Metformin inhibits proliferation and growth hormone secretion of GH3 pituitary adenoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent used to treat diabetes, and recent evidence suggests it has antitumor efficacy. Because growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (GH-PA) patients have a high incidence of diabetes frequently treated with metformin, we assessed the antitumor effect of metformin on GH-PA. We found that metformin effectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in the GH-PA cell line GH3. We detected a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), an increase in expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, and a decrease in expression of an anti-apoptotic protein in metformin-treated GH3 cells, which suggests involvement of the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway. Inhibition of AMPK, which is activated by metformin, failed to reverse the antiproliferative effect. ATF3 was upregulated by metformin, and its knockdown significantly reduced metformin-induced apoptosis. In addition, GH secretion was inhibited by metformin through suppression of STAT3 activity independently of AMPK. Metformin also significantly suppressed cellular proliferation and GH secretion in primary human GH-PA cells. Metformin also significantly inhibited GH3 cell proliferation and GH secretion in vivo. ATF3 upregulation and p-STAT3 downregulation were confirmed in xenografts. These findings suggest metformin is a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of GH-PA, particularly in patients with diabetes.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies indicated that diabetics treated with metformin had a lower incidence of cancer than those taking other anti-diabetes drugs. This led to a surge in the efforts for identification of safer and more effective metformin mimetic compounds. The plant Ficus microcarpa is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in traditional medicine in South Asia. We obtained extracts from this plant and identified a small molecule, plectranthoic acid (PA), with potent 5'AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activating properties far superior than metformin. AMPK is the central hub of metabolic regulation and a well-studied therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes and cancer. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with PA inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest that was associated with up-regulation of cyclin kinase inhibitors p21/CIP1 and p27/KIP1. PA treatment suppressed mTOR/S6K signaling and induced apoptosis in PCa cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Interestingly, PA-induced autophagy in PCa cells was found to be independent of AMPK activation. Combination studies of PA and metformin demonstrated that metformin had an inhibitory effect on PA-induced AMPK activation and suppressed PA-mediated apoptosis. Given the anti-proliferative role of PA in cancer and its potent anti-hyperglycemic activity, we suggest that PA should be explored further as a novel activator of AMPK for its ultimate use for the prevention of cancers and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) is thought to be a tumor suppressor gene, as indicated by a mutational analysis of pituitary somatotroph adenomas. However, the physiological significance of AIP inactivation in somatotroph cells remains unclear. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we identified a GH3 cell clone (termed GH3-FTY) in which Aip was genetically disrupted, and subsequently investigated its character with respect to growth hormone (Gh) synthesis and proliferation. Compared with GH3, GH3-FTY cells showed remarkably increased Gh production and a slight increase in cell proliferation. Gh-induced Stat3 phosphorylation is known to be a mechanism of Gh oversecretion in GH3. Interestingly, phosphorylated-Stat3 expression in GH3-FTY cells was increased more compared with GH3 cells, suggesting a stronger drive for this mechanism in GH3-FTY. The phenotypes of GH3-FTY concerning Gh overproduction, cell proliferation, and increased Stat3 phosphorylation were significantly reversed by the exogenous expression of Aip. GH3-FTY cells were less sensitive to somatostatin than GH3 cells in the suppression of cell proliferation, which might be associated with the reduced expression of somatostatin receptor type 2. GH3-FTY xenografts in BALB/c nude mice (GH3-FTY mice) formed more mitotic somatotroph tumors than GH3 xenografts (GH3 mice), as also evidenced by increased Ki67 scores. GH3-FTY mice were also much larger and had significantly higher plasma Gh levels than GH3 mice. Furthermore, GH3-FTY mice showed relative insulin resistance compared with GH3 mice. In conclusion, we established a somatotroph cell line, GH3-FTY, which possessed prominent Gh secretion and mitotic features associated with the disruption of Aip.
Project description:Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma tissue array. Promoter and expression analysis in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) revealed that STAT3 specifically binds the Gh promoter and induces transcription. Stable expression of STAT3 in GH3 cells induced expression of endogenous GH, and expression of a constitutively active STAT3 further enhanced GH production. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative STAT3 abrogated GH expression. In primary human somatotroph adenoma-derived cell cultures, STAT3 suppression with the specific inhibitor S3I-201 attenuated GH transcription and reduced GH secretion in the majority of derivative cultures. In addition, S3I-201 attenuated somatotroph tumor growth and GH secretion in a rat xenograft model. GH induced STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, indicating a positive feedback loop between STAT3 and GH in somatotroph tumor cells. Together, these results indicate that adenoma GH hypersecretion is the result of STAT3-dependent GH induction, which in turn promotes STAT3 expression, and suggest STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for pituitary somatotroph adenomas.
Project description:Nivalenol (NIV), a type B trichothecenes commonly found in cereal crops, can cause growth impairment in animals. However, limited information about its mechanisms is available. Trichothecenes have been characterized as an inhibitor of protein synthesis and induce apoptosis in cells. Oxidative stress is considered an underlying mechanism. However, whether NIV can induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat pituitary cells line GH3 is unclear. The present study showed that NIV significantly reduced the viability of cells and caused oxidative stress in GH3 cells. Further experiments showed that nitric oxide (NO), but not ROS, mediated NIV-induced oxidative stress. Additionally, NIV induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. However, NIV-induced caspase activation, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis were partially alleviated by Z-VAD-FMK or NO scavenger hemoglobin. Finally, NIV changed the expression of growth-associated genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. NIV also reduced the GH secretion in GH3 cells, which was reversed by hemoglobin. Taken together, these results suggested that NIV induced apoptosis in caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in GH3 cells, which might be an underlying mechanism of NIV-induced GH deficiency. Importantly, NO played a critical role in the induction of oxidative stress, apoptosis and GH deficiency in NIV-treated GH3 cells.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, causes growth failure in children with chronic myeloid leukemia probably by targeting the growth hormone (GH)/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. We aim to explore the imatinib targets expression in pituitary adenomas and study the effect of imatinib on GH secretion in somatotropinoma cells and GH3 cell line. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The expression pattern of imatinib's targets (c-kit, VEGF, and PDGFR-?/?) was studied using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting 157 giant (?4 cm) pituitary adenomas (121 non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 32 somatotropinomas, and four prolactinomas) and compared to normal pituitary (<i>n</i> = 4) obtained at autopsy. The effect imatinib on GH secretion, cell viability, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and apoptosis was studied in primary culture of human somatotropinomas (<i>n</i> = 20) and in rat somato-mammotroph GH3 cell-line. A receptor tyrosine kinase array was applied to human samples to identify altered pathways. <b>Results:</b> Somatotropinomas showed significantly higher immunopositivity for c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?; <i>P</i> < 0.009 and <i>P</i> < 0.001, respectively), while staining for platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) revealed a weaker expression (<i>P</i> < 0.001) compared to normal pituitary. Imatinib inhibited GH secretion from both primary culture (<i>P</i> < 0.01) and GH3 cells (<i>P</i> < 0.001), while it did not affect cell viability and apoptosis. The receptor tyrosine kinase array showed that imatinib inhibits GH signaling via PDGFR-? pathway. <b>Conclusion:</b> Imatinib inhibits GH secretion in somatotropinoma cells without affecting cell viability and may be used as an adjunct therapy for treating GH secreting pituitary adenomas.
Project description:Metformin is used as a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prescribed for numerous other diseases. However, its mechanism of action in the liver has yet to be characterized in a systematic manner. To comprehensively identify genes and regulatory elements associated with metformin treatment, we carried out RNA-seq and ChIP-seq (H3K27ac, H3K27me3) on primary human hepatocytes from the same donor treated with vehicle control, metformin or metformin and compound C, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor (allowing to identify AMPK-independent pathways). We identified thousands of metformin responsive AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent differentially expressed genes and regulatory elements. We functionally validated several elements for metformin-induced promoter and enhancer activity. These include an enhancer in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) intron that has SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with a metformin treatment response GWAS lead SNP (rs11212617) that showed increased enhancer activity for the associated haplotype. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) liver analysis and CRISPR activation suggest that this enhancer could be regulating ATM, which has a known role in AMPK activation, and potentially also EXPH5 and DDX10, its neighboring genes. Using ChIP-seq and siRNA knockdown, we further show that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), our top metformin upregulated AMPK-dependent gene, could have an important role in gluconeogenesis repression. Our findings provide a genome-wide representation of metformin hepatic response, highlight important sequences that could be associated with interindividual variability in glycemic response to metformin and identify novel T2D treatment candidates.
Project description:Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) has been reported to be involved in the initiation and progression of tumors. However, the potential role of LDHA in pituitary adenoma (PA) remains unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression levels of LDHA mRNA and protein were significantly elevated in invasive PA samples, and positively correlated with higher Ki-67 index. Overexpression of LDHA in a PA cell line (GH3) promoted glucose uptake through the upregulation of glucose transporter-1 (Glut1), lactate secretion and induced cellular invasion by upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase2 (MMP2). LDHA also promoted GH3 cell proliferation through induction of cell cycle progression via activation of the Akt-GSK-3?-cyclinD1 pathway. Accordingly, oxamate-induced inhibition of LDHA suppressed glucose uptake, lactate secretion, invasion and proliferation in GH3 cells via down regulation of Glut1 and MMP2 expression and inhibition of the Akt-GSK-3?-cyclinD1 pathway. Moreover, oxamate induced GH3 cell apoptosis by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In vivo, LDHA overexpression promoted tumor growth, and oxamate delayed tumor growth. In primary PA cell cultures, oxamate also effectively suppressed invasion and proliferation. Our data indicate that LDHA is involved in promoting the progression of PA, and oxamate might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of PA.
Project description:Accumulation of methylglyoxal (MG) contributes to glucotoxicity and mediates beta cell apoptosis. The molecular mechanism by which GLP-1 protects MG-induced beta cell apoptosis remains unclear. Metformin is a first-line drug for treating type 2 diabetes associated with AMPK activation. However, whether metformin prevents MG-induced beta cell apoptosis is controversial. Here, we explored the signaling pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of GLP-1, and investigated whether metformin had an anti-apoptotic effect on beta cells. MG treatment induced apoptosis of beta cells, impaired mitochondrial function, and prolonged activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). The MG-induced pro-apoptotic effects were abolished by an AMPK inhibitor. Pretreatment of GLP-1 reversed MG-induced apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppressed prolonged AMPK activation. Pretreatment of GLP-1 reversed AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR)-induced apoptosis, and suppressed prolonged AMPK activation. However, metformin neither leads to beta cell apoptosis nor ameliorates MG-induced beta cell apoptosis. In parallel, GLP-1 also prevents MG-induced beta cell apoptosis through PKA and PI3K-dependent pathway. In conclusion, these data indicates GLP-1 but not metformin protects MG-induced beta cell apoptosis through improving mitochondrial function, and alleviating the prolonged AMPK activation. Whether adding GLP-1 to metformin provides better beta cell survival and delays disease progression remains to be validated.
Project description:Metformin has been used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus for decades. Recently, used of metformin in the therapy of diverse human cancer types has received widespread attention, while the underlying mechanisms have been not fully elucidated. In the current study, 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine assay to detect cell proliferation, flow cytometry to detect apoptosis, scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assay to detect cell migration capacity. The current study reported that metformin inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and promoted apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, particularly under normoglycemic conditions in vitro. Metformin treatment significantly promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and reduced histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) levels. Additionally, overexpression of EZH2 to increase H3K27me3 abrogated the effect of metformin on the cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in SKOV3 and ES2 cells. Similar to metformin, another AMPK agonist, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, reduced the H3K27me3 level and PRC2 expression. In cells pretreated with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, metformin was not able to induce AMPK phosphorylation or reduce H3K27me3. Metformin-mediated AMPK activation and H3K27me3 inhibition were more robust in cells exposed to low glucose (5.5 mM) compared with those exposed to high glucose (25 mM). These findings implicate H3K27me3 repression mediated by AMPK phosphorylation in the antitumor effect of metformin in ovarian cancer, indicating that metformin alters epigenetic modifications by targeting PRC2 and supports the use of metformin in treatment of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer without diabetes.
Project description:Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in insulin sensitive tissues such as liver, muscle and fat. However, the functional roles and the underlying mechanism of metformin action in pancreatic ? cells remain elusive. Here we show that, under normal growth condition, metformin suppresses MIN6 ? cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via an AMPK-dependent and autophagy-mediated mechanism. On the other hand, metformin protects MIN6 cells against palmitic acid (PA)-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that metformin plays a dual role in ? cell survival and overdose of this anti-diabetic drug itself may lead to potential ? cell toxicity.