Computer-Aided Design and 3-Dimensional Printing for Costal Cartilage Simulation of Airway Graft Carving.
ABSTRACT: Autologous cartilage grafting during open airway reconstruction is a complex skill instrumental to the success of the operation. Most trainees lack adequate opportunities to develop proficiency in this skill. We hypothesized that 3-dimensional (3D) printing and computer-aided design can be used to create a high-fidelity simulator for developing skills carving costal cartilage grafts for airway reconstruction. The rapid manufacturing and low cost of the simulator allow deployment in locations lacking expert instructors or cadaveric dissection, such as medical missions and Third World countries. In this blinded, prospective observational study, resident trainees completed a physical simulator exercise using a 3D-printed costal cartilage grafting tool. Participant assessment was performed using a Likert scale questionnaire, and airway grafts were assessed by a blinded expert surgeon. Most participants found this to be a very relevant training tool and highly rated the level of realism of the simulation tool.
Project description:To investigate the feasibility of repairing osteochondral defects of critical size by performing mosaicplasty using multiple sliced costal cartilage grafts, which enables repair of extensively injured knees using grafts from a single rib.Critical osteochondral defects were prepared on the femoral groove of skeletally mature Japanese white rabbits. Costal cartilage grafts from a single rib were harvested and sliced into multiple segments (approximately 3-5 mm in length). The defects were left untreated or repaired by performing mosaicplasty using costal cartilage grafts (with or without a longitudinal cut along the middle). At 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation, International Cartilage Repair Society macroscopic and histological grading was performed.The macroscopic score and visual histological score were significantly higher in the repaired groups than in the untreated group at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. Histological continuous integration between grafted costal cartilage and host bone was observed in both repaired groups.The findings suggest that costal cartilage might be a useful alternative source for chondral grafting. We were able to repair large osteochondral defects by performing mosaicplasty using multiple sliced costal cartilage grafts from a single rib.
Project description:Microtia is a congenital aplasia of the auricular cartilage. Conventionally, autologous costal cartilage grafts are collected and shaped for transplantation. However, in this method, excessive invasion occurs due to limitations in the costal cartilage collection. Due to deformation over time after transplantation of the shaped graft, problems with long-term morphological maintenance exist. Additionally, the lack of elasticity with costal cartilage grafts is worth mentioning, as costal cartilage is a type of hyaline cartilage. Medical plastic materials have been transplanted as alternatives to costal cartilage, but transplant rejection and deformation over time are inevitable. It is imperative to create tissues for transplantation using cells of biological origin. Hence, cartilage tissues were developed using a biodegradable scaffold material. However, such materials suffer from transplant rejection and biodegradation, causing the transplanted cartilage tissue to deform due to a lack of elasticity. To address this problem, we established a method for creating elastic cartilage tissue for transplantation with autologous cells without using scaffold materials. Chondrocyte progenitor cells were collected from perichondrial tissue of the ear cartilage. By using a multilayer culture and a three-dimensional rotating suspension culture vessel system, we succeeded in creating scaffold-free elastic cartilage from cartilage progenitor cells.
Project description:Total hip arthroplasty is a common surgical technique, yet it has severe complications, such as loosening and repeated revision. Thus, hip-preserving surgical options should be considered first to treat cartilage defects in the femoral head, especially for younger patients. Current surgical options for chondral repair of the femoral head include microfracture, trapdoor procedure, transplantation of osteochondral allografts and autografts, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Each of these techniques has unique advantages and limitations; however, none of them have been consented as the best practice for cartilage defects. In this review article, we also introduced a novel technique for repairing osteochondral defects of the femoral head using autologous costal cartilage grafts that may have good translational potential for cost-effective and safe applications. The translational potential of this article:This review updates current surgical options for reparing articular cartilage defects in the femoral head. We also introduce a novel technique for repairing osteochondral defects of the femoral head using autologous costal cartilage grafts.
Project description:To demonstrate the dosimetry effect of electromechanical reshaping (EMR) on cartilage shape change, structural integrity, cellular viability, and remodeling of grafts in an in vivo long-term animal model.Animal study.A subperichondrial cartilaginous defect was created within the base of the pinna of 31 New Zealand white rabbits. Autologous costal cartilage grafts were electromechanically reshaped to resemble the rabbit auricular base framework and mechanically secured into the pinna base defect. Forty-nine costal cartilage specimens (four control and 45 experimental) successfully underwent EMR using a paired set of voltage-time combinations and survived for 6 or 12 weeks. Shape change was measured, and specimens were analyzed using digital imaging, tissue histology, and confocal microscopy with LIVE-DEAD viability assays.Shape change was proportional to charge transfer in all experimental specimens (P?<?.01) and increased with voltage. All experimental specimens contoured to the auricular base. Focal cartilage degeneration and fibrosis was observed where needle electrodes were inserted, ranging from 2.2 to 3.9 mm. The response to injury increased with increasing charge transfer and survival duration.EMR results in appropriate shape change in cartilage grafts with chondrocyte injury highly localized. These studies suggest that elements of auricular reconstruction may be feasible using EMR. Extended survival periods and further optimization of voltage-time pairs are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects and shape-change potential of EMR.NA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to develop a two-stage training module using radish and swine scapular cartilage for carving ear cartilage. METHODS:In the first stage, white radish was cut in 3-6 mm thick slices. The ear cartilage framework was carved using a graver and the helix and antihelix were fixed with pins. In the second stage, swine scapular cartilage was obtained. The thickness varied 3-6 mm. The ear cartilage framework was made. And triangular fossa and scaphoid fossa were carved with graver. A curvilinear cartilage for helix was assembled to the framework by pin fixing. Six participants were recruited for an ear reconstruction training workshop and figures of the cartilage framework were provided. Participants were asked answer the pre-workshop questionnaire and post-workshop questionnaire on a Likert scale to rate their satisfaction with the outcome. RESULTS:On the pre-workshop questionnaire, participants indicated that they did not have sufficient knowledge and skill for fabricating the ear cartilage framework (1.5± 0.5 using white radish; 1.3 ± 0.5 using swine scapular cartilage). On the post-workshop questionnaire, participants responded that they had learned useful knowledge from this workshop, reflecting a significant improvement (3.8± 1.0 using white radish; 4.0± 1.1 using swine scapular cartilage). They also indicated that they had become somewhat confident in this skill (4.2± 0.8 using white radish; 4.3± 0.5 using swine scapular cartilage. The participants generally found the workshop satisfactory (practically helpful, 4.7± 0.5; knowledge improved, 4.8± 0.4; satisfied with course, 4.5± 0.5; would recommend to others, 4.8± 0.4). CONCLUSION:This model can be useful for ear reconstruction training for medical personnel.
Project description:We present a novel airway simulation tool that recreates the dynamic challenges associated with emergency airways. The Suction-Assisted Laryngoscopy Assisted Decontamination (SALAD) simulation system trains providers to use suction to manage emesis and bleeding complicating intubation.We modified a standard difficult-airway mannequin head (Nasco, Ft. Atkinson, WI) with hardware-store equipment to enable simulation of vomiting or hemorrhage during intubation. A pre- and post-survey was used to assess the effectiveness of the SALAD simulator. We used a 1-5 Likert scale to assess confidence in managing the airway of a vomiting patient and comfort with suction techniques before and after the training exercise.Forty learners participated in the simulation, including emergency physicians, anesthesiologists, paramedics, respiratory therapists, and registered nurses. The average Likert score of confidence in managing the airway of a vomiting or hemorrhaging patient pre-session was 3.10±0.49, and post-session 4.13±0.22. The average score of self-perceived skill with suction techniques in the airway scenario pre-session was 3.30±0.43, and post-session 4.03±0.26. The average score for usefulness of the session was 4.68±0.15, and the score for realism of the simulator was 4.65±0.17.A training session with the SALAD simulator improved trainee's confidence in managing the airway of a vomiting or hemorrhaging patient. The SALAD simulation system recreates the dynamic challenges associated with emergency airways and holds promise as an airway training tool.
Project description:The ability of recognizing the ligamentum flavum is the first, crucial, important skill to teach novices when they are learning the epidural technique. The aim of this preliminary prospective study was to evaluate whether the Compuflo® Epidural instrument may help inexperienced trainees to better identify the ligamentum flavum during an epidural simulator training session. Compuflo® reduced the total number of attempts to identify the ligamentum flavum and increased three fold the chance to identify it at the first attempt during a simulator-assisted training module, making this identification easier for inexperienced trainees. This trial is registered with NCT03812926.
Project description:Purpose:To determine the impact of training on a virtual reality arthroscopy simulator on both simulator and cadaveric performance in novice trainees. Methods:A randomized controlled trial of 28 participants without prior arthroscopic experience was conducted. All participants received a demonstration of how to use the ArthroVision Virtual Reality Simulator and were then randomized to receive either no training (control group, n = 14) or a fixed protocol of simulation training (n = 14). All participants took a pretest on the simulator, completing 9 tasks ranging from camera-steadying tasks to probing structures. The training group then trained on the simulator (1 time per week for 3 weeks). At week 4, all participants completed a 2-part post-test, including (1) performing all tasks on the simulator and (2) performing a diagnostic arthroscopy on a cadaveric knee and shoulder. An independent, blinded observer assessed the performance on diagnostic arthroscopy using the Arthroscopic Surgical Skill Evaluation Tool scale. To compare differences between non-normally distributed groups, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. An independent-samples t test was used for normally distributed groups. The Friedman test with pair-wise comparisons using Bonferroni correction was used to compare scores within groups at multiple time points. Bonferroni adjustment was applied as a multiplier to the P value; thus, the ? level remained consistent. Significance was defined as P < .05. Results:In both groups, all tasks except task 5 (in which completion time was relatively fixed) showed a significant degree of correlation between task completion time and other task-specific metrics. A significant difference between the trained and control groups was found for post-test task completion time scores for all tasks. Qualitative analysis of box plots showed minimal change after 3 trials for most tasks in the training group. There was no statistical correlation between the performance on diagnostic arthroscopy on either the knee or shoulder and simulation training, with no difference in Arthroscopic Surgical Skill Evaluation Tool scores in the training group compared with controls. Conclusions:Our study suggests that an early ceiling effect is shown on the evaluated arthroscopic simulator model and that additional training past the point of proficiency on modern arthroscopic simulator models does not provide additional transferable benefits on a cadaveric model. Level of Evidence:Level I, randomized controlled trial.
Project description:Quantitative structural comparisons were made between keratan sulphates isolated from various sources, namely pig nucleus pulposus, bovine cornea, and the costal cartilages of children, a young adult with Marfan syndrome and of old human autopsies. In human costal cartilage the amount of keratan sulphate increases markedly with age, although total mucopolysaccharide decreases to some extent, concomitant with a decrease in chondroitin 4-sulphate and an increase in chondroitin 6-sulphate. Comparison of molecular weights estimated by gel chromatography with those calculated from the molar ratio of galactose to mannose indicates that keratan sulphates of human costal cartilages of children and of a young adult with Marfan syndrome, and of pig nucleus pulposus, contain one mannose residue per chain, whereas keratan sulphates of old human costal cartilage and of bovine cornea contain one to two, and two, per chain respectively. After mild acid-catalysed desulphation of pig nucleus pulposus keratan sulphate, approx. 12% of the mucopolysaccharide aggregates irreversibly once the water is removed from the polysaccharide. The following conclusions have been drawn from a methylation analysis of keratan sulphates of various sources, aided by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry. (1) Fucose and N-acetylneuraminic acid are non-reducing terminal residues and the sialic acid is linked to the 3-position of galactose residues. (2) Pig nucleus pulposus keratan sulphate has approximately 4 non-reducing terminal groups per molecule and appears to be slightly less branched than the costal-cartilage keratan sulphate of children. The branching in human costal-cartilage keratan sulphates decreases with age. Bovine corneal keratan sulphate appears to be unbranched. (3) Mannose residues are linked by 3 different substituents in human costal-cartilage and bovine corneal keratan sulphates, and by two different substituents in pig nucleus pulposus keratan sulphate. (4) The sulphate ester groups are all on the 6-position of N-acetyl-glucosamine and galactose residues. The degree of sulphation increases with age in costal keratan sulphates with the increase mainly of the galactose 6-sulphate residues.
Project description:Robust preclinical test methods involving tribological simulations are required to investigate and understand the tribological function of osteochondral repair interventions in natural knee tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of osteochondral allograft implantation on the local tribology (friction, surface damage, wear and deformation) of the tissues in the natural knee joint using a simple geometry, reciprocating pin-on-plate friction simulator. In addition, the study aimed to assess the ability of osteochondral grafts to restore a low surface damage, deformation and wear articulation when compared to the native state. A method was developed to characterise and quantify surface damage wear and deformation of the opposing cartilage-bone pin surface using a non-contacting optical profiler (Alicona Infinite Focus). Porcine 12?mm diameter cartilage-bone pins were reciprocated against bovine cartilage-bone plates that had 6?mm diameter osteochondral allografts, cartilage defects or stainless steel pins (positive controls) inserted centrally. Increased levels of surface damage with changes in geometry were not associated with significant increases in the coefficient of dynamic friction. Significant damage to the opposing cartilage surface was observed in the positive control groups. Cartilage damage, deformation and wear (as measured by change in geometry) in the xenograft (2.4?mm3) and cartilage defect (0.99?mm3) groups were low and not significantly different (p?>?0.05) compared to the negative control in either group. The study demonstrated the potential of osteochondral grafts to restore the congruent articular surface and biphasic tribology of the natural joint. An optical method has been developed to characterise cartilage wear, damage and deformation that can be applied to the tribological assessment of osteochondral grafts in a whole natural knee joint simulation model.