Evaluation of intermediate coronary stenoses in acute coronary syndromes using pressure guidewire.
ABSTRACT: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is increasingly used to guide myocardial revascularisation. However, supporting evidence regarding its use originates from studies that have enrolled mainly patients with stable angina, while patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have not been included. Notably, multifactorial microvascular dysfunction and an increased sympathetic tone in patients with ACS may lead to blunted response to adenosine and false-negative results of FFR due to submaximal hyperaemia. This may raise the possibility of deferring treatment of stenosis that instead would have needed dilatation, thus leaving a residual risk of preventable cardiac events. In this literature review, we aim at summarising laboratory and clinical investigations concerning the use of FFR in culprit and non-culprit lesions in ACS. Furthermore, we will report recent data on instantaneous wave-free ratio, an adenosine-free index of functional stenosis severity, in stable coronary artery disease and in patients with ACS.
Project description:Fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment provides anatomical and physiological information that is often used to tailor treatment strategies in coronary artery disease. Whilst robust data validates FFR use in stable ischaemic heart disease, its use in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is less well investigated. We critically review the current data surrounding FFR use across the spectrum of ACS including culprit and non-culprit artery analysis. With adenosine being conventionally used to induce maximal hyperaemia during FFR assessment, co-existent clinical conditions may preclude its use during acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, we include a current review of instantaneous wave free ratio as a novel vasodilator independent method of assessing lesion severity as an alternative strategy to guide revascularisation in ACS.
Project description:Objective proof of focal lesions is mandatory, and the best invasive method of physiological testing is fractional flow r eserve (FFR). The increased trans-stenotic gradient is measured via the guiding catheter and pressure transducer on a 0.014" coronary wire at maximal hyperaemia induced by adenosine. Patients with a FFR of less than 0.8 should undergo myocardial revascularisation by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft, particularly if the proximal and middle segments of the main coronary arteries and large side-branches are affected; there is no prognostic revascularisation benefit in patients with moderate stenoses and FFR greater than 0.80. FFR assessment of coronary lesions is superior to other invasive morphological studies, such as intracoronary ultrasound or optical coherence tomography. Its use in non-culprit vessels in acute coronary syndromes is currently under scrutiny. Recent advances in computed tomographic technique allow non-invasive assessment of FFR, but clinical validation has yet to be obtained.
Project description:Cardiogoniometry (CGM) is method of 3-dimensional electrocardiographic assessment which has been shown to identify patients with angiographically defined, stable coronary artery disease (CAD). However, angiographic evidence of CAD, does not always correlate to physiologically significant disease. The aim of our study was to assess the ability of CGM to detect physiologically significant coronary stenosis defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR). In a tertiary cardiology centre, elective patients with single vessel CAD were enrolled into a prospective double blinded observational study. A baseline CGM recording was performed at rest. A second CGM recording was performed during the FFR procedure, at the time of adenosine induced maximal hyperaemia. A significant CGM result was defined as an automatically calculated ischaemia score < 0 and a significant FFR ratio was defined as < 0.80. Measures of diagnostic performance (including sensitivity and specificity) were calculated for CGM at rest and during maximal hyperaemia. Forty-five patients were included (aged 61.1 ± 11.0; 60.0% male), of which eighteen (40%) were found to have significant CAD when assessed by FFR. At rest, CGM yielded a sensitivity of 33.3% and specificity of 63.0%. At maximal hyperaemia the sensitivity and specificity of CGM was 71.4 and 50.0% respectively. The diagnostic performance of CGM to detect physiologically significant stable CAD is poor at rest. Although, the diagnostic performance of CGM improves substantially during maximal hyperaemia, it does not reach sufficient levels of accuracy to be used routinely in clinical practice.
Project description:Fractional flow reserve (FFR) requires the use of maximal hyperaemia as described in the original preclinical and clinical validation studies and subsequent practice changing randomized controlled trials. A perception that the need for hyperaemia (usually induced with adenosine) was one of the obstacles to more widespread adoption of FFR has led to interest in the use of resting non-hyperaemic indices to assess the functional significance of coronary stenoses. We examine the current evidence base and conclude that resting indices agree with FFR in only 80 % of lesions when a binary cut-off is employed but closer to 90 % when hybrid strategies utilising both resting indices and FFR are utilised. It seems counter intuitive to sacrifice diagnostic accuracy when in most patients and healthcare systems the induction of hyperaemia with adenosine is safe and emminently affordable.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Total coronary artery calcium (CAC) burden is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, while local CAC may represent stable plaques. We determined differences in relationship of total CAC with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and local CAC with culprit lesions in patients with suspected ACS. METHODS:We performed computed tomography (CT) for CAC and CT angiography to assess the presence of significant stenosis and high-risk plaque (positive remodeling, low CT attenuation, napkin-ring sign, spotty calcium) in 37 patients with ACS and 223 controls. Total and segmental Agatston scores were measured. Culprit lesions were assessed in subjects with ACS. RESULTS:Patients (n?=?260) with vs. without ACS had higher total CAC score (median 229, 25th-75th percentile 75-517 vs. 27, 25th-75th percentile 0-99, p<0.001), higher prevalence of significant stenosis (78% vs. 7%, p<0.001) and high-risk plaque (95% vs. 59%, p<0.001). In those with ACS, culprit (n?=?41) vs. non-culprit (n?=?200) lesions, had similar segmental CAC score (median 22, 25th-75th percentile 4-71 vs. 14, 25th-75th percentile 0-51; p=0.37), but higher prevalence of significant stenosis (81% vs. 11%, p<0.001) and high-risk plaque (76% vs. 51%, p=0.005). Significant stenosis (odds ratio 40.2, 95%CI 15.6-103.9, p<0.001) and high-risk plaque (odds ratio 3.4, 95%CI 1.3-9.1, p=0.02), but not segmental CAC score (odds ratio 1.0, 95%CI 1.0-1.0, p=0.47), were associated with culprit lesions of ACS. CONCLUSIONS:Total CAC burden was associated with ACS but segmental CAC was not associated with culprit lesions. Our findings suggest that total but not local CAC is a marker of ACS risk and support the hypothesis that extensive local CAC is a marker of plaque stability.
Project description:Lipoprotein Lp(a) represents an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its association with CAD burden and lipid rich plaques prone to rupture in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) still remains unknown. These data aim to investigate the association among serum Lipoprotein(a) (Lpa) levels, coronary atherosclerotic burden and features of culprit plaque in patients with ACS and obstructive CAD. For his reason, a total of 500 ACS patients were enrolled for the angiographic cohort and 51 ACS patients were enrolled for the optical coherence tomography (OCT) cohort. Angiographic CAD severity was assessed by Sullivan score and by Bogaty score including stenosis score and extent index, whereas OCT plaque features were evaluated at the site of the minimal lumen area and along the culprit segment. In the angiographic cohort, Lp(a) was a weak independent predictor of Sullivan score (p<0.0001), stenosis score (p<0.0001) and extent index (p<0.0001). In the OCT cohort, patients with higher Lp(a) levels (>30 md/dl) compared to patients with lower Lp(a) levels (<30 md/dl) exhibited a higher prevalence of lipidic plaque at the site of the culprit stenosis (P=0.02), a wider lipid arc (p=0.003) and a higher prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (p=0.004).
Project description:Background High-risk plaque (HRP) features as detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) predict acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We sought to determine whether coronary CTA-specific definitions of HRP improve discrimination of patients with ACS as compared with definitions from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods and Results In patients with suspected ACS, randomized to coronary CTA in the ROMICAT II (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography II) trial, we retrospectively performed semiautomated quantitative analysis of HRP (including remodeling index, plaque burden as derived by plaque area, low computed tomography attenuation plaque volume) and degree of luminal stenosis and analyzed the performance of traditional IVUS thresholds to detect ACS. Furthermore, we derived CTA-specific thresholds in patients with ACS to detect culprit lesions and applied those to all patients to calculate the discriminatory ability to detect ACS in comparison to IVUS thresholds. Of 472 patients, 255 patients (56±7.8 years; 63% men) had coronary plaque. In 32 patients (6.8%) with ACS, culprit plaques (n=35) differed from nonculprit plaques (n=172) with significantly greater values for all HRP features except minimal luminal area (significantly lower; all P<0.01). IVUS definitions showed good performance while minimal luminal area (odds ratio: 6.82; P=0.014) and plaque burden (odds ratio: 5.71; P=0.008) were independently associated with ACS but not remodeling index (odds ratio: 0.78; P=0.673). Optimized CTA-specific thresholds for plaque burden (area under the curve: 0.832 versus 0.676) and degree of stenosis (area under the curve: 0.826 versus 0.721) showed significantly higher diagnostic performance for ACS as compared with IVUS-based thresholds (all P<0.05) with borderline significance for minimal luminal area (area under the curve: 0.817 versus 0.742; P=0.066). Conclusions CTA-specific definitions of HRP features may improve the discrimination of patients with ACS as compared with IVUS-based definitions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01084239.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) measurements in an all-comer patient population with moderate coronary artery stenoses. BACKGROUND:Visual assessment of the severity of coronary artery stenoses is often discordant in moderate lesions. FFR allows reliable functional severity assessment in these cases but requires adenosine-induced hyperaemia with associated additional time, costs and side effects. The iFR is a hyperaemia-independent index. METHODS AND RESULTS:Between November 2015 and February 2017, 356 consecutive patients were included in whom 515 coronary stenoses were measured using both iFR and FFR. Mean iFR and FFR were 0.90?±?0.09 and 0.86?±?0.08, respectively. iFR correlated well with FFR [r?=?0.75; p?<?0.001]. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified an area under the curve of 0.92. An iFR-only strategy with a treatment cut-off ?0.89 revealed a diagnostic classification agreement with the FFR-only strategy in 420 lesions (82%) with a sensitivity of 87%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 56% and a negative predictive value of 96%. CONCLUSIONS:Real-time iFR measurements have good negative predictive value compared to FFR, but moderate diagnostic accuracy (82%). It exposes fewer patients to adenosine, reduces procedure time and costs. Further prospective trials are needed to evaluate specific clinical settings, cut-off values and endpoints.
Project description:Background Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may help both in assessment and in percutaneous coronary intervention optimization of angiographically intermediate coronary lesions. We designed a prospective trial comparing the clinical and economic outcomes associated with FFR or OCT in angiographically intermediate coronary lesions. Methods and Results Three hundred fifty patients with angiographically intermediate coronary lesions (n=446) were randomized to FFR or OCT guidance. In the FFR arm, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed if FFR was ?0.80 aiming for a postprocedure FFR >0.90. In the OCT arm, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed if percentage of area stenosis was ?75% or 50% to 75% with minimal lumen area <2.5 mm2 or plaque ulceration. Costs, angina frequency, and major adverse cardiac events were assessed at 1 month and at 13 months. We present early data at 1 month consistent with a prespecified analysis of secondary end points. Patients randomized to FFR, as compared with OCT, were significantly more commonly managed with medical therapy alone (67.7% versus 41.1%; P<0.001), required less contrast media (245±137 versus 280±129 mL; P=0.004), and exhibited a lower occurrence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (1.7% versus 8.6%; P=0.034). At 1 month, in comparison to FFR, OCT was associated with increased total costs (2831±1288 versus 4292±3844 euros/patient; P<0.001) whereas occurrence of major adverse cardiac events or significant angina was similar. Conclusions In patients with angiographically intermediate coronary lesions, a functional guidance by FFR, as compared with OCT, increased the rate of patients treated with medical therapy alone. This translated into a significant reduction in administered contrast, contrast-induced acute kidney injury, and total costs at 1 month with FFR. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrialsgov. Unique identifier: NCT01824030.
Project description:The systolic forward travelling compression wave (sFCW) and diastolic backward travelling decompression waves (dBEW) predominantly accelerate coronary blood flow. The effect of a coronary stenosis on the intensity of these waves in the distal vessel is unknown. We investigated the relationship between established physiological indices of hyperemic coronary flow and the intensity of the two major accelerative coronary waves identified by Coronary Wave Intensity analysis (CWIA).Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and velocity measurement was performed during adenosine induced hyperemia in 17 patients with pressure / Doppler flow wires positioned distal to the target lesion. CWI profiles were generated from this data. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve (CFVR) were calculated concurrently. The intensity of the dBEW was significantly correlated with FFR (R = -0.70, P = 0.003) and CFVR (R = -0.73, P = 0.001). The intensity of the sFCW was also significantly correlated with baseline FFR (R = 0.71, p = 0.002) and CFVR (R = 0.59, P = 0.01). Stenting of the target lesion resulted in a median 178% (interquartile range 55-280%) (P<0.0001) increase in sFCW intensity and a median 117% (interquartile range 27-509%) (P = 0.001) increase in dBEW intensity. The increase in accelerative wave intensity following PCI was proportionate to the baseline FFR and CFVR, such that stenting of lesions associated with the greatest flow limitation (lowest FFR and CFVR) resulted in the largest increases in wave intensity.Increasing ischemia severity is associated with proportionate reductions in cumulative intensity of both major accelerative coronary waves. Impaired diastolic microvascular decompression may represent a novel, important pathophysiologic mechanism driving the reduction in coronary blood flow in the setting of an epicardial stenosis.