The Spi1/PU.1 transcription factor accelerates replication fork progression by increasing PP1 phosphatase in leukemia.
ABSTRACT: Oncogenes trigger replicative stress that can lead to genetic instability, which participates in cancer progression. Thus, determining how cells cope with replicative stress can help our understanding of oncogenesis and lead to the identification of new antitumor treatment targets. We previously showed that constitutive overexpression of the oncogenic transcription factor Spi1/PU.1 leads to pre-leukemic cells that have a shortened S phase duration with an increased replication fork speed and increased mutability in the absence of DNA breaks. Here, we demonstrate that the S phase checkpoint protein CHK1 is maintained in a low phosphorylation state in Spi1/PU.1-overexpressing cells and provide evidence that this is not due to negative control of its primary kinase ATR. Notably, we found that the expression of the CHK1 phosphatase PP1? is increased in Spi1/PU.1-overexpressing cells. By exogenously modulating its activity, we demonstrate that PP1? is required to maintain CHK1 in a dephosphorylated state and, more importantly, that it is responsible for the accelerated replication fork progression in Spi1/PU.1-overexpressing cells. These results identify a novel pathway by which an oncogene influences replication in the absence of DNA damage.
Project description:Cdc45 is an essential protein that together with Mcm2-7 and GINS forms the eukaryotic replicative helicase CMG. Cdc45 seems to be rate limiting for the initial unwinding or firing of replication origins. In line with this view, Cdc45-overexpressing cells fired at least twice as many origins as control cells. However, these cells displayed an about 2-fold diminished fork elongation rate, a pronounced asymmetry of replication fork extension, and an early S phase arrest. This was accompanied by H2AX-phosphorylation and subsequent apoptosis. Unexpectedly, we did not observe increased ATR/Chk1 signaling but rather a mild ATM/Chk2 response. In addition, we detected accumulation of long stretches of single-stranded DNA, a hallmark of replication catastrophe. We conclude that increased origin firing by upregulated Cdc45 caused exhaustion of the single-strand binding protein RPA, which in consequence diminished the ATR/Chk1 response; the subsequently occurring fork breaks led to an ATM/Chk2 mediated phosphorylation of H2AX and eventually to apoptosis.
Project description:DNA sequences prone to forming noncanonical structures (hairpins, triplexes, G-quadruplexes) cause DNA replication fork stalling, activate DNA damage responses, and represent hotspots of genomic instability associated with human disease. The 88-bp asymmetric polypurine-polypyrimidine (Pu-Py) mirror repeat tract from the human polycystic kidney disease (PKD1) intron 21 forms non-B DNA secondary structures in vitro. We show that the PKD1 mirror repeat also causes orientation-dependent fork stalling during replication in vitro and in vivo. When integrated alongside the c-myc replicator at an ectopic chromosomal site in the HeLa genome, the Pu-Py mirror repeat tract elicits a polar replication fork barrier. Increased replication protein A (RPA), Rad9, and ataxia telangiectasia- and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint protein binding near the mirror repeat sequence suggests that the DNA damage response is activated upon replication fork stalling. Moreover, the proximal c-myc origin of replication was not required to cause orientation-dependent checkpoint activation. Cells expressing the replication fork barrier display constitutive Chk1 phosphorylation and continued growth, i.e. checkpoint adaptation. Excision of the Pu-Py mirror repeat tract abrogates the DNA damage response. Adaptation to Chk1 phosphorylation in cells expressing the replication fork barrier may allow the accumulation of mutations that would otherwise be remediated by the DNA damage response.
Project description:Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes that play a principal role in the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, rapidly activated in response to proinflammatory stimuli, are accumulated in brain lesions of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family transcription factor PU.1/Spi1 acts as a master regulator of myeloid and lymphoid development. PU.1-deficient mice show a complete loss of microglia, indicating that PU.1 plays a pivotal role in microgliogenesis. However, the comprehensive profile of PU.1/Spi1 target genes in microglia remains unknown. By analyzing a chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) dataset numbered SRP036026 with the Strand NGS program, we identified 5,264 Spi1 target protein-coding genes in BV2 mouse microglial cells. They included Spi1, Irf8, Runx1, Csf1r, Csf1, Il34, Aif1 (Iba1), Cx3cr1, Trem2, and Tyrobp. By motif analysis, we found that the PU-box consensus sequences were accumulated in the genomic regions surrounding ChIP-Seq peaks. By using pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics, we found that ChIP-Seq-based Spi1 target genes show a significant relationship with diverse pathways essential for normal function of monocytes/macrophages, such as endocytosis, Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, and lysosomal degradation. These results suggest that PU.1/Spi1 plays a crucial role in regulation of the genes relevant to specialized functions of microglia. Therefore, aberrant regulation of PU.1 target genes might contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases with accumulation of activated microglia.
Project description:DNA damage-induced signaling by ATR and CHK1 inhibits DNA replication, stabilizes stalled and collapsed replication forks, and mediates the repair of multiple classes of DNA lesions. We and others have shown that ATR kinase inhibitors, three of which are currently undergoing clinical trials, induce excessive origin firing during unperturbed DNA replication, indicating that ATR kinase activity limits replication initiation in the absence of damage. However, the origins impacted and the underlying mechanism(s) have not been described. Here, we show that unperturbed DNA replication is associated with a low level of ATR and CHK1 kinase signaling and that inhibition of this signaling induces dormant origin firing at sites of ongoing replication throughout the S phase. We show that ATR and CHK1 kinase inhibitors induce RIF1 Ser2205 phosphorylation in a CDK1-dependent manner, which disrupts an interaction between RIF1 and PP1 phosphatase. Thus, ATR and CHK1 signaling suppresses CDK1 kinase activity throughout the S phase and stabilizes an interaction between RIF1 and PP1 in replicating cells. PP1 dephosphorylates key CDC7 and CDK2 kinase substrates to inhibit the assembly and activation of the replicative helicase. This mechanism limits origin firing during unperturbed DNA replication in human cells.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage causes an efficient block of elongating replication forks. The checkpoint kinase, CHK1 has been shown to stabilize replication forks following hydroxyurea treatment. Therefore, we wanted to test if the increased UV sensitivity caused by the unspecific kinase inhibitor caffeine--inhibiting ATM and ATR amongst other kinases--is explained by inability to activate the CHK1 kinase to stabilize replicative structures. For this, we used cells deficient in polymerase ? (Pol?), a translesion synthesis polymerase capable of properly bypassing the UV-induced cis-syn TT pyrimidine dimer, which blocks replication. These cells accumulate gaps behind progressing replication forks after UV exposure. We demonstrate that both caffeine and CHK1 inhibition, equally retards continuous replication fork elongation after UV treatment. Interestingly, we found more pronounced UV-sensitization by caffeine than with the CHK1 inhibitor in clonogenic survival experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate an increased collapse of replicative structures after caffeine treatment, but not after CHK1 inhibition, in UV-irradiated cells. This demonstrates that CHK1 activity is not required for stabilization of gaps induced during replication of UV-damaged DNA. These data suggest that elongation and stabilization of replicative structures at UV-induced DNA damage are distinct mechanisms, and that CHK1 is only involved in replication elongation.
Project description:Inv(3q26) and t(3:3)(q21;q26) are specific to poor-prognosis myeloid malignancies, and result in marked overexpression of EVI1, a zinc-finger transcription factor and myeloid-specific oncoprotein. Despite extensive study, the mechanism by which EVI1 contributes to myeloid malignancy remains unclear. Here we describe a new mouse model that mimics the transcriptional effects of 3q26 rearrangement. We show that EVI1 overexpression causes global distortion of hematopoiesis, with suppression of erythropoiesis and lymphopoiesis, and marked premalignant expansion of myelopoiesis that eventually results in leukemic transformation. We show that myeloid skewing is dependent on DNA binding by EVI1, which upregulates Spi1, encoding master myeloid regulator PU.1. We show that EVI1 binds to the -14?kb upstream regulatory element (-14kbURE) at Spi1; knockdown of Spi1 dampens the myeloid skewing. Furthermore, deletion of the -14kbURE at Spi1 abrogates the effects of EVI1 on hematopoietic stem cells. These findings support a novel mechanism of leukemogenesis through EVI1 overexpression.
Project description:Transcriptional deregulation caused by epigenetic or genetic alterations is a major cause of leukemic transformation. The Spi1/PU.1 transcription factor is a key regulator of many steps of hematopoiesis, and limits self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells. The deregulation of its expression or activity contributes to leukemia, in which Spi1 can be either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. Herein we explored whether cellular senescence, an anti-tumoral pathway that restrains cell proliferation, is a mechanism by which Spi1 limits hematopoietic cell expansion, and thus prevents the development of leukemia. We show that Spi1 overexpression triggers cellular senescence both in primary fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells. Erythroid and myeloid lineages are both prone to Spi1-induced senescence. In hematopoietic cells, Spi1-induced senescence requires its DNA-binding activity and a functional p38MAPK14 pathway but is independent of a DNA-damage response. In contrast, in fibroblasts, Spi1-induced senescence is triggered by a DNA-damage response. Importantly, using our well-established Spi1 transgenic leukemia mouse model, we demonstrate that Spi1 overexpression also induces senescence in erythroid progenitors of the bone marrow in vivo before the onset of the pre-leukemic phase of erythroleukemia. Remarkably, the senescence response is lost during the progression of the disease and erythroid blasts do not display a higher expression of Dec1 and CDKN1A, two of the induced senescence markers in young animals. These results bring indirect evidence that leukemia develops from cells which have bypassed Spi1-induced senescence. Overall, our results reveal senescence as a Spi1-induced anti-proliferative mechanism that may be a safeguard against the development of acute myeloid leukemia.
Project description:The SPRTN metalloprotease is essential for DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) repair and DNA replication in vertebrate cells. Cells deficient in SPRTN protease exhibit DPC-induced replication stress and genome instability, manifesting as premature ageing and liver cancer. Here, we provide a body of evidence suggesting that SPRTN activates the ATR-CHK1 phosphorylation signalling cascade during physiological DNA replication by proteolysis-dependent eviction of CHK1 from replicative chromatin. During this process, SPRTN proteolyses the C-terminal/inhibitory part of CHK1, liberating N-terminal CHK1 kinase active fragments. Simultaneously, CHK1 full length and its N-terminal fragments phosphorylate SPRTN at the C-terminal regulatory domain, which stimulates SPRTN recruitment to chromatin to promote unperturbed DNA replication fork progression and DPC repair. Our data suggest that a SPRTN-CHK1 cross-activation loop plays a part in DNA replication and protection from DNA replication stress. Finally, our results with purified components of this pathway further support the proposed model of a SPRTN-CHK1 cross-activation loop.
Project description:CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) can both activate as well as inhibit transcription by forming chromatin loops between regulatory regions and promoters. In this regard, Ctcf binding on non-methylated DNA and its interaction with the Cohesin complex results in differential regulation of the H19/Igf2 locus. Similarly, a role for CTCF has been established in normal hematopoietic development; however its involvement in leukemia remains elusive. Here, we show that Ctcf binds to the imprinting control region of H19/Igf2 in AML blasts. We also demonstrate that Smarca5, which also associates with the Cohesin complex, facilitates Ctcf binding to its target sites on DNA. Furthermore, Smarca5 supports Ctcf functionally and is needed for enhancer-blocking effect at ICR. We next asked whether CTCF and SMARCA5 control the expression of key hematopoiesis regulators. In normally differentiating myeloid cells both CTCF and SMARCA5 together with members of the Cohesin complex are recruited to the SPI1 gene, a key hematopoiesis regulator and leukemia suppressor. Due to DNA methylation, CTCF binding to the SPI1 gene is blocked in AML blasts. Upon AZA-mediated DNA demethylation of human AML blasts, CTCF and SMARCA5 are recruited to the -14.4 Enhancer of SPI1 gene and block its expression. Our data provide new insight into complex SPI1 gene regulation now involving additional key epigenetic factors, CTCF and SMARCA5 that control PU.1 expression at the -14.4 Enhancer.
Project description:The goal of the experiment was to understand the epigenetic effects of PU.1 haploinsufficiency on pro-B cells. The RS4:11 cell line was edited both mono and biallelicaly via electroporation of Cas9 and guides. Following editing, aliquots of unedited (SPI1 +/+), mono (SPI1 +/-) and biallellicaly edited (SPI1 -/-) cells were lysed before undergoing the transposition reaction. After transposition, the ATAC-seq libraries were purified and then amplified via PCR. Libraries were sequenced using the Illumina Novaseq platform.