IAP antagonists induce anti-tumor immunity in multiple myeloma.
ABSTRACT: The cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (cIAP) 1 and 2 are amplified in about 3% of cancers and have been identified in multiple malignancies as being potential therapeutic targets as a result of their role in the evasion of apoptosis. Consequently, small-molecule IAP antagonists, such as LCL161, have entered clinical trials for their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells. However, cIAP1 and cIAP2 are recurrently homozygously deleted in multiple myeloma (MM), resulting in constitutive activation of the noncanonical nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway. To our surprise, we observed robust in vivo anti-myeloma activity of LCL161 in a transgenic myeloma mouse model and in patients with relapsed-refractory MM, where the addition of cyclophosphamide resulted in a median progression-free-survival of 10 months. This effect was not a result of direct induction of tumor cell death, but rather of upregulation of tumor-cell-autonomous type I interferon (IFN) signaling and a strong inflammatory response that resulted in the activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, leading to phagocytosis of tumor cells. Treatment of a MM mouse model with LCL161 established long-term anti-tumor protection and induced regression in a fraction of the mice. Notably, combination of LCL161 with the immune-checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD1 was curative in all of the treated mice.
Project description:The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have a critical role in the control of apoptotic machinery, and has been explored as a therapeutic target. Here, we have examined the functional importance of IAPs in multiple myeloma (MM) by using a Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases)-mimetic LCL161. We observed that LCL161 was able to potently induce apoptosis in some MM cell lines but not in others. Examining the levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) post LCL161 treatment indicated clear downregulation of both XIAP activity and cIAP1 levels in both the sensitive and less sensitive (resistant) cell lines. cIAP2, however, was not downregulated in the cell line resistant to the drug. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of cIAP2 significantly enhanced the effect of LCL161, indicating the importance of downregulation of all IAPs simultaneously for induction of apoptosis in MM cells. LCL161 induced marked up regulation of the Jak2/Stat3 pathway in the resistant MM cell lines. Combining LCL161 with a Jak2-specific inhibitor resulted in synergistic cell death in MM cell lines and patient cells. In addition, combining LCL161 with death-inducing ligands clearly showed that LCL161 sensitized MM cells to both Fas-ligand and TRAIL.
Project description:We demonstrated sensitization for chemotherapy by Smac mimetic (SM) LCL161, a potent antagonist of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP), in neuroblastoma (NB). Vinca alkaloids, particularly vincristine (VCR), displayed the strongest impact on inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis induction in combination with LCL161. The underlying signaling pathways remain elusive, though. LCL161 induces a quick degradation of cellular IAP 1 (cIAP-1). Combination of LCL161 with VCR had only marginal effects on X-linked IAP (XIAP) protein expression. Cell death is accompanied by activation of intrinsic (caspase-9 and MMP) and extrinsic (caspase-8) pathways of apoptosis, repression of migratory potential and cell cycle arrest in G2 phase. LCL161-induced cIAP degradation leads to activation of non-canonical and blockade of canonical NF-?B pathways but not induction of apoptosis. Surprisingly NF-?B and TNF-? signaling is negligible for VCR- and VCR/LCL161-induced apoptosis since chemical inhibition of NF-?B using BAY-7085 and PBS-1086, as well as application of TNF-? blocking antibody Humira (adalimumab) has no relevant effect on cell death. Recently formation of a TNF-?-independent complex (ripoptosome) consisting of RIP1, FADD and caspase-8 following IAP inhibition by SM has been described. However, targeting of RIP1 by Necrostatin was not sufficient to influence apoptosis induced by VCR/LCL161.
Project description:Host cells infected with obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis are profoundly resistant to diverse apoptotic stimuli. The molecular mechanisms underlying the block in apoptotic signaling of infected cells is not well understood. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism by which apoptosis induced via the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor is prevented in infected epithelial cells. Infection with C. trachomatis leads to the up-regulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP)-2, and interfering with cIAP-2 up-regulation sensitized infected cells for TNF-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, besides cIAP-2, cIAP-1 and X-linked IAP, although not differentially regulated by infection, are required to maintain apoptosis resistance in infected cells. We detected that IAPs are constitutively organized in heteromeric complexes and small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of one of these IAPs affects the stability of another IAP. In particular, the stability of cIAP-2 is modulated by the presence of X-linked IAP and their interaction is stabilized in infected cells. Our observations suggest that IAPs are functional and stable as heteromers, a thus far undiscovered mechanism of IAP regulation and its role in modulation of apoptosis.
Project description:Smac mimetic compounds (SMCs) are anti-cancer drugs that antagonize Inhibitor of Apoptosis proteins, which consequently sensitize cancer cells to death in the presence of proinflammatory ligands such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). SMCs synergize with the attenuated oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV?51) by eliciting an innate immune response, which is dependent on the endogenous production of TNF-? and type I interferon. To improve on this SMC-mediated synergistic response, we generated TNF-?-armed VSV?51 to produce elevated levels of this death ligand. Due to ectopic expression of TNF-? from infected cells, a lower viral dose of TNF-?-armed VSV?51 combined with treatment of the SMC LCL161 was sufficient to improve the survival rate compared to LCL161 and unarmed VSV?51 co-therapy. This improved response is attributed to a bystander effect whereby the spread of TNF-? from infected cells leads to the death of uninfected cells in the presence of LCL161. In addition, the treatments induced vascular collapse in solid tumors with a concomitant increase of tumor cell death, revealing another mechanism by which cytokine-armed VSV?51 in combination with LCL161 can kill tumor cells. Our studies demonstrate the potential for cytokine-engineered oncolytic virus and SMCs as a new combination immunotherapy for cancer treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mechanisms by which Smac mimetics (SMs) interact with proteasome inhibitors (e.g., bortezomib) are largely unknown, particularly in multiple myeloma (MM), a disease in which bortezomib represents a mainstay of therapy. METHODS:Interactions between the clinically relevant IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein) antagonist birinapant (TL32711) and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib were investigated in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and primary cells, as well as in vivo models. Induction of apoptosis and changes in gene and protein expression were monitored using MM cell lines and confirmed in primary MM cell populations. Genetically modified cells (e.g., exhibiting shRNA knockdown or ectopic expression) were employed to evaluate the functional significance of birinapant/bortezomib-induced changes in protein levels. A MM xenograft model was used to evaluate the in vivo activity of the birinapant/bortezomib regimen. RESULTS:Birinapant and bortezomib synergistically induced apoptosis in diverse cell lines, including bortezomib-resistant cells (PS-R). The regimen robustly downregulated cIAP1/2 but not the canonical NF-?B pathway, reflected by p65 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. In contrast, the bortezomib/birinapant regimen upregulated TRAF3, downregulated TRAF2, and diminished p52 processing and BCL-XL expression, consistent with disruption of the non-canonical NF-?B pathway. TRAF3 knockdown, ectopic TRAF2, or BCL-XL expression significantly diminished birinapant/bortezomib toxicity. The regimen sharply increased extrinsic apoptotic pathway activation, and cells expressing dominant-negative FADD or caspase-8 displayed markedly reduced birinapant/bortezomib sensitivity. Primary CD138+ (n?=?43) and primitive MM populations (CD138-/19+/20+/27+; n?=?31) but not normal CD34+ cells exhibited significantly enhanced toxicity with combined treatment (P?<?0.0001). The regimen was also fully active in the presence of HS-5 stromal cells or growth factors (e.g., IL-6 and VEGF). Finally, the regimen was well tolerated and significantly increased survival (P?<?0.05 and P?<?0.001) compared to single agents in a MM xenograft model. Combined treatment also downregulated cIAP1/2 and p52 while increasing PARP cleavage in MM cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that birinapant and bortezomib interact synergistically in MM cells, including those resistant to bortezomib, through inactivation of the non-canonical NF-?B and activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway both in vitro and in vivo. They also argue that a strategy combining cIAP antagonists and proteasome inhibitors warrants attention in MM.
Project description:Monocytes and macrophages constitute the first line of defense of the immune system against external pathogens. Macrophages have a highly plastic phenotype depending on environmental conditions; the extremes of this phenotypic spectrum are a pro-inflammatory defensive role (M1 phenotype) and an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair one (M2 phenotype). The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have important roles in the regulation of several cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. In this study we have analyzed the differential expression of the IAPs, NAIP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, during macrophage differentiation and polarization into M1 or M2. In polarized THP-1 cells and primary human macrophages, NAIP is abundantly expressed in M2 macrophages, while cIAP1 and cIAP2 show an inverse pattern of expression in polarized macrophages, with elevated expression levels of cIAP1 in M2 and cIAP2 preferentially expressed in M1. Interestingly, treatment with the IAP antagonist SMC-LCL161, induced the upregulation of NAIP in M2, the downregulation of cIAP1 in M1 and M2 and an induction of cIAP2 in M1 macrophages.
Project description:Proteasome inhibitors have achieved clinical success because they trigger intrinsic and extrinsic cell death to eliminate susceptible human cancers. The ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation system regulates signaling pathways by controlling levels of components such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP)1 and cIAP2 in TNF-mediated cell death. Here, we sought to evaluate the contribution of necroptosis to the cell death pattern induced by the specific proteasome inhibitor Carfilzomib (Cf). Proteasome inhibitor-sensitive multiple myeloma cell lines die in response to Cf by apoptosis in combination with serine protease-dependent death, without any contribution of RIPK3-dependent necroptosis. Proteasome inhibition leads to the induction of apoptotic markers such as activated caspase-3 rather than necroptotic markers such as phosphorylated-MLKL in all cell lines tested. In HT-29 cells, Cf attenuates the late RIPK1 interaction with TNFR1 during TNF-induced necroptosis without altering the sensitivity of cIAP antagonists. Cf treatment results in decreased translocation of death signaling components RIPK1, FADD, caspase-8, cFLIP, and RIPK3 to detergent insoluble fractions. Our results show that proteasome inhibition with Cf impairs necroptosis and favors apoptosis even in cells with intact necroptotic machinery. Following the induction of TNFR1-mediated necroptosis, proteasome activity stabilizes effective aggregation and activation of ripoptosome/necrosome complexes.
Project description:The larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, resulting in cystic echinococcosis, a parasitic zoonosis, causes huge economic losses to the livestock industry and poses a threat to public health. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) is a class of endogenous anti-apoptotic family, which plays a significant functional role in the regulation of organism's development. Herein, to explore potential functions of IAPs in E. granulosus, two members of IAPs from E. granulosus (Eg-IAP and Eg-BIRP) were cloned, expressed, and molecularly characterized. Eg-IAP and Eg-BIRP encoded putative 331 and 168 residue proteins, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis showed that both proteins contained a type II BIR domain-the essential functional domain of IAPs. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed that both proteins were ubiquitously localized in all life-cycle stages of E. granulosus. Our fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results revealed relatively higher transcription levels of two Eg-IAPs in protoscoleces (PSCs) compared to the 18-day strobilated worms. We further used different concentrations of LCL161, a Smac-mimetic pan-IAPs inhibitor, to induce the apoptosis in PSCs in vitro, and revealed that the survival rate of PSCs and transcription levels of both genes were negatively correlated with the concentration of LCL161. While the results of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay also showed a higher apoptotic rate in PSCs with the increasing concentrations of LCL161. Taken together, our findings provide the reasonable evidence that both Eg-IAP and Eg-BIRP have potential implication in critical anti-apoptotic roles during the development of E. granulosus.
Project description:Extracellular acidification is a very common cause of stress in tumor microenvironment and of Darwinian pressure. In acid areas of the tumor, most cancer cells are-albeit slowly proliferating-more resistant to cell death than those in well-perfused regions. Tumor acidosis can directly regulate the expression of pro-survival proteins since a low extracellular pH activates the caspase-dependent cell death machinery. This mechanism has never been explored in bone sarcomas. We cultured osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma cells under low pH (pH 6.5), and we performed deep-sequencing and protein analysis. Both in in vitro and in vivo models, acidification activity enhanced tumor cells survival. However, we did not observe any change in ERK1 phosphorylation. On the contrary, both at the mRNA and protein level, we found a significant induction of TRAF adaptor proteins and of cIAP proteins (BIRC2 and/or BIRC3). As a consequence, the downstream nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-?B) survival pathway was increased. Furthermore, the treatment with the cIAP inhibitor LCL161 reverted the protection from apoptosis under low pH. In vitro results were confirmed both in Ewing sarcoma xenograft and in osteosarcoma patients, since the analysis of tumor tissues demonstrated that the levels of expression of TRAF1 or NF-?B1 significantly correlate with the level of expression of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), the most important proton pump in eukaryotes. Moreover, in the tissue sections of xenograft model, the nuclear translocation of RelB, a key subunit of the NF-?B transcriptional complex, localized in the tumor region that also corresponded to the acid microenvironment associated with the highest levels of expression of LAMP2 and V-ATPase, in the internal area of the tumor, as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Our data confirm that tumor acid microenvironment activates a stress-regulated switch to promote cell survival of bone sarcoma, and support the hypothesis that this mechanism is mediated by the recruitment of TRAF/cIAP complexes. Altogether, these results suggest that TRAF/cIAP can be considered as a target for anti-cancer therapies.
Project description:PTEN loss is prognostic for patient relapse post-radiotherapy in prostate cancer (CaP). Infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is associated with reduced disease-free survival following radical prostatectomy. However, the association between PTEN loss, TAM infiltration and radiotherapy response of CaP cells remains to be evaluated. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of surgically-resected Gleason 7 tumors confirmed that PTEN loss correlated with increased CXCL8 expression and macrophage infiltration. However PTEN status had no discernable correlation with expression of other inflammatory markers by CaP cells, including TNF-?. In vitro, exposure to conditioned media harvested from irradiated PTEN null CaP cells induced chemotaxis of macrophage-like THP-1 cells, a response partially attenuated by CXCL8 inhibition. Co-culture with THP-1 cells resulted in a modest reduction in the radio-sensitivity of DU145 cells. Cytokine profiling revealed constitutive secretion of TNF-? from CaP cells irrespective of PTEN status and IR-induced TNF-? secretion from THP-1 cells. THP-1-derived TNF-? increased NF?B pro-survival activity and elevated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins including cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1) in CaP cells, which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with a TNF-? neutralizing antibody. Treatment with a novel IAP antagonist, AT-IAP, decreased basal and TNF-?-induced cIAP-1 expression in CaP cells, switched TNF-? signaling from pro-survival to pro-apoptotic and increased radiation sensitivity of CaP cells in co-culture with THP-1 cells. We conclude that targeting cIAP-1 can overcome apoptosis resistance of CaP cells and is an ideal approach to exploit high TNF-? signals within the TAM-rich microenvironment of PTEN-deficient CaP cells to enhance response to radiotherapy.