Gene-modified NK-92MI cells expressing a chimeric CD16-BB-ζ or CD64-BB-ζ receptor exhibit enhanced cancer-killing ability in combination with therapeutic antibody.
ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in monoclonal antibody-mediated immunotherapy through the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanism. NK-92MI is an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-independent cell line, which was derived from NK-92 cells with superior cytotoxicity toward a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Nonetheless, the Fc-receptor (CD16) that usually mediates ADCC is absent in NK-92 and NK-92MI cells. To apply NK-92MI cell-based immunotherapy to cancer treatment, we designed and generated two chimeric receptors in NK-92MI cells that can bind the Fc portion of human immunoglobulins. The construct includes the low-affinity Fc receptor CD16 (158F) or the high-affinity Fc receptor CD64, with the addition of the CD8a extracellular domain, CD28 transmembrane domains, two costimulatory domains (CD28 and 4-1BB), and the signaling domain from CD3ζ. The resulting chimeric receptors, termed CD16-BB-ζ and CD64-BB-ζ, were used to generate modified NK-92MI cells expressing the chimeric receptor, which were named NK-92MIhCD16 and NK-92MIhCD64 cells, respectively. We found that NK-92MIhCD16 and NK-92MIhCD64 cells significantly improved cytotoxicity against CD20-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells in the presence of rituximab. These results suggest that the chimeric receptor-expressing NK-92MI cells may enhance the clinical responses to currently available anticancer monoclonal antibodies.
Project description:Natural Killer (NK) cell education, which requires the engagement of inhibitory NK cell receptors (iNKRs) by their ligands, is important for generating self-tolerant functional NK cells. While the potency of NK cell education is directly related to their functional potential upon stimulation with HLA null cells, the influence of NK cell education on the potency of the antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) function of NK cells is unclear. ADCC occurs when the Fc portion of an immunoglobulin G antibody bridges the CD16 Fc receptor on NK cells and antigen on target cells, resulting in NK cell activation, cytotoxic granule release, and target cell lysis. We previously reported that education via the KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4 iNKR/HLA ligand combination supported higher KIR3DL1+ than KIR3DL1- NK cell activation levels but had no impact on ADCC potency measured as the frequency of granzyme B positive (%GrB+) targets generated in an ADCC GranToxiLux assay. A lower frequency of KIR3DL1+ compared to KIR3DL1- NK cells were CD16+, which may in part explain the discrepancy between NK cell activation and target cell effects. Here, we investigated the frequency of CD16+ cells among NK cells expressing other iNKRs. We found that CD16+ cells were significantly more frequent among NK cells negative for the inhibitory KIR (iKIR) KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, and KIR3DL1 than those positive for any one of these iKIR to the exclusion of the others, making iKIR+ NK cells poorer ADCC effectors than iKIR- NK cells. The education status of these iKIR+ populations had no effect on the frequency of CD16+ cells.
Project description:Increasing evidence indicates that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) contributes to the control of HIV/SIV infection. However, little is known about the ADCC function of natural killer (NK) cells in non-human primate model. Here we demonstrated that ADCC function of NK cells was significantly compromised in chronic SIV/SHIV infection, correlating closely with the expression of Fc?RIIIa receptor (CD16) on NK cells. CD32, another class of IgG Fc receptors, was identified on NK cells with higher expression in the infected macaques and the blockade of CD32 impacted the ability of NK cells to respond to antibody-coated target cells. The inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), a group of enzymes normally involved in tissue/receptor remodeling, could restore NK cell-mediated ADCC with increased CD16 expression on macaque NK cells. These data offer a clearer understanding of NK cell-mediated ADCC in rhesus macaques, which will allow us to evaluate the ADCC repertoire arising from preclinical vaccination studies in non-human primates and inform us in the future design of effective HIV vaccination strategies.
Project description:The Fc receptor on NK cells, Fc?RIIIA (CD16), has been extensively studied for its role in mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). A homozygous missense mutation in CD16 (encoding a L66H substitution) is associated with severe herpesvirus infections in rare patients. Here, we identified a new patient with this CD16 mutation and compared the patient's NK cells to those of the originally reported patient. Patients with the L66H mutation had intact ADCC, but deficient spontaneous NK cell cytotoxicity and decreased surface expression of CD2, a coactivation receptor. Mechanistic studies in a human NK cell line, NK-92, demonstrated that CD16 expression correlated with CD2 surface levels and enabled killing of a melanoma cell line typically resistant to CD16-deficient NK-92 cells. An association between CD16 and CD2 was identified biochemically and at the immunological synapse, which elicited CD16 signaling after CD2 engagement. Stable expression of CD16 L66H in NK-92 cells recapitulated the patient phenotype, abrogating association of CD16 with CD2 as well as CD16 signaling after CD2 ligation. Thus, CD16 serves a role in NK cell-mediated spontaneous cytotoxicity through a specific association with CD2 and represents a potential mechanism underlying a human congenital immunodeficiency.
Project description:Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is exerted by immune cells expressing surface Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) against cells coated with antibody, such as virus-infected or transformed cells. CD16, the Fc?RIIIA, is essential for ADCC by NK cells, and is also expressed by a subset of human blood monocytes. We found that human CD16- expressing monocytes have a broad spectrum of ADCC capacities and can kill cancer cell lines, primary leukemic cells and hepatitis B virus-infected cells in the presence of specific antibodies. Engagement of CD16 on monocytes by antibody bound to target cells activated ?2-integrins and induced TNF? secretion. In turn, this induced TNFR expression on the target cells, making them susceptible to TNF?-mediated cell death. Treatment with TLR agonists, DAMPs or cytokines, such as IFN?, further enhanced ADCC. Monocytes lacking CD16 did not exert ADCC but acquired this property after CD16 expression was induced by either cytokine stimulation or transient transfection. Notably, CD16+ monocytes from patients with leukemia also exerted potent ADCC. Hence, CD16+ monocytes are important effectors of ADCC, suggesting further developments of this property in the context of cellular therapies for cancer and infectious diseases.
Project description:CD16 (Fc?RIIIa), the low-affinity receptor for IgG, expressed by the majority of human NK cells, is a potent activating receptor that facilitates Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC dysfunction has been linked to cancer progression and poor prognosis for chronic infections, such as HIV; thus, understanding how CD16 expression is regulated by NK cells has clinical relevance. Importantly, CD16 cell-surface expression is downmodulated following NK cell activation and, in particular, exposure to stimulatory cytokines (IL-2 or IL-15), likely owing to the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this article, we identify membrane-type 6 (MT6) MMP (also known as MMP25) as a proteinase responsible for CD16 downmodulation. IL-2-induced upregulation of MT6/MMP25 cell-surface expression correlates with CD16 downmodulation. MT6/MMP25, sequestered in intracellular compartments in unstimulated NK cells, translocates to the cell surface after stimulation; moreover, it polarizes to the effector-target cell interface of the CD16-mediated immunological synapse. siRNA-mediated disruption of MT6/MMP25 expression enhances the ADCC capacity of NK cells, emphasizing the important functional role of MT6/MMP25 in the regulation of ADCC activity. Thus, this study uncovers a previously unknown role of MT6/MMP25 in human NK cells, and suggests that inhibition of MT6/MMP25 activity could improve ADCC efficacy of therapeutically administered NK cells that require IL-2 for culture and expansion.
Project description:Elotuzumab (Elo) is an IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting SLAMF7 (CS1, CRACC, and CD319), which is highly expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and subsets of other leukocytes. By engaging with Fc?RIIIA (CD16), Elo promotes potent NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) toward SLAMF7+ MM tumor cells. Relapsed/refractory MM patients treated with the combination of Elo, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone have improved progression-free survival. We previously showed that Elo enhances NK cell activity via a costimulation mechanism, independent of CD16 binding. Here, we further studied the effect of Elo on cytotoxicity of CD16-negative NK-92 cells. Elo, but not other SLAMF7 antibodies, uniquely enhanced cytotoxicity mediated by CD16-negative NK-92 cells toward SLAMF7+ target cells. Furthermore, this CD16-independent enhancement of cytotoxicity required expression of SLAMF7 containing the full cytoplasmic domain in the NK cells, implicating costimulatory signaling. The CD16-independent costimulation by Elo was associated with increased expression of NKG2D, ICAM-1, and activated LFA-1 on NK cells, and enhanced cytotoxicity was partially reduced by NKG2D blocking antibodies. In addition, an Fc mutant form of Elo that cannot bind CD16 promoted cytotoxicity of SLAMF7+ target cells by NK cells from most healthy donors, especially if previously cultured in IL2. We conclude that in addition to promoting NK cell-mediated ADCC (CD16-dependent) responses, Elo promoted SLAMF7-SLAMF7 interactions in a CD16-independent manner to enhance NK cytotoxicity toward MM cells.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a humanized therapeutic monoclonal antibody directed to the surface glycoprotein SLAMF7 (CS1, CRACC, CD319), which is highly expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. Improved clinical outcomes have been observed following treatment of MM patients with elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide or bortezomib. Previous work showed that elotuzumab stimulates NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), via Fc-domain engagement with Fc?RIIIa (CD16). SLAMF7 is also expressed on NK cells, where it can transmit stimulatory signals. We tested whether elotuzumab can directly activate NK cells via ligation with SLAMF7 on NK cells in addition to targeting ADCC through CD16. We show that elotuzumab strongly promoted degranulation and activation of NK cells in a CD16-dependent manner, and a non-fucosylated form of elotuzumab with higher affinity to CD16 exhibited enhanced potency. Using F(ab')2 or Fc-mutant forms of the antibody, the direct binding of elotuzumab to SLAMF7 alone could not stimulate measurable CD69 expression or degranulation of NK cells. However, the addition of soluble elotuzumab could costimulate calcium signaling responses triggered by multimeric engagement of NKp46 and NKG2D in a CD16-independent manner. Thus, while elotuzumab primarily stimulates NK cells through CD16, it can also transduce effective "trans"-costimulatory signals upon direct engagement with SLAMF7, since these responses did not require direct co-engagement with the activating receptors. Trans-costimulation by elotuzumab has potential to reduce activation thresholds of other NK cell receptors engaging with their ligands on myeloma target cell surfaces, thereby potentially further increasing NK cell responsiveness in patients.
Project description:Purpose:Conventional chemotherapy and enucleation usually fail to cure advanced retinoblastoma. We investigated the retinoblastoma immune microenvironment and the efficacy of the combination of dinutuximab and CD16-expressing NK-92MI (NK-92MIhCD16-GFP) cells on retinoblastoma cells in this study. Patients and Methods:Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry (FC) were performed to assess the expression level of GD2 in retinoblastoma tissues and cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), immunohistochemisrztry and immunocytochemistry were conducted to assess the retinoblastoma immune microenvironment and the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). After overexpressing CD16 in NK-92MI cells, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was applied to select the positive subpopulation. LDH assays and FC were used to detect LDH release and apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells subjected to a combination of dinutuximab and NK-92MIhCD16-GFP cells. Finally, the release of perforin-granzyme B and the expression of CD107a in NK-92MIhCD16-GFP stimulated by retinoblastoma cells were assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and FC in the presence of dinutuximab or an isotype control. Results:GD2 was heterogeneously expressed in retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines and positively correlated with proliferation and staging. GSEA revealed the immunosuppressive status of retinoblastoma microenvironment. The immune cell profile of retinoblastoma tissues and vitreous bodies suggested BRB destruction. LDH release and apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells caused by NK-92MIhCD16-GFP cells were significantly enhanced by dinutuximab. Finally, the release of perforin-granzyme B and the expression of CD107a in NK-92MIhCD16-GFP cells stimulated by retinoblastoma cells were obviously increased by dinutuximab. Conclusion:This study indicates that retinoblastoma impairs the integrity of the BRB and contributes to dysregulated immune cell infiltrates. GD2 is a specific target for natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy and that the combination of dinutuximab and NK-92MIhCD16-GFP cells exerts potent antitumor effects through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), based on the recognition of IgG-opsonized targets by the low-affinity receptor for IgG Fc?RIIIA/CD16, represents one of the main mechanisms by which therapeutic antibodies (mAbs) mediate their antitumor effects. Besides ADCC, CD16 ligation also results in cytokine production, in particular, NK-derived IFN? is endowed with a well-recognized role in the shaping of adaptive immune responses. Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb with a modified crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain designed to increase the affinity for CD16 and consequently the killing of mAb-opsonized targets. However, the impact of CD16 ligation in optimized affinity conditions on NK functional program is not completely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the interaction of NK cells with obinutuzumab-opsonized cells results in enhanced IFN? production as compared with parental non-glycoengineered mAb or the reference molecule rituximab. We observed that affinity ligation conditions strictly correlate with the ability to induce CD16 down-modulation and lysosomal targeting of receptor-associated signaling elements. Indeed, a preferential degradation of Fc?RI? chain and Syk kinase was observed upon obinutuzumab stimulation independently from CD16-V158F polymorphism. Although the downregulation of Fc?RI?/Syk module leads to the impairment of cytotoxic function induced by NKp46 and NKp30 receptors, obinutuzumab-experienced cells exhibit an increased ability to produce IFN? in response to different stimuli. These data highlight a relationship between CD16 aggregation conditions and the ability to promote a degradative pathway of CD16-coupled signaling elements associated to the shift of NK functional program.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although programmed cell death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors show remarkable antitumor activity, a large portion of patients with cancer, even those with high PD-L1-expressing tumors, do not respond to their effects. Most PD-L1 inhibitors contain modified fragment crystallizable region (Fc) receptor binding sites to prevent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against PD-L1-expressing non-tumor cells. However, natural killer (NK) cells have specific antitumor activity in the presence of tumor-targeting antibody through ADCC, which could enhance NK cell-induced cytotoxicity. We evaluated the antitumor efficacy of ADCC via anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and NK cells against several PD-L1-positive cancer cell lines. METHODS:Various cancer cell lines were used as target cell lines. Surface PD-L1 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. IMC-001 and anti-hPD-L1-hIgG1 were tested as anti-PD-L1 mAbs with ADCC and atezolizumab as an anti-PD-L1 mAb without ADCC. NK cell cytotoxicity was measured by 51Cr-release assay and CD107a degranulation assay. Also, live cell imaging was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in a single-cell level. NK-92-CD16 (CD16-transduced NK-92 cell line) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors, respectively, were used as an effector cell. Fc?RIIIa (CD16a)-V158F genotyping was performed for healthy donors. RESULTS:We demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of NK-92-CD16 cells toward PD-L1-positive cancer cell lines was significantly enhanced in the presence of anti-PD-L1 mAb with ADCC. We also noted a significant increase in primary human NK cell cytotoxicity against PD-L1-positive human cancer cells when cocultured with anti-PD-L1 mAb with ADCC. Moreover, NK cells expressing a FCGR3A high-affinity genotype displayed higher anti-PD-L1 mAb-mediated ADCC lysis of tumor cells than donors with a low-affinity genotype. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that NK cells induce an ADCC response in combination with anti-PD-L1 mAbs, which helps promote ADCC antitumor activity against PD-L1-positive tumors. This study provides support for NK cell immunotherapy against high PD-L1-expressing tumors in combination with ADCC through anti-PD-L1 mAbs.