Incoming RNA virus nucleocapsids containing a 5'-triphosphorylated genome activate RIG-I and antiviral signaling.
ABSTRACT: Host defense to RNA viruses depends on rapid intracellular recognition of viral RNA by two cytoplasmic RNA helicases: RIG-I and MDA5. RNA transfection experiments indicate that RIG-I responds to naked double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) with a triphosphorylated 5' (5'ppp) terminus. However, the identity of the RIG-I stimulating viral structures in an authentic infection context remains unresolved. We show that incoming viral nucleocapsids containing a 5'ppp dsRNA "panhandle" structure trigger antiviral signaling that commences with RIG-I, is mediated through the adaptor protein MAVS, and terminates with transcription factor IRF-3. Independent of mammalian cofactors or viral polymerase activity, RIG-I bound to viral nucleocapsids, underwent a conformational switch, and homo-oligomerized. Enzymatic probing and superresolution microscopy suggest that RIG-I interacts with the panhandle structure of the viral nucleocapsids. These results define cytoplasmic entry of nucleocapsids as the proximal RIG-I-sensitive step during infection and establish viral nucleocapsids with a 5'ppp dsRNA panhandle as a RIG-I activator.
Project description:Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) recognizes specific molecular patterns of viral RNAs for inducing type I interferon. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with the 5'-triphosphate (5'-PPP), which induces a conformational change in RIG-I to an active form. It has been suggested that RIG-I detects infection of influenza A virus by recognizing the 5'-triphosphorylated panhandle structure of the viral RNA genome. Influenza panhandle RNA has a unique structure with a sharp helical bending. In spite of extensive studies of how viral RNAs activate RIG-I, whether the structural elements of the influenza panhandle RNA confer the ability to activate RIG-I signaling has been poorly explored. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the influenza panhandle RNA in complex with RIG-I CTD using NMR spectroscopy and showed that the bending structure of the panhandle RNA negates the requirement of a 5'-PPP moiety for RIG-I activation.
Project description:Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic sensor protein that recognizes viral RNAs and triggers an innate immune response in cells. Panhandle-like base-paired blunt-ended 5' ppp/pp-dsRNA is a characteristic feature of viral RNAs. Structural studies of RIG-I C-terminal domain bound 5' ppp/pp-dsRNA complexes show the direct interaction between all the 5' terminal phosphates (?, ?, and ?) and protein, suggesting ? phosphate might be a major recognition determinant for RIG-I binding. Biochemical studies, however, suggest that 5' pp-dsRNA is the minimal determinant for RIG-I binding and antiviral response. Despite biochemical and structural studies, the origin of viral RNA recognition by RIG-I is an unsolved problem. X-ray structures of RIG-I bound dsRNA not only provide atomic insight into the interaction network but also provide sufficiently good models for computational studies. We report structure-based molecular dynamics (MD) free energy calculations to quantitatively estimate the energetics of RIG-I binding to dsRNA containing 5' ppp, 5' pp, and 5' p. The results suggest that RIG-I weakly discriminates between 5' ppp-dsRNA and 5' pp-dsRNA (favoring former) and strongly disfavors 5' p-dsRNA with respect to the rest. Interestingly, direct interaction between ? phosphate of 5' ppp-dsRNA and RIG-I is a robust feature of the MD simulations. dsRNA binding to RIG-I is associated with Mg2+ dissociation from the 5' phosphate/s of dsRNA. The higher Mg2+ dissociation penalty from 5' ppp-dsRNA with respect to 5' pp-dsRNA offsets most of the favorable interaction between RIG-I and ? phosphate of 5' ppp-dsRNA. This leads to weak discrimination between 5' ppp-dsRNA and 5' pp-dsRNA. 5' p-dsRNA is discriminated strongly because of the loss of interaction with RIG-I.
Project description:RIG-I is a cytosolic sensor of viral RNA that plays crucial roles in the induction of type I interferons. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I is responsible for the recognition of viral RNA with 5' triphosphate (ppp). However, the mechanism of viral RNA recognition by RIG-I is still not fully understood. Here, we show that RIG-I CTD binds 5' ppp dsRNA or ssRNA, as well as blunt-ended dsRNA, and exhibits the highest affinity for 5' ppp dsRNA. Crystal structures of RIG-I CTD bound to 5' ppp dsRNA with GC- and AU-rich sequences revealed that RIG-I recognizes the termini of the dsRNA and interacts with the 5' ppp through extensive electrostatic interactions. Mutagenesis and RNA-binding studies demonstrated that similar binding surfaces are involved in the recognition of different forms of RNA. Mutations of key residues at the RNA-binding surface affected RIG-I signaling in cells.
Project description:RIG-I recognizes molecular patterns in viral RNA to regulate the induction of type I interferons. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I exhibits high affinity for 5' triphosphate (ppp) dsRNA as well as blunt-ended dsRNA. Structures of RIG-I CTD bound to 5'-ppp dsRNA showed that RIG-I recognizes the termini of dsRNA and interacts with the ppp through electrostatic interactions. However, the structural basis for the recognition of non-phosphorylated dsRNA by RIG-I is not fully understood. Here, we show that RIG-I CTD binds blunt-ended dsRNA in a different orientation compared to 5' ppp dsRNA and interacts with both strands of the dsRNA. Overlapping sets of residues are involved in the recognition of blunt-ended dsRNA and 5' ppp dsRNA. Mutations at the RNA-binding surface affect RNA binding and signaling by RIG-I. These results provide the mechanistic basis for how RIG-I recognizes different RNA ligands.
Project description:The cytoplasmic RNA helicase RIG-I mediates innate sensing of RNA viruses. The genomes of influenza A virus (FLUAV) are encapsidated by the nucleoprotein and associated with RNA polymerase, posing potential barriers to RIG-I sensing. We show that RIG-I recognizes the 5'-triphosphorylated dsRNA on FLUAV nucleocapsids but that polymorphisms at position 627 of the viral polymerase subunit PB2 modulate RIG-I sensing. Compared to mammalian-adapted PB2-627K, avian FLUAV nucleocapsids possessing PB2-627E are prone to increased RIG-I recognition, and RIG-I-deficiency partially restores PB2-627E virus infection of mammalian cells. Heightened RIG-I sensing of PB2-627E nucleocapsids correlates with previously established lower affinity of 627E-containing PB2 for nucleoprotein and is increased by further nucleocapsid instability. The effect of RIG-I on PB2-627E nucleocapsids is independent of antiviral signaling, suggesting that RIG-I-nucleocapsid binding alone can inhibit infection. These results indicate that RIG-I is a direct avian FLUAV restriction factor and highlight nucleocapsid disruption as an antiviral strategy.
Project description:The RIG-I like receptor (RLR) comprises three homologues: RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I), MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5), and LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2). Each RLR senses different viral infections by recognizing replicating viral RNA in the cytoplasm. The RLR contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is responsible for the binding specificity to the viral RNAs, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and 5'-triphosphated single-stranded RNA (5'ppp-ssRNA). Here, the solution structures of the MDA5 and LGP2 CTD domains were solved by NMR and compared with those of RIG-I CTD. The CTD domains each have a similar fold and a similar basic surface but there is the distinct structural feature of a RNA binding loop; The LGP2 and RIG-I CTD domains have a large basic surface, one bank of which is formed by the RNA binding loop. MDA5 also has a large basic surface that is extensively flat due to open conformation of the RNA binding loop. The NMR chemical shift perturbation study showed that dsRNA and 5'ppp-ssRNA are bound to the basic surface of LGP2 CTD, whereas dsRNA is bound to the basic surface of MDA5 CTD but much more weakly, indicating that the conformation of the RNA binding loop is responsible for the sensitivity to dsRNA and 5'ppp-ssRNA. Mutation study of the basic surface and the RNA binding loop supports the conclusion from the structure studies. Thus, the CTD is responsible for the binding affinity to the viral RNAs.
Project description:RIG-I has a remarkable ability to specifically select viral 5'ppp dsRNAs for activation from a pool of cytosolic self-RNAs. The ATPase activity of RIG-I plays a role in RNA discrimination and activation, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. Using transient-state kinetics, we elucidated the ATPase-driven "kinetic proofreading" mechanism of RIG-I activation and RNA discrimination, akin to DNA polymerases, ribosomes, and T cell receptors. Even in the autoinhibited state of RIG-I, the C-terminal domain kinetically discriminates against self-RNAs by fast off rates. ATP binding facilitates dsRNA engagement but, interestingly, makes RIG-I promiscuous, explaining the constitutive signaling by Singleton-Merten syndrome-linked mutants that bind ATP without hydrolysis. ATP hydrolysis dissociates self-RNAs faster than 5'ppp dsRNA but, more importantly, drives RIG-I oligomerization through translocation, which we show to be regulated by helicase motif IVa. RIG-I translocates directionally from the dsRNA end into the stem region, and the 5'ppp end "throttles" translocation to provide a mechanism for threading and building a signaling-active oligomeric complex.
Project description:Type I interferons (IFN) are important for antiviral responses. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) and retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) proteins detect cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp) RNA and mediate IFN production. Cytosolic 5'-ppp RNA and dsRNA are generated during viral RNA replication and transcription by viral RNA replicases [RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp)]. Here, we show that the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) RNA replicase can induce IFN-? independently of viral RNA replication and transcription. The SFV replicase converts host cell RNA into 5'-ppp dsRNA and induces IFN-? through the RIG-I and MDA-5 pathways. Inactivation of the SFV replicase RdRp activity prevents IFN-? induction. These IFN-inducing modified host cell RNAs are abundantly produced during both wild-type SFV and its non-pathogenic mutant infection. Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type SFV replicase a non-pathogenic mutant replicase triggers increased IFN-? production, which leads to a shutdown of virus replication. These results suggest that host cells can restrict RNA virus replication by detecting the products of unspecific viral replicase RdRp activity.
Project description:The cytosolic pathogen sensor RIG-I is activated by RNAs with exposed 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp) and terminal double-stranded structures, such as those that are generated during viral infection. RIG-I has been shown to translocate on dsRNA in an ATP-dependent manner. However, the precise role of the ATPase activity in RIG-I activation remains unclear. Using in vitro-transcribed Sendai virus defective interfering RNA as a model ligand, we show that RIG-I oligomerizes on 5'-ppp dsRNA in an ATP hydrolysis-dependent and dsRNA length-dependent manner, which correlates with the strength of type-I interferon (IFN-I) activation. These results establish a clear role for the ligand-induced ATPase activity of RIG-I in the stimulation of the IFN response.
Project description:Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs. RIG-I is activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNA with or without a 5'-triphosphate (ppp), by single-stranded RNA marked by a 5'-ppp and by polyuridine sequences. Upon binding to such PAMP motifs, RIG-I initiates a signalling cascade that induces innate immune defences and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. The RIG-I pathway is highly regulated and aberrant signalling leads to apoptosis, altered cell differentiation, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The helicase and repressor domains (RD) of RIG-I recognize dsRNA and 5'-ppp RNA to activate the two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) for signalling. Here, to understand the synergy between the helicase and the RD for RNA binding, and the contribution of ATP hydrolysis to RIG-I activation, we determined the structure of human RIG-I helicase-RD in complex with dsRNA and an ATP analogue. The helicase-RD organizes into a ring around dsRNA, capping one end, while contacting both strands using previously uncharacterized motifs to recognize dsRNA. Small-angle X-ray scattering, limited proteolysis and differential scanning fluorimetry indicate that RIG-I is in an extended and flexible conformation that compacts upon binding RNA. These results provide a detailed view of the role of helicase in dsRNA recognition, the synergy between the RD and the helicase for RNA binding and the organization of full-length RIG-I bound to dsRNA, and provide evidence of a conformational change upon RNA binding. The RIG-I helicase-RD structure is consistent with dsRNA translocation without unwinding and cooperative binding to RNA. The structure yields unprecedented insight into innate immunity and has a broader impact on other areas of biology, including RNA interference and DNA repair, which utilize homologous helicase domains within DICER and FANCM.