Association Between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
ABSTRACT: To estimate whether sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).In this prospective cohort study, nulliparous women underwent in-home sleep-disordered breathing assessments in early (6-15 weeks of gestation) and midpregnancy (22-31 weeks of gestation). Participants and health care providers were blinded to the sleep test results. An apnea-hypopnea index of 5 or greater was used to define sleep-disordered breathing. Exposure-response relationships were examined, grouping participants into four apnea-hypopnea index groups: 0, greater than 0 to less than 5, 5 to less than 15, and 15 or greater. The study was powered to test the primary hypothesis that sleep-disordered breathing occurring in pregnancy is associated with an increased incidence of preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were rates of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, defined as preeclampsia and antepartum gestational hypertension, and GDM. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.Three thousand seven hundred five women were enrolled. Apnea-hypopnea index data were available for 3,132 (84.5%) and 2,474 (66.8%) women in early and midpregnancy, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was 3.6% and 8.3%. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 6.0%, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 13.1%, and GDM 4.1%. In early and midpregnancy the adjusted odds ratios for preeclampsia when sleep-disordered breathing was present were 1.94 (95% CI 1.07-3.51) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18-3.23), respectively; hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 1.46 (95% CI 0.91-2.32) and 1.73 (95% CI 1.19-2.52); and GDM 3.47 (95% CI 1.95-6.19) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.63-4.77). Increasing exposure-response relationships were observed between apnea-hypopnea index and both hypertensive disorders and GDM.There is an independent association between sleep-disordered breathing and preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and GDM.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of the Sleep Disordered Breathing substudy of the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study Monitoring Mothers-to-be (nuMoM2b) is to determine whether sleep disordered breathing during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN:NuMoM2b is a prospective cohort study of 10,037 nulliparous women with singleton gestations that was conducted across 8 sites with a central Data Coordinating and Analysis Center. The Sleep Disordered Breathing substudy recruited 3702 women from the cohort to undergo objective, overnight in-home assessments of sleep disordered breathing. A standardized level 3 home sleep test was performed between 6(0)-15(0) weeks' gestation (visit 1) and again between 22(0)-31(0) weeks' gestation (visit 3). Scoring of tests was conducted by a central Sleep Reading Center. Participants and their health care providers were notified if test results met "urgent referral" criteria that were based on threshold levels of apnea hypopnea indices, oxygen saturation levels, or electrocardiogram abnormalities but were not notified of test results otherwise. The primary pregnancy outcomes to be analyzed in relation to maternal sleep disordered breathing are preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, fetal growth restriction, and preterm birth. RESULTS:Objective data were obtained at visit 1 on 3261 women, which was 88.1% of the studies that were attempted and at visit 3 on 2511 women, which was 87.6% of the studies that were attempted. Basic characteristics of the substudy cohort are reported in this methods article. CONCLUSION:The substudy was designed to address important questions regarding the relationship of sleep-disordered breathing on the risk of preeclampsia and other outcomes of relevance to maternal and child health.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increased aortic stiffness is one possible linking mechanism. We evaluated the association between sleep-disordered breathing and aortic stiffness in a community-based sample. METHODS:Our community-based cross-sectional observational study included 381 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (55% women, mean age 58.0 S.D.?=?9.4 years, 51% ethnic minorities). Polysomnographically derived apnea-hypopnea index and CT90% (cumulative % sleep time with oxyhemoglobin saturation <90%) quantified sleep-disordered breathing severity. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, the gold-standard measure of aortic stiffness, was calculated using arterial applanation tonometry-derived waveforms and body surface measured transit distance. We assessed associations between sleep-disordered breathing and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity using multivariable regression. We adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, lipid-lowering therapy, anti-hypertensive medication, smoking, hypertension, and prevalent cardiovascular disease. RESULTS:After multivariable adjustment, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was associated with both apnea-hypopnea index (??=?0.03, 95% CI: 0.002-0.07, p=?0.04) and CT90% (??=?0.05, 95% CI: 0.005-0.1, p=?0.03). The adjusted mean carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was 9.43 (95% CI: 9.12-9.74), 9.76 (95% CI: 9.25-10.26), and 10.15 (95% CI: 9.37-10.92) m/s, respectively, in subjects with apnea-hypopnea index <5, 5-14.9, and ?15 events/h. CONCLUSIONS:In a community-based sample of middle aged and older men and women, sleep-disordered breathing was associated with increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk.
Project description:Background:There is a close association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and preeclampsia. Both conditions have poor pregnancy outcomes. Methods:Forty women with new-onset hypertension of pregnancy and 60 age-matched normotensive pregnant women were subjected to polysomnography. The maternal and fetal outcomes of all the subjects were noted. Results:SDB occurs more frequently (p?=?0.018; OR 13.1) and with more severity (p 0.001; OR 1.8) in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy even after controlling for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, the BMI significantly correlated with both the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI; r?=?0.745; p?<?0.001) and the blood pressure (r?=?0.617; p?<?0.001) highlighting the contribution of obesity in the causation of hypertension and SDB. We also found a significant correlation between AHI and blood pressure even after adjustment for BMI pointing toward an independent role of SDB in the development of hypertension (r?=?0.612; p?=?0.01). Maternal and fetal complications significantly correlated with different parameters of SDB-AHI, Arousal Index and minimum oxygen saturation, in the cases and with the fetal complications in the controls as well. Conclusion:SDB occurs more frequently and with more severity in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and is associated with more severe preeclampsia and adverse feto-maternal outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in pregnancy, but there are limited data on predictors. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to develop predictive models of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN:Nulliparous women completed validated questionnaires to assess for symptoms related to snoring, fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and restless leg syndrome. The questionnaires included questions regarding the timing of sleep and sleep duration, work schedules (eg, shift work, night work), sleep positions, and previously diagnosed sleep disorders. Frequent snoring was defined as self-reported snoring ?3 days per week. Participants underwent in-home portable sleep studies for sleep-disordered breathing assessment in early (6-15 weeks gestation) and mid pregnancy (22-31 weeks gestation). Sleep-disordered breathing was characterized by an apnea hypopnea index that included all apneas, plus hypopneas with ?3% oxygen desaturation. For primary analyses, an apnea hypopnea index ?5 events per hour was used to define sleep-disordered breathing. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for predictor variables. Predictive ability of the logistic models was estimated with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves, along with sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. RESULTS:Among 3705 women who were enrolled, data were available for 3264 and 2512 women in early and mid pregnancy, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was 3.6% and 8.3%, respectively. At each time point in gestation, frequent snoring, chronic hypertension, greater maternal age, body mass index, neck circumference, and systolic blood pressure were associated most strongly with an increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing. Logistic regression models that included current age, body mass index, and frequent snoring predicted sleep-disordered breathing in early pregnancy, sleep-disordered breathing in mid pregnancy, and new onset sleep-disordered breathing in mid pregnancy with 10-fold cross-validated area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves of 0.870, 0.838, and 0.809. We provide a supplement with expanded tables, integrated predictiveness, classification curves, and an predicted probability calculator. CONCLUSION:Among nulliparous pregnant women, logistic regression models with just 3 variables (ie, age, body mass index, and frequent snoring) achieved good prediction of prevalent and incident sleep-disordered breathing. These results can help with screening for sleep-disordered breathing in the clinical setting and for future clinical treatment trials.
Project description:Background:Due to the high prevalence in pregnant women and potential association with pregnancy complications or perinatal outcomes, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has become an increasing concern. Methods:Pubmed and Embase were retrieved from inception until 2017 to conduct a meta-analysis to explore the association of SDB and several outcomes during gestation. A stratified analysis differentiated by the type of SDB [snoring alone/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)] was also performed. Pooled odds ratios were produced for binary outcomes. Weighted mean differences were also produced for continuous outcomes. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the impact of individual studies on summary results and estimation of publication bias was performed by funnel plot. Results:35 studies with a total of 56,751,837 subjects were included. SDB during pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and preeclampsia (PEC), but not significantly associated with fetal maternal outcomes, namely APGAR score and birth weight. Moreover, OSA was linked with an increasing risk of GDM, PIH, PEC and preterm birth while snoring appeared to increase the risk of GDM, PIH, and PEC. Conclusion:The finding provided potential evidence for association between SDB and adverse perinatal outcomes. SDB increased the risk of some pregnancy complications while its influence to fetal outcomes was not clear.
Project description:Sleep disordered breathing is associated with cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear, but enhanced vascular inflammation is implicated. We sought to evaluate the association of sleep disordered breathing with biomarkers of inflammation.Cross-sectional, observational.Community-based.There were 900 participants from the Framingham Heart Study site of the Sleep Heart Health Study (52% females, mean age 60 y, 23% ethnic minorities).None.We assessed circulating levels of nine inflammatory biomarkers in relation to polysomnographically-derived apnea-hypopnea index and hypoxemia index (% sleep time with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%). Multivariable models were adjusted for demographics, smoking, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and other potential confounders, without and with adjustment for body mass index.With multivariable adjustment not including body mass index, the apnea-hypopnea index was associated with C-reactive protein, inter-leukin-6, fibrinogen, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and P-selectin levels and hypoxemia index was associated with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and fibrinogen levels. After adjustment for body mass index, only the association of interleukin-6 with sleep disordered breathing remained significant: the adjusted mean serum interleukin-6 level was 2.93, 3.14, 3.34, and 4.62 pg/mL, respectively, in participants with apnea-hypopnea index < 5, 5-14.9, 15-29.9, and ? 30 events/h (P = 0.01 for trend) and 2.97, 3.01, 3.35, and 4.85 pg/mL, respectively, in participants with hypoxemia index < 0.5, 0.5-4.9, 5-9.9, and ? 10% of sleep time (P = 0.02 for trend).In a community-based sample, sleep disordered breathing is associated with higher levels of interleukin-6, a marker of myocardial infarction risk and mortality. Adiposity may mediate the increased levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and P-selectin observed in sleep disordered breathing.
Project description:Heart failure patients often manifest white matter hyperintensites on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). White matter hyperintnsities have also been linked with cognitive problems in patients with heart failure. Sleep disordered breathing may contribute to structural brain changes in heart failure. The purpose of this study was to test the extent to which the apnea hypopnea index is associated with global and regional white matter hyperintensities, and is a moderating factor in the relationship between age and white matter hyperintensites. A total of 28 HF patients [mean age (SD)?=?67.89 (5.8)] underwent T1-weighted and T2FLAIR MRI and a home sleep monitoring study. The apnea hypopnea index cut off of 10 was used to compare between higher and lower risks of sleep disordered breathing. Regression analysis was used to test the association between apnea hypopnea index and both global and regional white matter hyperintensities. The interaction term was entered to identify the moderation effect. Apnea hypopnea index was associated with higher regional white matter hyperintensities but not global white matter hyperintensities. There was a significant interaction between the apnea hypopnea index and age, such that older participants with the apnea hypopnea index ?10 showed greater regional white matter hyperintensities than those with the apnea hypopnea index <10. The results of this preliminary study indicate that a higher apnea hypopnea index is associated with more white matter hyperintensities. The age-related white matter hyperintensities appear to be exacerbated by apnea hypopnea index in our individuals with heart failure. Future studies are needed to further investigate the underlying mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Sleep-disordered breathing is common in individuals with heart failure and may contribute to changes in the brain and decreased cognition. However, limited research has explored how the apnea-hypopnea index contributes to brain structure and cognition in this population. The aims of this study were to explore how the apnea-hypopnea index is associated with brain volume and cognition in heart failure patients. METHODS:Data of 28 heart failure patients (mean age = 67.93; SD = 5.78) were analyzed for this cross-sectional observational study. We evaluated the apnea-hypopnea index using a portable multichannel sleep-monitoring device. All participants were scanned using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests. Brain volume was evaluated using a voxel-based morphometry method with T1-weighted images. We used multiple regressions to analyze how the apnea-hypopnea index is associated with brain volume and cognition. RESULTS:We found an inverse association between apnea-hypopnea index scores and white matter volume (? = -0.002, p = 0.026), but not in gray matter volume (? = -0.001, p = 0.237). Higher apnea-hypopnea index was associated with reduced regional gray and white matter volume (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Cognitive scores were not associated with the apnea-hypopnea index (p-values were >0.05). CONCLUSION:Findings from this study provide exploratory evidence that higher apnea-hypopnea index may be associated with greater brain volume reduction in heart failure patients. Future studies are needed to establish the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing, brain volume, and cognition in heart failure samples.
Project description:Esophageal pressure monitoring during polysomnography in children offers a gold-standard, “preferred” assessment for work of breathing, but is not commonly used in part because prospective data on incremental clinical utility are scarce. We compared a standard pediatric apnea/hypopnea index to quantitative esophageal pressures as predictors of apnea-related neurobehavioral morbidity and treatment response.Eighty-one children aged 7.8 ± 2.8 (SD) years, including 44 boys, had traditional laboratory-based pediatric polysomnography, esophageal pressure monitoring, multiple sleep latency tests, psychiatric evaluations, parental behavior rating scales, and cognitive testing, all just before clinically indicated adenotonsillectomy, and again 7.2 ± 0.8 months later. Esophageal pressures were used, along with nasal pressure monitoring and oronasal thermocouples, not only to identify respiratory events but also more quantitatively to determine the most negative esophageal pressure recorded and the percentage of sleep time spent with pressures lower than -10 cm H(2)O.Both sleep-disordered breathing and neurobehavioral measures improved after surgery. At baseline, one or both quantitative esophageal pressure measures predicted a disruptive behavior disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, or oppositional defiant disorder) and more sleepiness and their future improvement after adenotonsillectomy (each P < .05). The pediatric apnea/hypopnea index did not predict these morbidities or treatment outcomes (each P > .10). The addition of respiratory effort-related arousals to the apnea/hypopnea index did not improve its predictive value. Neither the preoperative apnea/hypopnea index nor esophageal pressures predicted baseline hyperactive behavior, cognitive performance, or their improvement after surgery.Quantitative esophageal pressure monitoring may add predictive value for some, if not all, neurobehavioral outcomes of sleep-disordered breathing.
Project description:PURPOSE:We investigated the association between sleep disordered breathing and erectile dysfunction in older men. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional analysis of community dwelling men age 67 years or older enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep Study. Participants underwent overnight polysomnography (2003 to 2005) and completed sexual health questionnaires (2005 to 2006). We defined sleep disordered breathing using the apnea-hypopnea index or nocturnal hypoxemia. Erectile dysfunction was defined using the MMAS (Massachusetts Male Aging Study) scale and, in sexually active men, the International Index of Erectile Function. We used logistic regression to examine the association between sleep disordered breathing and erectile dysfunction. RESULTS:Mean participant age was 76±5 years. Of the 2,676 men completing the MMAS, 70% had moderate to complete erectile dysfunction. Among 1,099 sexually active men completing the IIEF-5 (5-item International Index of Erectile Function), 26% had moderate to severe erectile dysfunction. A higher apnea-hypopnea index was associated with greater odds of MMAS defined moderate to complete erectile dysfunction after adjusting for age and study site (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.00-1.92 for severe sleep disordered breathing vs none, p trend=0.008), but not after further adjustment for body mass index, socioeconomic status and comorbidities (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.75-1.49, p trend=0.452). Greater nocturnal hypoxemia was associated with increased odds of MMAS defined moderate to complete erectile dysfunction (unadjusted OR 1.36, 95% Cl 1.04-1.80 vs none) but this was attenuated after adjustment for age and study site (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.92-1.66). Sleep disordered breathing was not associated with erectile dysfunction by 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. CONCLUSIONS:In this cross-sectional analysis in older men sleep disordered breathing was associated with higher odds of erectile dysfunction in unadjusted analyses that was largely explained by higher body mass index and increased comorbidity among men with sleep disordered breathing. Prospective studies accounting for obesity and multimorbidity would further clarify the association of sleep disordered breathing and erectile dysfunction.