Study on the Impact Resistance of Bionic Layered Composite of TiC-TiB₂/Al from Al-Ti-B₄C System.
ABSTRACT: Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB₂ reinforced Al matrix composites fabricated from Al-Ti-B₄C system with 40 wt. %, 50 wt. % and 30 wt. % Al contents were treated as an outer layer, middle layer and inner layer in hard layers. Pure Al matrix was regarded as a soft layer. Compared with traditional homogenous Al-Ti-B₄C composite, bionic layered composite exhibited high mechanical properties including flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness. The intercoupling effect of layered structure and combination model of hard and soft played a key role in high impact resistance of the bionic layered composite, proving the feasibility and practicability of the bionic model of a white clam shell.
Project description:Ceramic materials possessing the properties of high-strength and rigidity are widely used in industry. The shell nacre has a layered structure containing both macroscopic and microscopic levels and is equipped with superior qualities regarding hardness and strength. Therefore, the ceramic composites with a nacre-like layered structure have the potential to be utilized as sliding bearings employed in the harsh conditions of wells. For the purpose of this paper, a porous Al?O? ceramics skeleton with nanometer powder is prepared using the freeze-casting method. Then the porous ceramic skeleton is filled with polymer polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) through mass polymerization to produce a bionic Al?O?/PMMA composite with a lamellar structure. The properties of the prepared composite are determined by the analysis of micro-hardness, fracture toughness, friction coefficient, wear scar diameter, and the morphology of the worn surface. Consequent results indicate that elevation in the A1?O? powder, which acts as the initial solid phase content, prompts the ceramic slurry to exhibit an increase in viscosity and a gradual decrease in the pore size of the ceramic skeleton. The prepared layered Al?O?/PMMA composite possesses high fracture toughness, which closely resembles that of Al, is approximately four times that of the matrix of the Al?O? ceramics and 16 times that of the PMMA. Three kinds of composites containing different solid phase content are subjected to testing involving lubrication by water-based drilling fluid to determine the friction coefficient of each. The results indicate that an increased load leads to a decreased friction coefficient while the impact of speed is not evident. Under dry conditions, the friction coefficient of three different composites tested, declines with elevated load and speed. With the use of water-based drilling fluid as lubrication, the wear scar diameter increases at higher speed, while dry conditions denote increased load. Abrasive wear is determined to be the principal form of erosion of layered Al?O?/PMMA composites.
Project description:In Chesapeake Bay, the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria (thin-shelled, deep-burrowing) exhibits population declines when predators are active, and it persists at low densities. In contrast, the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria (thick-shelled, shallow-burrowing) has a stable population and age distribution. We examined the potential for habitat and predators to control densities and distributions of bivalves in a field caging experiment (Mya only) and laboratory mesocosm experiments (both species). In the field, clams exposed to predators experienced 76.3% greater mortality as compared to caged individuals, and blue crabs were likely responsible for most of the mortality of juvenile Mya. In mesocosm experiments, Mya had lower survival in sand and seagrass than in shell hash or oyster shell habitats. However, crabs often missed one or more prey items in seagrass, shell, and oyster shell habitats. Predator search times and encounter rates declined when prey were at low densities, likely due to the added cost of inefficient foraging; however, this effect was more pronounced for Mya than for Mercenaria. Mercenaria had higher survival than Mya in mesocosm experiments, likely because predators feeding on Mercenaria spent less time foraging than those feeding on Mya. Mya may retain a low-density refuge from predation even with the loss of structurally complex habitats, though a loss of habitat refuge may result in clam densities that are not sustainable. A better understanding of density-dependent predator-prey interactions is necessary to prevent loss of food-web integrity and to conserve marine resources.
Project description:Biomimetic composites are usually made by combining hard and soft phases using, for example, multi-material additive manufacturing (AM). Like other fabrication methods, AM techniques are limited by the resolution of the device, hence, setting a minimum length scale. The effects of this length scale on the performance of hard-soft composites are not well understood. Here, we studied how this length scale affects the fracture toughness behavior of single-edge notched specimens made using random, semi-random, and ordered arrangements of the hard and soft phases with five different ratios of hard to soft phases. Increase in the length scale (40 to 960 ?m) was found to cause a four-fold drop in the fracture toughness. The effects of the length scale were also modulated by the arrangement and volumetric ratio of both phases. A decreased size of the crack tip plastic zone, a crack path going through the soft phase, and highly strained areas far from the crack tip were the main mechanisms explaining the drop of the fracture toughness with the length scale.
Project description:Core-shell Zinc Oxide/Layered Double Hydroxide (ZnO@LDH) composite nanomaterials have been produced by a one-step continuous hydrothermal synthesis process, in an attempt to further enhance the application potential of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials. The synthesis involves two hydrothermal reactors in series with the first producing a ZnO core and the second producing the Mg2Al-CO3 shell. Crystal domain length of single phase ZnO and composite ZnO was 25 nm and 42 nm, respectively. The ZnO@LDH composite had a specific surface area of 76 m2 g-1, which was larger than ZnO or Mg2Al-CO3 when produced separately (53 m2 g-1 and 58 m2 g-1, respectively). The increased specific surface area is attributed to the structural arrangement of the Mg2Al-CO3 in the composite. Platelets are envisaged to nucleate on the core and grow outwards, thus reducing the face-face stacking that occurs in conventional Mg2Al-CO3 synthesis. The Mg/Al ratio in the single phase LDH was close to the theoretical ratio of 2, but the Mg/Al ratio in the composite was 1.27 due to the formation of Zn2Al-CO3 LDH from residual Zn2+ ions. NaOH concentration was also found to influence Mg/Al ratio, with lower NaOH resulting in a lower Mg/Al ratio. NaOH concentration also affected morphology and specific surface area, with reduced NaOH content in the second reaction stage causing a dramatic increase in specific surface area (> 250 m2 g-1). The formation of a core-shell composite material was achieved through continuous synthesis; however, the final product was not entirely ZnO@Mg2Al-CO3. The product contained a mixture of ZnO, Mg2Al-CO3, Zn2Al-CO3, and the composite material. Whilst further optimisation is required in order to remove other crystalline impurities from the synthesis, this research acts as a stepping stone towards the formation of composite materials via a one-step continuous synthesis.
Project description:The byssal threads of the fan shell Atrina pectinata are non-living functional materials intimately associated with living tissue, which provide an intriguing paradigm of bionic interface for robust load-bearing device. An interfacial load-bearing protein (A. pectinata foot protein-1, apfp-1) with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-containing and mannose-binding domains has been characterized from Atrina's foot. apfp-1 was localized at the interface between stiff byssus and the soft tissue by immunochemical staining and confocal Raman imaging, implying that apfp-1 is an interfacial linker between the byssus and soft tissue, that is, the DOPA-containing domain interacts with itself and other byssal proteins via Fe3(+)-DOPA complexes, and the mannose-binding domain interacts with the soft tissue and cell membranes. Both DOPA- and sugar-mediated bindings are reversible and robust under wet conditions. This work shows the combination of DOPA and sugar chemistry at asymmetric interfaces is unprecedented and highly relevant to bionic interface design for tissue engineering and bionic devices.
Project description:A novel soft-hard cooperative approach was developed to synthesize bioactive mesoporous composite by pre-wrapping Penicillin G amidase with poly(acrylaimde) nanogel skin and subsequently incorporating such Penicillin G amidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica. The as-received bioactive mesoporous composite exhibited comparable activity and extraordinarily high stability in comparison with native Penicillin G amidase and could be used repetitively in the water-medium hydrolysis of penicillin G potassium salt. Furthermore, this strategy could be extended to the synthesis of multifunctional bioactive mesoporous composite by simultaneously introducing glucose oxidase nanocapsules and horseradish peroxidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica, which demonstrated a synergic effect in one-pot tandem oxidation reaction. Improvements in the catalytic performances were attributed to the combinational unique structure from soft polymer skin and hard inorganic mesoporous silica shell, which cooperatively helped enzyme molecules to retain their appropriate geometry and simultaneously decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass transfer limitation under heterogeneous conditions.
Project description:Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials.
Project description:Aluminium (Al) powders of micron size are widely applied to energetic materials as a high energy fuel. However, its energy conversion efficiency is generally low due to low oxidation activity. In this paper, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating layer with both protection and activation action was successfully introduced onto the surface of Al via adsorption and following heat treatment. The preparation conditions were optimized and the thermal activity of this core-shell composite material was studied. The potential enhancement mechanism for Al oxidation was proposed. The results showed that PTFE powders deformed into membrane on the surface of Al after the sintering process. This polymer shell could act as an effective passivation layer protecting internal Al from oxidation during aging. The reduction in metallic Al of Al/PTFE was decreased by 84.7%, more than that in original spherical Al when the aging time is 60 days. Moreover, PTFE could react with Al resulting in a thin AlF3 layer, which could promote the destruction of Al2O3 shell. Thus, PTFE could enhance oxidation activity of micro-Al. The conversion of Al was increased by a factor of 1.8 when heated to 1100 °C. Improved aging-resistant performance and promoted oxidation activity of Al could potentially broaden its application in the field of energetic materials.
Project description:This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.
Project description:The molecular-scale structure of the ionic liquid [C18mim](+)[FAP](-) near its free surface was studied by complementary methods. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant soft X-ray reflectivity revealed a depth-decaying near-surface layering. Element-specific interfacial profiles were extracted with submolecular resolution from energy-dependent soft X-ray reflectivity data. Temperature-dependent hard X-ray reflectivity, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and infrared spectroscopy uncovered an intriguing melting mechanism for the layered region, where alkyl chain melting drove a negative thermal expansion of the surface layer spacing.