SRF modulates seizure occurrence, activity induced gene transcription and hippocampal circuit reorganization in the mouse pilocarpine epilepsy model.
ABSTRACT: A hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is hippocampal neuronal demise and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, unrestrained neuronal activity in TLE patients induces gene expression including immediate early genes (IEGs) such as Fos and Egr1.We employed the mouse pilocarpine model to analyze the transcription factor (TF) serum response factor (SRF) in epileptogenesis, seizure induced histopathology and IEG induction. SRF is a neuronal activity regulated TF stimulating IEG expression as well as nerve fiber growth and guidance. Adult conditional SRF deficient mice (Srf CaMKCreERT2 ) were more refractory to initial status epilepticus (SE) acquisition. Further, SRF deficient mice developed more spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis uncovered a requirement of SRF for SE and SRS induced IEG induction (e.g. Fos, Egr1, Arc, Npas4, Btg2, Atf3). SRF was required for epilepsy associated neurodegeneration, mossy fiber sprouting and inflammation. We uncovered MAP kinase signaling as SRF target during epilepsy. Upon SRF ablation, seizure evoked induction of dual specific phosphatases (Dusp5 and Dusp6) was reduced. Lower expression of these negative ERK kinase regulators correlated with altered P-ERK levels in epileptic Srf mutant animals.Overall, this study uncovered an SRF contribution to several processes of epileptogenesis in the pilocarpine model.
Project description:Altered granule cell>>CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic connectivity may contribute to the development of limbic epilepsy. To explore this possibility, granule cell giant mossy fiber bouton plasticity was examined in the kindling and pilocarpine models of epilepsy using green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice. These studies revealed significant increases in the frequency of giant boutons with satellite boutons 2 days and 1 month after pilocarpine status epilepticus, and increases in giant bouton area at 1 month. Similar increases in giant bouton area were observed shortly after kindling. Finally, both models exhibited plasticity of mossy fiber giant bouton filopodia, which contact GABAergic interneurons mediating feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramids. In the kindling model, however, all changes were fleeting, having resolved by 1 month after the last evoked seizure. Together, these findings demonstrate striking structural plasticity of granule cell mossy fiber synaptic terminal structure in two distinct models of adult limbic epileptogenesis. We suggest that these plasticities modify local connectivities between individual mossy fiber terminals and their targets, inhibitory interneurons, and CA3 pyramidal cells potentially altering the balance of excitation and inhibition during the development of epilepsy.
Project description:During brain development, neurons and their nerve fibers are often segregated in specific layers. The hippocampus is a well-suited model system to study lamination in health and aberrant cell/fiber lamination associated with neurological disorders. SRF (serum response factor), a transcription factor, regulates synaptic-activity-induced immediate-early gene (IEG) induction and cytoskeleton-based neuronal motility. Using early postnatal conditional SRF ablation, we uncovered distorted hippocampal lamination, including malpositioning of granule cell neurons and disruption of layer-restricted termination of commissural-associational and mossy fiber axons. Besides axons, dendrite branching and spine morphogenesis in Srf mutants were impaired, offering a first morphological basis for SRF's reported role in learning and memory. Srf mutants resemble mice lacking components of the reelin signaling cascade, a fundamental signaling entity in brain lamination. Our data indicate that reelin signaling and SRF-mediated gene transcription might be connected: reelin induces IEG and cytoskeletal genes in an SRF-dependent manner. Further, reelin-induced neurite motility is blocked in Srf mutants and constitutively active SRF rescues impaired neurite extension in reeler mouse mutants in vitro. In sum, data provided in this report show that SRF contributes to hippocampal layer and nerve fiber organization and point at a link between Srf gene transcription and reelin signaling.
Project description:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating disease in which aberrant synaptic plasticity plays a major role. We identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 as a novel synaptic enzyme and a key pathogenic factor in two animal models of TLE: kainate-evoked epilepsy and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling-induced epilepsy. Notably, we show that the sensitivity to PTZ epileptogenesis is decreased in MMP-9 knockout mice but is increased in a novel line of transgenic rats overexpressing MMP-9. Immunoelectron microscopy reveals that MMP-9 associates with hippocampal dendritic spines bearing asymmetrical (excitatory) synapses, where both the MMP-9 protein levels and enzymatic activity become strongly increased upon seizures. Further, we find that MMP-9 deficiency diminishes seizure-evoked pruning of dendritic spines and decreases aberrant synaptogenesis after mossy fiber sprouting. The latter observation provides a possible mechanistic basis for the effect of MMP-9 on epileptogenesis. Our work suggests that a synaptic pool of MMP-9 is critical for the sequence of events that underlie the development of seizures in animal models of TLE.
Project description:The development of epilepsy is often associated with marked changes in central nervous system cell structure and function. Along these lines, reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are commonly observed in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here we used the pilocarpine model of TLE in mice to screen the proteome and phosphoproteome of the dentate gyrus to identify molecular events that are altered as part of the pathogenic process. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based approach, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 24 differentially expressed proteins, including 9 phosphoproteins, were identified. Functionally, these proteins were organized into several classes, including synaptic physiology, cell structure, cell stress, metabolism and energetics. The altered expression of three proteins involved in synaptic physiology, actin, profilin 1 and ?-synuclein was validated by secondary methods. Interestingly, marked changes in protein expression were detected in the supragranular cell region, an area where robust mossy fibers sprouting occurs. Together, these data provide new molecular insights into the altered protein profile of the epileptogenic dentate gyrus and point to potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis.
Project description:Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into ?-tubulin III+ neurons (?34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (?28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (?8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ?24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal brain-derived NSPCs possess some therapeutic effect for TLE treatments although further studies to both increase the yield of NSPC grafts-derived functionally integrated GABAergic neurons and improve cognitive deficits are still needed.
Project description:Voltage gated K(+) channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (??CT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Project description:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common chronic neurological disease in humans. A number of studies have demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs in the hippocampus of humans with TLE and in animal models of experimental epilepsy. However, the dissimilarities in experimental design have led to largely discordant results across these studies. Thus, a comprehensive comparison is required in order to better characterize miRNA profiles obtained in various post-status epilepticus (SE) models. We therefore created a database and performed a meta-analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs across 3 post-SE models of epileptogenesis (electrical stimulation, pilocarpine and kainic acid) and human TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). The database includes data from 11 animal post-SE studies and 3 human TLE-HS studies. A total of 378 differentially expressed miRNAs were collected (274 up-regulated and 198 down-regulated) and analyzed with respect to the post-SE model, time point and animal species. We applied the novel robust rank aggregation method to identify consistently differentially expressed miRNAs across the profiles. It highlighted common and unique miRNAs at different stages of epileptogenesis. The pathway analysis revealed involvement of these miRNAs in key pathogenic pathways underlying epileptogenesis, including inflammation, gliosis and deregulation of the extracellular matrix.
Project description:Accumulating evidence points to the association of epilepsy, particularly, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Among these illnesses, the hippocampus is considered the regional focal point of the brain, playing an important role in cognition, psychosis, and seizure activity and potentially suggesting common etiologies and pathophysiology of TLE and schizophrenia. In the present review, we overview abnormal network connectivity between the dentate gyrus (DG) and the Cornus Ammonis area 3 (CA3) subregions of the hippocampus relative to the induction of epilepsy and schizophrenia. In light of our recent finding on the misguidance of hippocampal mossy fiber projection in the rodent model of schizophrenia, we discuss whether ectopic mossy fiber projection is a commonality in order to evoke TLE as well as symptoms related to schizophrenia.
Project description:This study was undertaken to assay the effect of lovastatin on the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3?) and collapsin responsive mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) signaling pathway and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in epileptic rats. MFS in the dentate gyrus (DG) is an important feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is highly related to the severity and the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures. However, the molecular mechanism of MFS is mostly unknown. GSK-3? and CRMP-2 are the genes responsible for axonal growth and neuronal polarity in the hippocampus, therefore this pathway is a potential target to investigate MFS. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus animal model was taken as our researching material. Western blot, histological and electrophysiological techniques were used as the studying tools. The results showed that the expression level of GSK-3? and CRMP-2 were elevated after seizure induction, and the administration of lovastatin reversed this effect and significantly reduced the extent of MFS in both DG and CA3 region in the hippocampus. The alteration of expression level of GSK-3? and CRMP-2 after seizure induction proposes that GSK-3? and CRMP-2 are crucial for MFS and epiletogenesis. The fact that lovastatin reversed the expression level of GSK-3? and CRMP-2 indicated that GSK-3? and CRMP-2 are possible to be a novel mechanism of lovatstain to suppress MFS and revealed a new therapeutic target and researching direction for studying the mechanism of MFS and epileptogenesis.
Project description:To determine if myeloperoxidase (MPO) is involved in epileptogenesis and if molecular nuclear imaging can be used to noninvasively map inflammatory changes in epileptogenesis.The animal and human studies were approved by the institutional review boards. Pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice were treated with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (n = 46), a specific irreversible MPO inhibitor, or saline (n = 42). Indium-111-bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate was used to image brain MPO activity (n = 6 in the 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide and saline groups; n = 5 in the sham group) by using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. The role of MPO in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures was assessed by means of clinical symptoms and biochemical and histopathologic data. Human brain specimens from a patient with epilepsy and a patient without epilepsy were stained for MPO. The Student t test, one-way analysis of variance, and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. Differences were regarded as significant if P was less than .05.MPO and leukocytes increased in the brain during epileptogenesis (P < .05). Blocking MPO delayed spontaneous recurrent seizures (99.6 vs 142 hours, P = .016), ameliorated the severity of spontaneous recurrent seizures (P < .05), and inhibited mossy fiber sprouting (Timm index, 0.31 vs 0.03; P = .003). Matrix metalloproteinase activity was upregulated during epileptogenesis in an MPO-dependent manner (1.44 vs 0.94 U/mg, P = .049), suggesting that MPO acts upstream of matrix metalloproteinases. MPO activity was mapped during epileptogenesis in vivo in the hippocampal regions. Resected temporal lobe tissue from a human patient with refractory epilepsy but not the temporal lobe tissue from a patient without seizures demonstrated positive MPO immunostaining, suggesting high translational potential for this imaging technology.The findings of this study highlight an important role for MPO in epileptogenesis and show MPO to be a potential therapeutic target and imaging biomarker for epilepsy.