Promoting oligodendroglial-oriented differentiation of glioma stem cell: a repurposing of quetiapine for the treatment of malignant glioma.
ABSTRACT: As a major contributor of chemotherapy resistance and malignant recurrence, glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been proposed as a target for the treatment of gliomas. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of quetiapine (QUE), an atypical antipsychotic, for the treatment of malignant glioma, we established mouse models with GSCs-initiated orthotopic xenograft gliomas and subcutaneous xenograft tumors, using GSCs purified from glioblastoma cell line GL261. We investigated antitumor effects of QUE on xenograft gliomas and its underlying mechanisms on GSCs. Our data demonstrated that (i) QUE monotherapy can effectively suppress GSCs-initiated tumor growth; (ii) QUE has synergistic effects with temozolomide (TMZ) on glioma suppression, and importantly, QUE can effectively suppress TMZ-resistant (or -escaped) tumors generated from GSCs; (iii) mechanistically, the anti-glioma effect of QUE was due to its actions of promoting the differentiation of GSCs into oligodendrocyte (OL)-like cells and its inhibitory effect on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Together, our findings suggest an effective approach for anti-gliomagenic treatment via targeting OL-oriented differentiation of GSCs. This also opens a door for repurposing QUE, an FDA approved drug, for the treatment of malignant glioma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Glioma has a poor prognosis, and is the most common primary and lethal primary malignant tumor in the central nervous system. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor A (RORA) is a member of the ROR subfamily of orphan receptors and plays an anti-tumor role in several cancers.<h4>Methods</h4>A cell viability assay, the Edu assay, neurosphere formation assay, and xenograft experiments were used to detect the proliferative abilities of glioma cell line, glioma stem cells (GSCs). Western blotting, ELISAs, and luciferase reporter assays were used to detect the presence of possible microRNAs.<h4>Findings</h4>Our study found for the first time that RORA was expressed at low levels in gliomas, and was associated with a good prognosis. RORA overexpression inhibited the proliferation and tumorigenesis of glioma cell lines and GSCs via inhibiting the TNF-α mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, microRNA-18a had a promoting effect on gliomas, and was the possible reason for low RORA expression in gliomas.<h4>Interpretation</h4>RORA may be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of gliomas.
Project description:Rationale: Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Chemoresistance of temozolomide (TMZ), the first-line chemotherapeutic agent, is a major issue in the management of patients with glioma. Alterations of alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene constitute one of the most prevalent genetic abnormalities in gliomas. Therefore, elucidation of the role of ATRX contributing to TMZ resistance in glioma is urgently needed. Methods: We performed the bioinformatics analysis of gene expression, and DNA methylation profiling, as well as RNA and ChIP-seq data sets. CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system was used to achieve the ATRX knockout in TMZ resistant cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the role of ATRX contributing to TMZ resistance in glioma. Results: We found that ATRX expression was upregulated via DNA demethylation mediated by STAT5b/TET2 complex and strengthened DNA damage repair by stabilizing PARP1 protein in TMZ resistant cells. ATRX elicited PARP1 stabilization by the down-regulating of FADD expression via the H3K27me3 enrichment, which was dependent on ATRX/EZH2 complex in TMZ resistant cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the PARP inhibitor together with TMZ inhibited glioma growth in ATRX wild type TMZ resistant intracranial xenograft models. Conclusions: The present study further illustrated the novel mechanism of the ATRX/PARP1 axis contributing to TMZ resistance. Our results provided substantial new evidence that PARP inhibitor might be a potential adjuvant agent in overcoming ATRX mediated TMZ resistance in glioma.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumors with limited therapeutic options, and improvements in treatment require a deeper molecular understanding of this disease. As in other cancers, recent studies have identified highly tumorigenic subpopulations within malignant gliomas, known generally as cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that glioma stem cells (GSCs) produce nitric oxide via elevated nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) expression. GSCs depend on NOS2 activity for growth and tumorigenicity, distinguishing them from non-GSCs and normal neural progenitors. Gene expression profiling identified many NOS2-regulated genes, including the cell-cycle inhibitor cell division autoantigen-1 (CDA1). Further, high NOS2 expression correlates with decreased survival in human glioma patients, and NOS2 inhibition slows glioma growth in a murine intracranial model. These data provide insight into how GSCs are mechanistically distinct from their less tumorigenic counterparts and suggest that NOS2 inhibition may be an efficacious approach to treating this devastating disease.
Project description:Formation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) is considered as one of the main reasons of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioma patients. Recent studies have shown that tumor microenvironment-derived signals could promote GSCs formation. But the critical molecule and underlying mechanism for GSCs formation after TMZ treatment is not entirely identified. Our study showed that TMZ treatment promoted GSCs formation by glioma cells; TMZ treatment of biopsy-derived glioblastoma multiforme cells upregulated HMGB1; HMGB1 altered gene expression profile of glioma cells with respect to mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA. Furthermore, our results showed that TMZ-induced HMGB1 increased the formation of GSCs and when HMGB1 was downregulated, TMZ-mediated GSCs formation was attenuated. Finally, we showed that the effect of HMGB1 on glioma cells was mediated by TLR2, which activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling to promote GSCs. Mechanistically, we found that HMGB1 upregulated NEAT1, which was responsible for Wnt/?-catenin activation. In conclusion, TMZ treatment upregulates HMGB1, which promotes the formation of GSCs via the TLR2/NEAT1/Wnt pathway. Blocking HMGB1-mediated GSCs formation could serve as a potential therapeutic target for preventing TMZ resistance in GBM patients.
Project description:Gliomas, the most malignant form of brain tumors, contain a small subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Topoisomerase I inhibitors, shikonin and topotecan, play a crucial role in anti-cancer therapies. After isolated and identified the GSCs from glioma cells successfully, U251, U87, GSCs-U251 and GSCs-U87 cells were administrated with various concentrations of shikonin or topotecan at different time points to seek for the optimal administration concentration and time point. The cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometer to observe the inhibitory effects on glioma cells and GSCs. We demonstrated that shikonin and topotecan obviously inhibited proliferation of not only human glioma cells but also GSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. According to the IC50 values at 24 h, 2 ?mol/L of shikonin and 3 ?mol/L of topotecan were selected as the optimal administration concentration. In addition, shikonin and topotecan induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases and promoted apoptosis. The down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression with the activation of caspase 9/3-dependent pathway was involved in the apoptosis process. Therefore, the above results showed that topoisomerase I inhibitors, shikonin and topotecan, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of GSCs as well as glioma cells, which suggested that they might be the potential anticancer agents targeting gliomas to provide a novel therapeutic strategy.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous neoplasms. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are undifferentiated and self-renewing cells that develop and maintain these tumors. These cells are the main population that resist current therapies. Genomic and epigenomic analyses has identified various molecular subtypes. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) reduces the number of GSCs through differentiation and induction of apoptosis, thus increasing therapeutic sensitivity. However, the short half-life of BMP4 impedes its clinical application. We previously reviewed BMP4 signaling in central nervous system development and glioma tumorigenesis and its potential as a treatment target in human gliomas. Recent advances in understanding both adult and pediatric malignant gliomas highlight critical roles of BMP4 signaling pathways in the regulation of tumor biology, and indicates its potential as a therapeutic molecule. Furthermore, significant progress has been made on synthesizing BMP4 biocompatible delivery materials, which can bind to and markedly extend BMP4 half-life. Here, we review current research associated with BMP4 in brain tumors, with an emphasis on pediatric malignant gliomas. We also summarize BMP4 delivery strategies, highlighting biocompatible BMP4 binding peptide amphiphile nanostructures as promising novel delivery platforms for treatment of these devastating tumors.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Age is a major prognostic factor for malignant gliomas. However, few studies have investigated the management of gliomas in young adults. We determined the role of survival and treatment in young adults with advanced gliomas in a large population from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA).<h4>Methods</h4>This study included 726 adults (age ? 18) with histologically proven anaplastic glioma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The overall and progression-free survival was determined in young (age < 50) and older groups (age ? 50).<h4>Results</h4>The study included an older group (OP) of 264 patients and a younger group (YP) of 462patients. In the OP group with GBM and anaplastic glioma, patients treated with RT combined with temozolomide (TMZ) manifested significantly longer OS and PFS compared with patients assigned to RT alone (P < 0.05). In contrast, the YP group diagnosed with anaplastic glioma failed to show any survival advantage with RT plus TMZ compared with RT alone.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We observed no survival benefit in young adults (age < 50) with anaplastic glioma when treated with TMZ combined with RT. Our findings warrant further investigation of younger patients diagnosed with anaplastic glioma treated with radiotherapy plus TMZ chemotherapy.
Project description:Glioma are the most common type of malignant brain tumor, with glioblastoma (GBM) representing the most common and most lethal type of glioma. Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy using the alkylating agent Temozolomide (TMZ) remain the mainstay of treatment for glioma. While this multimodal regimen is sufficient to temporarily eliminate the bulk of the tumor mass, recurrence is inevitable and often poses major challenges for clinical management due to treatment resistance and failure to respond to targeted therapies. Improved tumor profiling capacity has enabled characterization of the genomic landscape of gliomas with the overarching goal to identify clinically relevant subtypes and inform treatment decisions. Increased tumor mutational load has been shown to correlate with higher levels of neoantigens and is indicative of the potential to induce a durable response to immunotherapy. Following treatment with TMZ, a subset of glioma has been identified to recur with increased tumor mutational load. These hypermutant recurrent glioma represent a subtype of recurrence with unique molecular vulnerabilities. In this review, we will elaborate on the current knowledge regarding the evolution of hypermutation in gliomas and the potential therapeutic opportunities that arise with TMZ-induced hypermutation in gliomas.
Project description:Gliomas are highly malignant brain tumors that are highly invasive and resistant to conventional therapy. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as PDGFRα (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α), which show frequent aberrant activation in gliomas, are associated with a process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a cellular alteration that confers a more invasive and drug-resistant phenotype. Although this phenomenon is well documented in human cancers, the processes by which RTKs including PDGFRα mediate EMT are largely unknown. Here, we report that SHP-2 (encoded by PTPN11) upregulates an EMT inducer, ZEB1, to mediate PDGFRα-driven glioma EMT, invasion and growth in glioma cell lines and patient-derived glioma stem cells (GSCs) using cell culture and orthotopic xenograft models. ZEB1 and activated PDGFRα were coexpressed in invasive regions of mouse glioma xenografts and clinical glioma specimens. Glioma patients with high levels of both phospho-PDGFRα (p-PDGFRα) and ZEB1 had significantly shorter overall survival compared with those with low expression of p-PDGFRα and ZEB1. Knockdown of ZEB1 inhibited PDGFA/PDGFRα-stimulated glioma EMT, tumor growth and invasion in glioma cell lines and patient-derived GSCs. PDGFRα mutant deficient of SHP2 binding (PDGFRα-F720) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) binding (PDGFRα-F731/42), knockdown of SHP2 or treatments of pharmacological inhibitor for PDGFRα-signaling effectors attenuated PDGFA/PDGFRα-stimulated ZEB1 expression, cell migration and GSC proliferation. Importantly, SHP-2 acts together with PI3K/AKT to regulate a ZEB1-miR-200 feedback loop in PDGFRα-driven gliomas. Taken together, our findings uncover a new pathway in which ZEB1 functions as a key regulator for PDGFRα-driven glioma EMT, invasiveness and growth, suggesting that ZEB1 is a promising therapeutic target for treating gliomas with high PDGFRα activation.