Loss of DIP2C in RKO cells stimulates changes in DNA methylation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
ABSTRACT: The disco-interacting protein 2 homolog C (DIP2C) gene is an uncharacterized gene found mutated in a subset of breast and lung cancers. To understand the role of DIP2C in tumour development we studied the gene in human cancer cells.We engineered human DIP2C knockout cells by genome editing in cancer cells. The growth properties of the engineered cells were characterised and transcriptome and methylation analyses were carried out to identify pathways deregulated by inactivation of DIP2C. Effects on cell death pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition traits were studied based on the results from expression profiling.Knockout of DIP2C in RKO cells resulted in cell enlargement and growth retardation. Expression profiling revealed 780 genes for which the expression level was affected by the loss of DIP2C, including the tumour-suppressor encoding CDKN2A gene, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator-encoding ZEB1, and CD44 and CD24 that encode breast cancer stem cell markers. Analysis of DNA methylation showed more than 30,000 sites affected by differential methylation, the majority of which were hypomethylated following loss of DIP2C. Changes in DNA methylation at promoter regions were strongly correlated to changes in gene expression, and genes involved with EMT and cell death were enriched among the differentially regulated genes. The DIP2C knockout cells had higher wound closing capacity and showed an increase in the proportion of cells positive for cellular senescence markers.Loss of DIP2C triggers substantial DNA methylation and gene expression changes, cellular senescence and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells.
Project description:Purpose: The disco-interacting protein 2 homolog C (DIP2C) gene is an uncharacterized gene found mutated in breast and lung cancers. We want to understand the role of DIP2C in tumor development. Methods: We engineered human DIP2C knockout cell systems by genome editing, and then use next-generation sequencing to identify the genes affected by the loss of DIP2C. Results: Inactivation of DIP2C triggers substantial gene expression changes, cellular senescence and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in cancer cells. Overall design: To investigate if loss of DIP2C affects gene expression we performed RNA sequencing and compared gene expression levels in the DIP2C knockout cells to those in parental RKO cells.
Project description:Placental trophoblast invasion involves a cellular transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. Cytotrophoblasts undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) when differentiating into extravillous trophoblasts and gaining the capacity of invasion. In this research, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in trophoblasts during this EMT. First, using BeWo and HTR8/SVneo cell lines as models of cytotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, respectively, we analyzed the gene expression and DNA methylation status of the known epithelial marker genes, E-Cadherin and Cytokeratin7. We found that, in HTR8/SVneo cells, both genes were silenced and their promoters hypermethylated, as compared with the high-level gene expression and promoter hypomethylation observed in BeWo cells. This result suggests that dynamic DNA methylation of epithelial marker genes plays a critical role in the trophoblast EMT process. To verify these results, we treated HTR8/SVneo cells with 5-aza-dC, a known inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, for three days. Five-Aza-dC treatment significantly increased the expression of epithelial marker genes and slightly decreased the expression of mesenchymal genes, as detected by qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Furthermore, 5-aza-dC treated HTR8/SVneo cells changed their morphology from mesenchymal into epithelial phenotype, indicating that 5-aza-dC induced mesenchymal to epithelial transition. Lastly, we examined the effect of 5-aza-dC on trophoblast migration and invasion capacity. We applied 5-aza-dC to HTR8/SVneo cells in trans-well cell migration and invasion assays and found that 5-aza-dC treatment decreased trophoblast migration and invasion capacity. In conclusion, DNA methylation of epithelial marker genes represents a molecular mechanism for the process of trophoblast EMT.
Project description:Overexpression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox transcription factor 1 (Zeb1) in cancer leads to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased metastasis. As opposed to overexpression, we show that mutation of Zeb1 in mice causes a mesenchymal-epithelial transition in gene expression characterized by ectopic expression of epithelial genes such as E-cadherin and loss of expression of mesenchymal genes such as vimentin. In contrast to rapid proliferation in cancer cells where Zeb1 is overexpressed, this mesenchymal-epithelial transition in mutant mice is associated with diminished proliferation of progenitor cells at sites of developmental defects, including the forming palate, skeleton and CNS. Zeb1 dosage-dependent deregulation of epithelial and mesenchymal genes extends to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and mutant MEFs also display diminished replicative capacity in culture, leading to premature senescence. Replicative senescence in MEFs is classically triggered by products of the Ink4a (Cdkn2a) gene. However, this Ink4a pathway is not activated during senescence of Zeb1 mutant MEFs. Instead, there is ectopic expression of two other cell cycle inhibitory cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p15Ink4b (Cdkn2b) and p21Cdkn1a (Cdkn1a). We demonstrate that this ectopic expression of p15Ink4b extends in vivo to sites of diminished progenitor cell proliferation and developmental defects in Zeb1-null mice.
Project description:Cancer cells exhibit phenotypic plasticity during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) involving intermediate states. To study genome-wide epigenetic remodeling associated with EMT plasticity, we integrate the analyses of DNA methylation, ChIP-sequencing of five histone marks (H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27Ac, H3K27me3 and H3K9me3) and transcriptome profiling performed on ovarian cancer cells with different epithelial/mesenchymal states and on a knockdown model of EMT suppressor Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2). We have identified differentially methylated CpG sites associated with EMT, found at promoters of epithelial genes and GRHL2 binding sites. GRHL2 knockdown results in CpG methylation gain and nucleosomal remodeling (reduction in permissive marks H3K4me3 and H3K27ac; elevated repressive mark H3K27me3), resembling the changes observed across progressive EMT states. Epigenetic-modifying agents such as 5-azacitidine, GSK126 and mocetinostat further reveal cell state-dependent plasticity upon GRHL2 overexpression. Overall, we demonstrate that epithelial genes are subject to epigenetic control during intermediate phases of EMT/MET involving GRHL2.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its critical roles during cancer progression have long been recognized and extensively reviewed. Recent studies on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have established the connections among EMT, energy metabolism, DNA methylation, and histone modification. Since energy metabolism, DNA methylation, and histone modification are important for cancer development and there are common characteristics between cancer cells and stem cells, it is reasonable to identify mechanisms that have been established during both reprogramming and cancer progression. In the current review, we start from a brief review on EMT and related processes during cancer progression, and then switch to the EMT during somatic cell reprogramming. We summarize the connection between EMT and metabolic switch during reprogramming, and further review the involvements of DNA methylation and cell proliferation. The connections between EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and cellular aspects including DNA methylation, histone modification and energy metabolism may provide potential new targets for cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Growing evidence demonstrates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression and spreading; however, its molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. We have previously shown that the antigen receptor LY75 can modulate EOC cell phenotype and metastatic potential, as LY75 depletion directed mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in EOC cell lines with mesenchymal phenotype. We used the LY75-mediated modulation of EMT as a model to investigate for DNA methylation changes during EMT in EOC cells, by applying the reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) methodology. Numerous genes have displayed EMT-related DNA methylation patterns alterations in their promoter/exon regions. Ten selected genes, whose DNA methylation alterations were further confirmed by alternative methods, were further identified, some of which could represent new EOC biomarkers/therapeutic targets. Moreover, our methylation data were strongly indicative for the predominant implication of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in the EMT-induced DNA methylation variations in EOC cells. Consecutive experiments, including alterations in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway activity in EOC cells with a specific inhibitor and the identification of LY75-interacting partners by a proteomic approach, were strongly indicative for the direct implication of the LY75 receptor in modulating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling in EOC cells.
Project description:Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer cell heterogeneity, plasticity and metastasis. It has been the subject of several modeling effort. This logical model of the EMT cellular network aims to assess microenvironmental signals controlling cancer-associated phenotypes amid the EMT continuum. Its outcomes relate to the qualitative degrees of cell adhesions by adherent junctions and focal adhesions, two features affected during EMT. Model attractors recover epithelial, mesenchymal and hybrid phenotypes, and simulations show that hybrid phenotypes may arise through independent molecular paths, involving stringent extrinsic signals.
Of particular interest, model predictions and their experimental validations indicated that: 1) ECM stiffening is a prerequisite for cells overactivating FAK-SRC to upregulate SNAIL1 and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype, and 2) FAK-SRC inhibition of cell-cell contacts through the Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphates kappa leads to the acquisition of a full mesenchymal rather than a hybrid phenotype.
Project description:p63 is a p53 family protein required for morphogenesis and postnatal regeneration of epithelial tissues. Here we demonstrate that ?Np63?, a p63 isoform lacking the N-terminal transactivation domain, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary human keratinocytes in a TGF-?-dependent manner. Rapidly proliferating normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) were infected with retroviral vector expressing ?Np63? or empty vector and serially subcultured until replicative senescence. No phenotypic changes were observed until the culture reached senescence. Then the ?Np63?-transduced cells underwent morphological changes resembling mesenchymal cells and acquired the EMT phenotype. Treatment with exogenous TGF-? accelerated EMT in presenescent ?Np63?-transduced cells, whereas the inhibition of TGF-? signaling reversed the EMT phenotype. TGF-? treatment alone led to growth arrest in control NHEK with no evidence of EMT, indicating that ?Np63? altered the cellular response to TGF-? treatment. ?Np63?-transduced cells acquiring EMT gained the ability to be differentiated to osteo-/odontogenic and adipogenic pathways, resembling mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, these cells expressed enhanced levels of Nanog and Lin28, which are transcription factors associated with pluripotency. These data indicate that EMT required ?Np63? transduction and intact TGF-? signaling in NHEK.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes cancer cell invasion, metastasis and treatment failure. EMT may be activated in cancer cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS). EMT may promote conversion of a subset of cancer cells from a CD44(low)-CD24(high) (CD44L) epithelial phenotype to a CD44(high)-CD24(-/low) (CD44H) mesenchymal phenotype, the latter associated with increased malignant properties of cancer cells. ROS are required for cells undergoing EMT, although excessive ROS may induce cell death or senescence; however, little is known as to how cellular antioxidant capabilities may be regulated during EMT. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is frequently overexpressed in oral and esophageal cancers. Here, we investigate mechanisms of SOD2 transcriptional regulation in EMT, as well as the functional role of this antioxidant in EMT. Using well-characterized genetically engineered oral and esophageal human epithelial cell lines coupled with RNA interference and flow cytometric approaches, we find that transforming growth factor (TGF)-? stimulates EMT, resulting in conversion of CD44L to CD44H cells, the latter of which display SOD2 upregulation. SOD2 induction in transformed keratinocytes was concurrent with suppression of TGF-?-mediated induction of both ROS and senescence. SOD2 gene expression appeared to be transcriptionally regulated by NF-?B and ZEB2, but not ZEB1. Moreover, SOD2-mediated antioxidant activity may restrict conversion of CD44L cells to CD44H cells at the early stages of EMT. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the dynamic expression of SOD2 during EMT. In addition, we delineate a functional role for SOD2 in EMT via the influence of this antioxidant upon distinct CD44L and CD44H subsets of cancer cells that have been implicated in oral and esophageal tumor biology.
Project description:Snail and Slug play critical roles in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and in the maintenance of mesenchymal morphology. In this research, we investigated the correlation of DNA methylation with the transcriptional level of these two genes during the EMT/MET process. First, we used several cell lines associated with EMT/MET processes of induced pluripotent stem cell generation and differentiation, trophoblast invasion, as well as cancer progression to examine the association between DNA methylation and transcription levels of these two genes. We found an inverse correlation between DNA methylation of first intron regions and transcription levels of Snail and Slug genes in these EMT/METs. To further verify the results, we treated two trophoblast cell line BeWo and HTR8/SVneo and one induced pluripotent stem cell line with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, which caused increased expression of these two genes. Lastly, we cloned the promoters of both Snail and Slug into pGL3-Basic vector, after in vitro DNA methylation and transfection into IMR90 and HTR8/SVneo cells; we observed the significant reduction of their promoter activity due to DNA methylation. In summary, based on these results, DNA methylation is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating Snail and Slug genes during EMT/MET process.