Chronic DON exposure and acute LPS challenge: effects on porcine liver morphology and function.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the role of chronic deoxynivalenol (DON) exposition on the liver morphology and function in combination with pre- and post-hepatic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in young pigs fed for 4 weeks with a DON-contaminated diet (4.59 mg/kg feed). At the end of the experiment, LPS (7.5 ?g/kg BW) was administered for 1 h pre-hepatically (Vena portae hepatis) or post-hepatically (Vena jugularis). Liver morphology was macroscopically checked and showed haemorrhage in all LPS groups, significantly higher relative liver weights, accompanied by marked oedema in the gallbladder wall. Histological changes were judged by a modified histology activity index (HAI). Liver HAI score was significantly increased in all LPS groups compared to placebo, primarily due to neutrophil infiltration and haemorrhage. DON feed alone was without effect on the liver HAI. Liver function was characterized by (i) hepatic biochemical markers, (ii) mitochondrial respiration and (iii) Ca2+ accumulation capacity of isolated mitochondria. Clinical chemical parameters characterizing liver function were initially (<3 h) slightly influenced by LPS. After 3 h, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly, in DON-fed, jugular-infused LPS group. Respiration and Ca2+ accumulation capacity of isolated liver mitochondria was not impaired by chronic DON exposure, acute LPS challenge or combined treatments. DON-contaminated feed did not change macroscopy and histology of the liver, but modified the function under LPS stress. The different function was not linked to modifications of liver mitochondria.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of single and combined administrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the histology and ultrastructure of pig liver. The study was performed on immature gilts, which were divided into four equal groups. Animals in the experimental groups received DON at a dose of 12 ?g/kg body weight (BW) per day, ZEN at 40 ?g/kg BW per day, or a mixture of DON (12 ?g/kg BW per day) and ZEN (40 ?g/kg BW). The control group received vehicle. The animals were killed after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of experiment. Treatment with mycotoxins resulted in several changes in liver histology and ultrastructure, including: (1) an increase in the thickness of the perilobular connective tissue and its penetration to the lobules in gilts receiving DON and DON + ZEN; (2) an increase in the total microscopic liver score (histology activity index (HAI)) in pigs receiving DON and DON + ZEN; (3) dilatation of hepatic sinusoids in pigs receiving ZEN, DON and DON + ZEN; (4) temporary changes in glycogen content in all experimental groups; (5) an increase in iron accumulation in the hepatocytes of gilts treated with ZEN and DON + ZEN; (6) changes in endoplasmic reticulum organization in the hepatocytes of pigs receiving toxins; (7) changes in morphology of Browicz-Kupffer cells after treatment with ZEN, DON, and DON + ZEN. The results show that low doses of mycotoxins used in the present study, even when applied for a short period, affected liver morphology.
Project description:The sensitivity of pigs to deoxynivalenol (DON) might be influenced by systemic inflammation (SI) which impacts liver. Besides following acute-phase proteins, our aim was to investigate both the hepatic fractional albumin (ALB) synthesis rate (FSR) and the ALB concentration as indicators of ALB metabolism in presence and absence of SI induced by LPS via pre- or post-hepatic venous route. Each infusion group was pre-conditioned either with a control diet (CON, 0.12 mg DON/kg diet) or with a DON-contaminated diet (DON, 4.59 mg DON/kg diet) for 4 wk. A depression of ALB FSR was observed 195 min after LPS challenge, independent of feeding group or LPS application route, which was not paralleled by a down-regulated ALB mRNA expression but by a reduced availability of free cysteine. The drop in ALB FSR only partly explained the plasma ALB concentrations which were more depressed in the DON-pre-exposed groups, suggesting that ALB levels are influenced by further mechanisms. The abundances of haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, pig major acute-phase protein, fibrinogen and LPS-binding protein mRNA were up-regulated upon LPS stimulation but not accompanied by increases in the plasma concentrations of these proteins, pointing at an imbalance between synthesis and consumption.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the key factor in various intestinal inflammation which could disrupt the epithelial barrier function. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a well-known mycotoxin, can induce intestinal injury. However, the combined enterotoxicity of LPS and DON has rarely been studied. In this study, IPEC-J2 cell monolayers were exposed to LPS and nontoxic-dose DON for 12 and 24 h to investigate the effects of DON on LPS-induced inflammatory response and tight junction variation, and specific inhibitor and CRISPR-Cas9 were used to explore the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced cellular inflammatory response, reflecting on more significant changes of inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, higher protein expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and procaspase-1. Moreover, nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression decreased, and distribution confused of tight junction proteins. We found that DON further enhanced LPS-induced phosphorylation and nucleus translocation of p65, and expression of LC3B-?. NF-?B inhibitor and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LC3B attenuated the effects of combination which indicated nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and tight junction disorder through activating NF-?B signaling pathway and autophagy-related protein LC3B. It further warns that ingesting low doses of mycotoxins may exacerbate the effects of intestinal pathogens on the body.
Project description:Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (P<0.001). DON significantly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance in duodenal segments (P<0.001) and decreased duodenal villus height (P?=?0.014) indicating intestinal barrier disruption and intestinal epithelial damage, respectively. This may lead to an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and decreased absorption of dietary proteins. Protein analysis of duodenal content indeed showed that DON contamination resulted in a significant increase in total protein concentration (P?=?0.023). Furthermore, DON had no effect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.
Project description:The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium sulfite (SoS) treatment of maize and its impact on the porcine immune system in the presence of an LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Control maize (CON) and Fusarium-toxin contaminated maize (FUS) were wet-preserved (20% moisture) for 79 days with (+) or without (-) SoS and then included at 10% in a diet, resulting in four experimental groups: CON-, CON+, FUS-, and FUS+ with deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations of 0.09, 0.05, 5.36, and 0.83 mg DON/kg feed, respectively. After 42-day feeding trial (weaned barrows, n = 20/group), ten pigs per group were challenged intraperitoneally with either 7.5 ?g LPS/kg BW or placebo (0.9% NaCl), observed for 2 h, and then sacrificed. Blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen were collected for phenotyping of different T cell subsets, B cells, and monocytes. Phagocytic activity and intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed in both polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that the impact of DON was more notable on CD3+CD4+CD8+ T cells in lymphoid tissues rather than in blood T cells. In contrast, SoS treatment of maize altered leukocyte subpopulations in blood, e.g., reduced the percentage and fluorescence signal of CD8high T cells. Interestingly, SoS treatment reduced the amount of free radicals in basal ROS-producing PMNs only in LPS-challenged animals, suggesting a decrease in basal cellular ROS production (pSoS*LPS = 0.022).
Project description:Toxic effects among fumonisins B (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) administered alone and combined were investigated in 84-day-old ducks during force-feeding. 75 male ducks, divided into five groups of 15 animals, received daily during the meal a capsule containing the desired among of toxin. Treated animals received dietary levels of toxins equivalent to 20 mg FB1+FB2/kg (FB), 5 mg DON/kg (DON), 0.5 mg ZEN/kg (ZEN) and 20, 5 and 0.5 mg/kg of FB, DON and ZEN (FBDONZEN), respectively. Control birds received capsules with no toxin. After 12 days, a decrease in body weight gain accompanied by an increase in the feed conversion ratio was observed in ducks exposed to FBDONZEN, whereas there was no effect on performances in ducks exposed to FB, DON and ZEN separately. No difference among groups was observed in relative organ weight, biochemistry, histopathology and several variables used to measure oxidative damage and testicular function. A sphinganine to sphingosine ratio of 0.32, 1.19 and 1.04, was measured in liver in controls and in ducks exposed to FB and FBDONZEN, respectively. Concentrations of FB1 in liver were 13.34 and 15.4 ng/g in ducks exposed to FB and FBDONZEN, respectively. Together ZEN and its metabolites were measured after enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated forms. Mean concentrations of ?-zearalenol in liver were 0.82 and 0.54 ng/g in ducks exposed to ZEN and FBDONZEN, respectively. ?-zearalenol was 2.3-fold less abundant than ?-zearalenol, whereas ZEN was only found in trace amounts. In conclusion, this study suggests that decreased performance may occur in ducks exposed to a combination of FB, DON and ZEN, but does not reveal any other interaction between mycotoxins in any of the other variables measured.
Project description:The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite from Fusarium species and is frequently present on wheat and other cereals. The main effects of DON are a reduction of the feed intake and reduced weight gain of broilers. At the molecular level DON binds to the 60S ribosomal subunit and inhibits subsequently protein synthesis at the translational level. It has been suggested that cells and tissues with high protein turnover rate, like the liver and small intestine, are most affected by DON. However, little is known about other effects of DON e.g. at the transcriptional level. Therefore we decided to perform a microarray analysis, which allows us the investigation of thousands of transcripts in one experiment. Overall design: The one-day old broiler chicks were separated into four groups. The diets consisted of a control diet and of three diets with moderate concentrations of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg DON/kg feed, which was attained by exchanging uncontaminated wheat with naturally DON-contaminated wheat up to the intended concentration. The chicken were held at standard conditions for 23 days and received their diet ad libitum. After slaughter the gene expression was determined in the liver of three samples per group.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The most prevalent <i>Fusarium</i> mycotoxin in grains is deoxynivalenol (DON). Contamination of swine feed with DON can result in reduced consumption and poor growth performance. Gestating and lactating sows need sufficient feed intake for fetus development during late gestation and milk production and body maintenance during lactation. Therefore, there is considerable concern in modern piglet production about the effects of DON contamination in sow feed. Most previous studies in sows have been done under experimental conditions, with DON levels ?2.8 mg/kg feed. The aim of the current field trial was to investigate the effects of feeding grains that are naturally contaminated with more realistic levels of DON on sows during late gestation and lactation.<h4>Methods</h4>In a commercial, high-yield specific pathogen-free piglet production unit, 45 Norwegian Landrace × Yorkshire sows were fed three diets from 93?±?1 days of gestation until weaning of the piglets, and average daily feed intake (ADFI), body weight (BW), production and reproduction performance, as well as sow blood parameters were recorded. Diets were made from naturally contaminated oats, with three concentration levels: 1) control (DON <?0.2 mg/kg), 2) DON level 1 (1.4 mg DON/kg), and 3) DON level 2 (1.7 mg DON/kg).<h4>Results</h4>Sows that were fed DON level 1 and 2 diets showed a 4-10% reduction in feed consumption during lactation, compared with sows in the control group. However, the DON-contaminated diets did not significantly affect sow BW or backfat thickness. Similarly, there were neither effects on production or reproduction performance, nor on blood parameters in the sows. The effects on skin temperature were variable.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Naturally contaminated diets with realistic, moderately increased DON levels, fed during late gestation and lactation in a modern high-yield piglet production farm, had limited effects on sow health and production.
Project description:Fusarium infection with concurrent production of deoxynivalenol (DON) causes an increasing safety concern with feed worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of DON in diets on growth performance, serum biochemical profile, jejunal morphology, and the differential expression of nutrients transporter genes in growing pigs.A total of twenty-four 60-day-old healthy growing pigs (initial body weight = 16.3 ± 1.5 kg SE) were individually housed and randomly assigned to receive one of four diets containing 0, 3, 6 or 12 mg DON/kg feed for 21 days. Differences were observed between control and the 12 mg/kg DON treatment group with regards to average daily gain (ADG), although the value for average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the 3 mg/kg DON treatment group was slightly higher than that in control (P<0.01). The relative liver weight in the 12 mg/kg DON treatment group was significantly greater than that in the control (P<0.01), but there were no significant differences in other organs. With regard to serum biochemistry, the values of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in the 3 treatment groups were higher than those in the control, and the serum concentrations of L-valine, glycine, L-serine, and L-glutamine were significantly reduced in the 3 treatment groups, especially in the 12 mg/kg DON group (P<0.01). Serum total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were markedly decreased after exposure to DON contaminated feeds (P<0.01). The villi height was markedly decreased and the lymphocyte cell numbers markedly increased in the 3 DON contaminated feeds (P<0.01). The mRNA expression levels of excitatory amino acid transporter-3 (EAAC-3), sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1), dipeptide transporter-1 (PepT-1), cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1) and y(+)L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) in control were slightly or markedly higher than those in the 3 DON treatment groups.These results showed that feeds containing DON cause a wide range of effects in a dose-dependent manner. Such effects includes weight loss, live injury and oxidation stress, and malabsorption of nutrients as a result of selective regulation of nutrient transporter genes such as EAAC-3, SGLT-1, PepT-1, CAT-1 and LAT-1.
Project description:The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite from Fusarium species and is frequently present on wheat and other cereals. The main effects of DON are a reduction of the feed intake and reduced weight gain of broilers. At the molecular level DON binds to the 60S ribosomal subunit and inhibits subsequently protein synthesis at the translational level. It has been suggested that cells and tissues with high protein turnover rate, like the liver and small intestine, are most affected by DON. However, little is known about other effects of DON e.g. at the transcriptional level. Therefore we decided to perform a microarray analysis, which allows us the investigation of thousands of transcripts in one experiment. The one-day old broiler chicks were separated into four groups. The diets consisted of a control diet and of three diets with moderate concentrations of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg DON/kg feed, which was attained by exchanging uncontaminated wheat with naturally DON-contaminated wheat up to the intended concentration. The chicken were held at standard conditions for 23 days and received their diet ad libitum. After slaughter the gene expression was determined in the liver of three samples per group.