the main regulator of iron acquisition in prokaryotes. When bound to ferric iron, Fur recognizes its DNA binding site and generally executes its function by repressing transcription of its target genes. Due to its importance in virulence, the Fur regulon is well studied for several model bacteria. In our previous work, we used computational predictions and microarray to gain insights into Fur-regulation in Aliivibrio salmonicida, and have identified a number of genes and operons that appear to be under direct control of Fur. To provide a more accurate and deeper global understanding of the biological role of Fur we have now generated an A. salmonicida fur knock-out strain and used RNA-sequencing to compare gene expression between the wild-type and fur null mutant strains. RESULTS:An A. salmonicida fur null mutant strain was constructed. Biological assays demonstrate that deletion of fur results in loss of fitness, with reduced growth rates, and reduced abilities to withstand low-iron conditions, and oxidative stress. When comparing expression levels in the wild-type and the fur null mutant we retrieved 296 differentially expressed genes distributed among 18 of 21 functional classes of genes. A gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the siderophore bisucaberin represented the highest up-regulated genes in the fur null mutant. Other highly up-regulated genes all encode proteins important for iron acquisition. Potential targets for the RyhB sRNA was predicted from the list of down-regulated genes, and significant complementarities were found between RyhB and mRNAs of the fur, sodB, cysN and VSAL_I0422 genes. Other sRNAs with potential functions in iron homeostasis were identified. CONCLUSION:The present work provides by far the most comprehensive and deepest understanding of the Fur regulon in A. salmonicida to date. Our data also contribute to a better understanding of how Fur plays a key role in iron homeostasis in bacteria in general, and help to show how Fur orchestrates iron uptake when iron levels are extremely low.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and iron acquisition systems are important determinants of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, and we have previously reported that the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) can play dual role in iron acquisition and CPS biosynthesis. In many bacteria, Fur negatively controls the transcription of the small non-coding RNA RyhB to modulate cellular functions and virulence. However, in K. pneumoniae, the role played by RyhB in the Fur regulon has not been characterised. This study investigated Fur regulation of ryhB transcription and the functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae. RESULTS: Deletion of fur from K. pneumoniae increased the transcription of ryhB; the electric mobility shift assay and the Fur-titration assay revealed that Fur could bind to the promoter region of ryhB, suggesting that Fur directly represses ryhB transcription. Additionally, in a ?fur strain with elevated CPS production, deletion of ryhB obviously reduced CPS production. The following promoter-reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR of cps genes verified that RyhB activated orf1 and orf16 transcription to elevate CPS production. However, deletion of ryhB did not affect the mRNA levels of rcsA, rmpA, or rmpA2. These results imply that Fur represses the transcription of ryhB to mediate the biosynthesis of CPS, which is independent of RcsA, RmpA, and RmpA2. In addition, the ?fur strain's high level of serum resistance was attenuated by the deletion of ryhB, indicating that RyhB plays a positive role in protecting the bacterium from serum killing. Finally, deletion of ryhB in ?fur reduced the expression of several genes corresponding to 3 iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae, and resulted in reduced siderophore production. CONCLUSIONS: The regulation and functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae is characterized in this study. RyhB participates in Fur regulon to modulate the bacterial CPS biosynthesis and iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae.
Project description:A small RNA, RyhB, was found as part of a genomewide search for novel small RNAs in Escherichia coli. The RyhB 90-nt RNA down-regulates a set of iron-storage and iron-using proteins when iron is limiting; it is itself negatively regulated by the ferric uptake repressor protein, Fur (Ferric uptake regulator). RyhB RNA levels are inversely correlated with mRNA levels for the sdhCDAB operon, encoding succinate dehydrogenase, as well as five other genes previously shown to be positively regulated by Fur by an unknown mechanism. These include two other genes encoding enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, acnA and fumA, two ferritin genes, ftnA and bfr, and a gene for superoxide dismutase, sodB. Fur positive regulation of all these genes is fully reversed in an ryhB mutant. Our results explain the previously observed inability of fur mutants to grow on succinate. RyhB requires the RNA-binding protein, Hfq, for activity. Sequences within RyhB are complementary to regions within each of the target genes, suggesting that RyhB acts as an antisense RNA. In sdhCDAB, the complementary region is at the end of the first gene of the sdhCDAB operon; full-length sdhCDAB message disappears and a truncated message, equivalent in size to the region upstream of the complementarity, is detected when RyhB is expressed. RyhB provides a mechanism for the cell to down-regulate iron-storage proteins and nonessential iron-containing proteins when iron is limiting, thus modulating intracellular iron usage to supplement mechanisms for iron uptake directly regulated by Fur.
Project description:Global tranascriptional profiling of Bacillus subtilis cells comparing fur mutant to mutants of the iron-sparing response: fur fsrA double mutant, fur fbpAB triple mutant, fur fbpC double mutant, and fur fbpABC quadruple mutant Abstract of associated manuscript: The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein is the major sensor of cellular iron status. When iron is limiting for growth, derepression of the Fur regulon increases the cellular capacity for iron uptake and mobilizes an iron-sparing response mediated, in large part, by a small non-coding RNA named FsrA. FsrA functions together with three small, basic proteins (FbpABC) to repress many "low-priority" iron-containing enzymes. We have used transcriptome analyses to define the scope of the iron-sparing response and to define subsets of genes dependent on either FbpAB or FbpC for their repression. Enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including both aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase, are major targets of FsrA-mediated repression and, as a consequence, flux through this pathway is significantly decreased under iron limitation. FsrA also mediates a physiologically significant repression of iron-sulfur containing enzymes required for ammonium assimilation (the GltAB glutamate synthase) and catabolism of lactic acid (LutABC). Repression of the lutABC operon requires both FsrA and FbpB which supports a model in which the Fbp proteins function to enable repression of subsets of the FsrA regulon. Overall design: WT vs fur (fur), fur vs fur fsrA (fsrA), fur vs fur fbpAB (AB), fur vs fur fbpC (C), and fur vs fur fbpABC (ABC). Each experiemnt (fur vs mutant) was conducted three times using three independent total RNA preparations (2 independent experiement + 1 independent dye swap).
Project description:BACKGROUND: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the ?-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. RESULTS: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. CONCLUSIONS: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other ?-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.
Project description:In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein controls both metabolism and virulence in response to iron availability. Differently from other bacteria, attempts to obtain fur deletion mutants of P. aeruginosa failed, leading to the assumption that Fur is an essential protein in this bacterium. By investigating a P. aeruginosa conditional fur mutant, we demonstrate that Fur is not essential for P. aeruginosa growth in liquid media, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity in an insect model of infection. Conversely, Fur is essential for growth on solid media since Fur-depleted cells are severely impaired in colony formation. Transposon-mediated random mutagenesis experiments identified pyochelin siderophore biosynthesis as a major cause of the colony growth defect of the conditional fur mutant, and deletion mutagenesis confirmed this evidence. Impaired colony growth of pyochelin-proficient Fur-depleted cells does not depend on oxidative stress, since Fur-depleted cells do not accumulate higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are not rescued by antioxidant agents or overexpression of ROS-detoxifying enzymes. Ectopic expression of pch genes revealed that pyochelin production has no inhibitory effects on a fur deletion mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, suggesting that the toxicity of the pch locus in Fur-depleted cells involves a P. aeruginosa-specific pathway(s).IMPORTANCE Members of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein family are bacterial transcriptional repressors that control iron uptake and storage in response to iron availability, thereby playing a crucial role in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. While fur null mutants of many bacteria have been obtained, Fur appears to be essential in Pseudomonas aeruginosa for still unknown reasons. We obtained Fur-depleted P. aeruginosa cells by conditional mutagenesis and showed that Fur is dispensable for planktonic growth, while it is required for colony formation. This is because Fur protects P. aeruginosa colonies from toxicity exerted by the pyochelin siderophore. This work provides a functional basis to the essentiality of Fur in P. aeruginosa and highlights unique properties of the Fur regulon in this species.
Project description:Actin-based motility is central to the pathogenicity of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella. Two Shigella outer membrane proteins, IcsA and IcsP, are required for efficient actin-based motility in the host cell cytoplasm, and the genes encoding both proteins are carried on the large virulence plasmid. IcsA triggers actin polymerization on the surface of the bacterium, leading to the formation of an actin tail that allows both intra- and intercellular spread. IcsP, an outer membrane protease, modulates the amount and distribution of the IcsA protein on the bacterial surface through proteolytic cleavage of IcsA. Transcription of icsP is increased in the presence of VirB, a DNA-binding protein that positively regulates many genes carried on the large virulence plasmid. In Shigella dysenteriae, the small regulatory RNA RyhB, which is a member of the iron-responsive Fur regulon, suppresses several virulence-associated phenotypes by downregulating levels of virB in response to iron limitation. Here we show that the Fur/RyhB regulatory pathway downregulates IcsP levels in response to low iron concentrations in Shigella flexneri and that this occurs at the level of transcription through the RyhB-dependent regulation of VirB. These observations demonstrate that in Shigella species the Fur/RyhB regulatory pathway provides a mechanism to finely tune the expression of icsP in response to the low concentrations of free iron predicted to be encountered within colonic epithelial cells.
Project description:In many bacteria, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein plays a central role in the regulation of iron uptake genes. Because iron figures prominently in the agriculturally important symbiosis between soybean and its nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we wanted to assess the role of Fur in the interaction. We identified a fur mutant by selecting for manganese resistance. Manganese interacts with the Fur protein and represses iron uptake genes. In the presence of high levels of manganese, bacteria with a wild-type copy of the fur gene repress iron uptake systems and starve for iron, whereas fur mutants fail to repress iron uptake systems and survive. The B. japonicum fur mutant, as expected, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. Unexpectedly, a wild-type copy of the fur gene cannot complement the fur mutant. Expression of the fur mutant allele in wild-type cells leads to a fur phenotype. Unlike a B. japonicum fur-null mutant, the strain carrying the dominant-negative fur mutation is unable to form functional, nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean, mung bean, or cowpea, suggesting a role for a Fur-regulated protein or proteins in the symbiosis.
Project description:The ferric uptake regulator Fur is a well-known iron-responsive repressor of gene transcription, which is used by many bacteria to respond to the low-iron environment that pathogens encounter during infection. In this study we used comparative transcriptome analysis to define the role of the Fur protein in the global control of gene transcription and iron regulation in Neisseria meningitidis. By using the Fur-null mutant and its complemented derivative, we identified 83 genes whose transcription is controlled by Fur. We report that Fur may control differential expression of these genes by binding directly to their promoters or through indirect mechanisms. In addition, mutation of the fur gene resulted in the induction of the heat shock response, and transcription of these genes does not respond to iron limitation. Furthermore, analysis of the iron starvation stimulon in the Fur-null mutant provided evidences of iron-responsive regulation that is independent of Fur. We began to dissect the regulatory networks of Fur and the heat shock (stress) response in N. meningitidis, and the observed interlink between the two circuits is discussed.
Project description:The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic ?fur strain under anaerobic conditions.Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown ?fur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD). The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB) with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in ?fur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in ?fur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB) was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO·) detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA) was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns) was increased in ?fur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in ?fur.This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftnB regulation, while serving to repress the expression of hmpA. Furthermore, Fur is required for the proper expression and activation of the antioxidant enzymes, FeSOD and MnSOD. Finally, this work identified twenty-six new targets of Fur regulation, and demonstrates that H-NS repressed genes are down-regulated in ?fur.
Project description:The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) is found in a wide variety of environments and must monitor and respond to various environmental signals such as the availability of iron, an essential element for bacterial growth. An important regulator of iron homeostasis is Fur (ferric uptake regulator), and here we present the first study of the Fur regulon in DC3000. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), 312 chromosomal regions were highly enriched by coimmunoprecipitation with a C-terminally tagged Fur protein. Integration of these data with previous microarray and global transcriptome analyses allowed us to expand the putative DC3000 Fur regulon to include genes both repressed and activated in the presence of bioavailable iron. Using nonradioactive DNase I footprinting, we confirmed Fur binding in 41 regions, including upstream of 11 iron-repressed genes and the iron-activated genes encoding two bacterioferritins (PSPTO_0653 and PSPTO_4160), a ParA protein (PSPTO_0855), and a two-component system (TCS) (PSPTO_3382 to PSPTO_3380).