The aspirin metabolite salicylate inhibits lysine acetyltransferases and MUC1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
ABSTRACT: MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin that can promote cancer progression, and its upregulation correlates with a worse prognosis in colon cancer. We examined the effects of overexpression of MUC1 in colon cancer cells, finding that it induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), including enhanced migration and invasion, and increased Akt phosphorylation. When the clones were treated with the aspirin metabolite salicylate, Akt phosphorylation was decreased and EMT inhibited. As the salicylate motif is necessary for the activity of the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) inhibitor anacardic acid, we hypothesized these effects were associated with the inhibition of KAT activity. This was supported by anacardic acid treatment producing the same effect on EMT. In vitro KAT assays confirmed that salicylate directly inhibited PCAF/Kat2b, Tip60/Kat5 and hMOF/Kat8, and this inhibition was likely involved in the reversal of EMT in the metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Salicylate treatment also inhibited EMT induced by cytokines, illustrating the general effect it had on this process. The inhibition of both EMT and KATs by salicylate presents a little explored activity that could explain some of the anti-cancer effects of aspirin.
Project description:Tetraploidy constitutes a genomically metastable state that can lead to aneuploidy and genomic instability. Tetraploid cells are frequently found in preneoplastic lesions, including intestinal cancers arising due to the inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Using a phenotypic screen, we identified resveratrol as an agent that selectively reduces the fitness of tetraploid cells by slowing down their cell cycle progression and by stimulating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Selective killing of tetraploid cells was observed for a series of additional agents that indirectly or directly stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) including salicylate, whose chemopreventive action has been established by epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Both resveratrol and salicylate reduced the formation of tetraploid or higher-order polyploid cells resulting from the culture of human colon carcinoma cell lines or primary mouse epithelial cells lacking tumor protein p53 (TP53, best known as p53) in the presence of antimitotic agents, as determined by cytofluorometric and videomicroscopic assays. Moreover, oral treatment with either resveratrol or aspirin, the prodrug of salicylate, repressed the accumulation of tetraploid intestinal epithelial cells in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colon cancer. Collectively, our results suggest that the chemopreventive action of resveratrol and aspirin involves the elimination of tetraploid cancer cell precursors.
Project description:Mucin1 (MUC1) upregulation in colon cancer has been linked to poor patient outcomes and advanced stage at diagnosis. This is partially due to MUC1-mediated inhibition of T-cell proliferation affecting efficient lysis by cytotoxic lymphocytes, which contributes to escape from immune surveillance. In the present study, human colorectal cancer tissues were collected, and MUC1-positive and MUC1-negative colon cancer mouse models were prepared; subsequently, the number and function of immune cells in tumor tissues were measured using flow cytometry. The present study revealed that MUC1, as a tumor-associated antigen, can recruit more tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment compared with MUC1-negative colon cancer, but that these cells could not serve antitumor roles. Conversely, the present study demonstrated that MUC1-positive colon cancer attracted more regulatory T cells (Treg cells), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to the tumor site than MUC1-negative colon cancer. Furthermore, the data suggested that programmed death protein 1 (PD1)-programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) expression is greater in MUC1-positive colon cancer. Blocking the PD1-PDL1 signaling pathway reduced the percentage of Treg cells, MDSCs and TAMs in the tumor microenvironment, enhanced T-cell cytotoxicity and inhibited tumor growth, prolonging the survival time of MUC1-positive tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, the present study elucidated the role of MUC1 in tumor immune escape and provides a foundation for the application of PDL1 inhibitors to MUC1-positive colon cancer.
Project description:Aspirin and its main metabolite salicylate are promising molecules in preventing cancer and metabolic diseases. S. cerevisiae cells have been used to study some of their effects: (i) salicylate induces the reversible inhibition of both glucose transport and the biosyntheses of glucose-derived sugar phosphates, (ii) Aspirin/salicylate causes apoptosis associated with superoxide radical accumulation or early cell necrosis in MnSOD-deficient cells growing in ethanol or in glucose, respectively. So, treatment with (acetyl)-salicylic acid can alter the yeast metabolism and is associated with cell death. We describe here the dramatic effects of salicylate on cellular control of the exit from a quiescence state. The growth recovery of long-term stationary phase cells was strongly inhibited in the presence of salicylate, to a degree proportional to the drug concentration. At high salicylate concentration, growth reactivation was completely repressed and associated with a dramatic loss of cell viability. Strikingly, both of these phenotypes were fully suppressed by increasing the cAMP signal without any variation of the exponential growth rate. Upon nutrient exhaustion, salicylate induced a premature lethal cell cycle arrest in the budded-G2/M phase that cannot be suppressed by PKA activation. We discuss how the dramatic antagonism between cAMP and salicylate could be conserved and impinge common targets in yeast and humans. Targeting quiescence of cancer cells with stem-like properties and their growth recovery from dormancy are major challenges in cancer therapy. If mechanisms underlying cAMP-salicylate antagonism will be defined in our model, this might have significant therapeutic implications.
Project description:Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide variety of pathophysiological conditions. To further define the mechanism of CNSL action, we investigated the effect of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) on two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2/gelatinase A and MMP-9/gelatinase B, which are known to have critical roles in several disease states. We observed that the major constituent of CNSE, anacardic acid, markedly inhibited the gelatinase activity of 3T3-L1 cells. Our gelatin zymography studies on these two secreted gelatinases, present in the conditioned media from 3T3-L1 cells, established that anacardic acid directly inhibited the catalytic activities of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our docking studies suggested that anacardic acid binds into the MMP-2/9 active site, with the carboxylate group of anacardic acid chelating the catalytic zinc ion and forming a hydrogen bond to a key catalytic glutamate side chain and the C15 aliphatic group being accommodated within the relatively large S1' pocket of these gelatinases. In agreement with the docking results, our fluorescence-based studies on the recombinant MMP-2 catalytic core domain demonstrated that anacardic acid directly inhibits substrate peptide cleavage in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC?? of 11.11 ?M. In addition, our gelatinase zymography and fluorescence data confirmed that the cardol-cardanol mixture, salicylic acid, and aspirin, all of which lack key functional groups present in anacardic acid, are much weaker MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitors. Our results provide the first evidence for inhibition of gelatinase catalytic activity by anacardic acid, providing a novel template for drug discovery and a molecular mechanism potentially involved in CNSL therapeutic action.
Project description:The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is activated in cancer cells by ZEB1, a member of the zinc finger/homeodomain family of transcriptional repressors. The mucin 1 (MUC1) heterodimeric protein is aberrantly overexpressed in human carcinoma cells. The present studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit induces expression of ZEB1 by a NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa B) p65-dependent mechanism. MUC1-C occupies the ZEB1 promoter with NF-?B p65 and thereby promotes ZEB1 transcription. In turn, ZEB1 associates with MUC1-C and the ZEB1/MUC1-C complex contributes to the transcriptional suppression of miR-200c, an inducer of epithelial differentiation. The co-ordinate upregulation of ZEB1 and suppression of miR-200c has been linked to the induction of EMT. In concert with the effects of MUC1-C on ZEB1 and miR-200c, we show that MUC1-C induces EMT and cellular invasion by a ZEB1-mediated mechanism. These findings indicate that (i) MUC1-C activates ZEB1 and suppresses miR-200c with the induction of EMT and (ii) targeting MUC1-C could be an effective approach for the treatment of breast and possibly other types of cancers that develop EMT properties.
Project description:The oncogenic MUC1-C protein and the TWIST1 epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factor (EMT-TF) are aberrantly expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. However, there is no known association between MUC1-C and TWIST1 in TNBC or other cancer cells. Here, we show that MUC1-C activates STAT3, and that MUC1-C and pSTAT3 drive induction of the TWIST1 gene. In turn, MUC1-C binds directly to TWIST1, and MUC1-C/TWIST1 complexes activate MUC1-C expression in an autoinductive circuit. The functional significance of the MUC1-C/TWIST1 circuit is supported by the demonstration that this pathway is sufficient for driving (i) the EMT-TFs, ZEB1 and SNAIL, (ii) multiple genes in the EMT program as determined by RNA-seq, and (iii) the capacity for cell invasion. We also demonstrate that the MUC1-C/TWIST1 circuit drives (i) expression of the stem cell markers SOX2, BMI1, ALDH1, and CD44, (ii) self-renewal capacity, and (iii) tumorigenicity. In concert with these results, we show that MUC1-C and TWIST1 also drive EMT and stemness in association with acquired paclitaxel (PTX) resistance. Of potential therapeutic importance, targeting MUC1-C and thereby TWIST1 reverses the PTX refractory phenotype as evidenced by synergistic activity with PTX against drug-resistant cells. These findings uncover a master role for MUC1-C in driving the induction of TWIST1, EMT, stemness, and drug resistance, and support MUC1-C as a highly attractive target for inhibiting TNBC plasticity and progression.
Project description:The mucin 1 (MUC1) oncoprotein has been linked to the inflammatory response by promoting cytokine-mediated activation of the NF-?B pathway. The TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an essential effector of proinflammatory NF-?B signaling that also regulates cancer cell survival. The present studies demonstrate that the MUC1-C transmembrane subunit induces TAK1 expression in colon cancer cells. MUC1 also induces TAK1 in a MUC1(+/-)/IL-10(-/-) mouse model of colitis and colon tumorigenesis. We show that MUC1-C promotes NF-?B-mediated activation of TAK1 transcription and, in a positive regulatory loop, MUC1-C contributes to TAK1-induced NF-?B signaling. In this way, MUC1-C binds directly to TAK1 and confers the association of TAK1 with TRAF6, which is necessary for TAK1-mediated activation of NF-?B. Targeting MUC1-C thus suppresses the TAK1?NF-?B pathway, downregulates BCL-XL and in turn sensitizes colon cancer cells to MEK inhibition. Analysis of colon cancer databases further indicates that MUC1, TAK1 and TRAF6 are upregulated in tumors associated with decreased survival and that MUC1-C-induced gene expression patterns predict poor outcomes in patients. These results support a model in which MUC1-C-induced TAK1?NF-?B signaling contributes to intestinal inflammation and colon cancer progression.
Project description:The MUC1 gene evolved in mammalian species to provide protection of epithelia. The transmembrane MUC1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) signals stress to the interior of the epithelial cell and, when overexpressed as in most carcinomas, functions as an oncoprotein. MUC1-C induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by activating the inflammatory NF-?B p65 pathway and, in turn, the EMT-transcriptional repressor ZEB1. Emerging evidence has indicated that MUC1-C drives a program integrating the induction of EMT with activation of stem cell traits, epigenetic reprogramming and immune evasion. This mini-review focuses on the potential importance of this MUC1-C program in cancer progression.
Project description:Mucin1 (MUC1) is an epithelial glycoprotein overexpressed in ovarian cancer and actively involved in tumor cell migration and metastasis. Using novel in vitro and in vivo MUC1-expressing conditional (Cre-loxP) ovarian tumor models, we focus here on MUC1 biology and the roles of Kras activation and Pten deletion during cell transformation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We generated several novel murine ovarian cancer cell lines derived from the ovarian surface epithelia (OSE) of mice with conditional mutations in Kras, Pten or both. In addition, we also generated several tumor-derived new cell lines that reproduce the original tumor phenotype in vivo and mirror late stage metastatic disease. Our results demonstrate that de novo activation of oncogenic Kras does not trigger increased proliferation, cellular transformation or EMT, and prevents MUC1 upregulation. In contrast, Pten deletion accelerates cell proliferation, triggers cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo, and stimulates MUC1 expression. Ovarian tumor-derived cell lines MKP-Liver and MKP-Lung cells reproduce in vivo EMT and represent the first immune competent mouse model for distant hematogenous spread. Whole genome microarray expression analysis using tumor and OSE-derived cell lines reveal a 121 gene signature associated with EMT and metastasis. When applied to n=542 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ovarian cancer dataset, the gene signature identifies a patient subset with decreased survival (P=0.04). Using an extensive collection of novel murine cell lines we have identified distinct roles for Kras and Pten on MUC1 and EMT in vivo and in vitro. The data has implications for future design of combination therapies targeting Kras mutations, Pten deletions and MUC1 vaccines.