Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Confers Varied Phenotypic and Spatial-Temporal Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).
ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have important functions in plant growth and development. Radish taproots are rich in anthocyanins which confer different taproot colors and are potentially beneficial to human health. The crop differentially accumulates anthocyanin during various stages of growth, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this differential anthocyanin accumulation remains unknown. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was used to concisely identify putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish. Spatial-temporal transcript expressions were then profiled in four color variant radish cultivars. From the total transcript sequences obtained through illumina sequencing, 102 assembled unigenes, and 20 candidate genes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Fifteen genomic sequences were isolated and sequenced from radish taproot. The length of these sequences was between 900 and 1,579 bp, and the unigene coverage to all of the corresponding cloned sequences was more than 93%. Gene structure analysis revealed that RsF3'H is intronless and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs) bear asymmetrical exons, except RsSAM. Anthocyanin accumulation showed a gradual increase in the leaf of the red radish and the taproot of colored cultivars during development, with a rapid increase at 30 days after sowing (DAS), and the highest content at maturity. Spatial-temporal transcriptional analysis of 14 genes revealed detectable expressions of 12 ABGs in various tissues at different growth levels. The investigation of anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression in four color variant radish cultivars, at different stages of development, indicated that total anthocyanin correlated with transcript levels of ABGs, particularly RsUFGT, RsF3H, RsANS, RsCHS3 and RsF3'H1. Our results suggest that these candidate genes play key roles in phenotypic and spatial-temporal anthocyanin accumulation in radish through coordinated regulation and the major control point in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish is RsUFGT. The present findings lend invaluable insights into anthocyanin biosynthesis and may facilitate genetic manipulation for enhanced anthocyanin content in radish.
Project description:Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play crucial roles in various abiotic stress responses as well as anthocyanin accumulation. Anthocyanins are most abundant in colorful skin radish, which exhibit strong antioxidant activity that offers benefits for human health. Here, a total of 135 bZIP-encoding genes were identified from radish genome. Synteny analysis showed that 104 radish and 63 Arabidopsis bZIP genes were orthologous. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 10 RsbZIP genes exhibited high-expression levels in radish taproot (RPKM>10). Specifically, RsbZIP010 exhibited down-regulated expression under Cd, Cr and Pb stresses, whereas RsbZIP031 and RsbZIP059 showed significant down-regulation under heat and salt stresses, respectively. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that RsbZIP011 and RsbZIP102 were significantly up-regulated in the tissues of radish with high anthocyanin contents. Furthermore, the promoter sequences of 39 anthocyanin-related genes were found to contain G-box or ACE-box elements that could be recognized by bZIP family members. Taken together, several RsbZIPs might be served as critical regulators in radish taproot under Cd, Cr, Pb, heat and salt stresses. RsbZIP011 and RsbZIP102 were the potential participants in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of radish. These results facilitate further investigation on functional characterization of bZIP genes in response to abiotic stress and anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish.
Project description:Red-fleshed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a unique cultivar whose taproot is rich in anthocyanins beneficial to human health. However, the frequent occurrence of white-fleshed mutants affects the purity of commercially produced radish and the underlying mechanism has puzzled breeders for many years. In this study, we combined quantitative trait location by genome resequencing and transcriptome analyses to identify a candidate gene (RsMYB1) responsible for anthocyanin accumulation in red-fleshed radish. However, no sequence variation was found in the coding and regulatory regions of the RsMYB1 genes of red-fleshed (MTH01) and white-fleshed (JC01) lines, and a 7372 bp CACTA transposon in the RsMYB1 promoter region occurred in both lines. A subsequent analysis suggested that the white-fleshed mutant was the result of altered DNA methylation in the RsMYB1 promoter. This heritable epigenetic change was due to the hypermethylated CACTA transposon, which induced the spreading of DNA methylation to the promoter region of RsMYB1. Thus, RsMYB1 expression was considerably down-regulated, which inhibited anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white-fleshed mutant. An examination of transgenic radish calli and the results of a virus-induced gene silencing experiment confirmed that RsMYB1 is responsible for anthocyanin accumulation. Moreover, the mutant phenotype was partially eliminated by treatment with a demethylating agent. This study explains the molecular mechanism regulating the appearance of white-fleshed mutants of red-fleshed radish.
Project description:Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), is an important root vegetable crop grown worldwide, and it contains phyto-anthocyanins. However, only limited studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in the different color variants of the radish fleshy root. In this study, Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing was employed to characterize the transcriptomic changes in seven different types of radish fleshy roots. Approximately, 126 co-modulated differentially expressed genes were obtained, and most DEGs were more likely to participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis, including two transcription factors RsMYB_9 and RsERF070, and four functional genes RsBRICK1, RsBRI1-like2, RsCOX1, and RsCRK10. In addition, some related genes such as RsCHS, RsCHI, RsANS, RsMT2-4, RsUF3GT, glutathione S-transferase F12, RsUFGT78D2-like and RsUDGT-75C1-like significantly contributed to the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the radish cultivars. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis revealed that the anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound metabolic process, and significantly enriched pathways of the co-modulated DEGs were overrepresented in these cultivars. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin synthesis-related genes in radish.
Project description:BACKGROUND:R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth and development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, their regulatory mechanisms in wound-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in woody plants are largely unknown. RESULTS:In this work, we report that expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs) were activated by PdMYB118, a MYB TF encoding gene from Populus deltoids, and the activation of PdMYB118 was significantly enhanced by PdTT8, a bHLH protein, through its direct interaction with PdMYB118. PdMYB118 and some ABGs were evidently induced by wound induction and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Overexpression of PdMYB118 promoted anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic poplar upon wound induction. Furthermore, a poplar JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) protein, PtrJAZ1, repressed the transcriptional function of PdMYB118/PdTT8 complex by binding to PdTT8, and wound stimulated the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and the degradation of PtrJAZ1. CONCLUSIONS:Based on these observations, we proposed that PtrJAZ1 degradation triggered the expression of ABGs, leading to increased biosynthesis of anthocyanins in the wounded leaves of transgenic poplar. Therefore, our findings not only illustrate the crucial role of PdMYB118 in wound-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in poplar, but also provide a molecular basis for the genetic engineering of colorful tree species.
Project description:Sweet potato anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with many physiological functions. Previous research on anthocyanin accumulation in sweet potato has focused on the roots, but the accumulation progress in the leaves is still unclear. Two purple sweet potato cultivars (Fushu No. 23 and Fushu No. 317) with large quantities of anthocyanin in the leaves were investigated. Anthocyanin composition and content were assessed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (UPLC-DAD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS), and the expressions of genes were detected by qRT-PCR. The two cultivars contained nine cyanidin anthocyanins and nine peonidin anthocyanins with an acylation modification. The acylation modification of anthocyanins in sweet potato leaves primarily included caffeoyl, p-coumaryl, feruloyl, and p-hydroxy benzoyl. We identified three anthocyanin compounds in sweet potato leaves for the first time: cyanidin 3-p-coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-p-coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside. The anthocyanidin biosynthesis downstream structural genes DFR4, F3H1, anthocyanin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT3), as well as the transcription factor MYB1, were found to be vital regulatory genes during the accumulation of anthocyanins in sweet potato leaves. The composition of anthocyanins (nine cyanidin-based anthocyanins and nine peonidin-based anthocyanins) in all sweet potato leaves were the same, but the quantity of anthocyanins in leaves of sweet potato varied by cultivar and differed from anthocyanin levels in the roots of sweet potatoes. The anthocyanidin biosynthesis structural genes and transcription factor together regulated and controlled the anthocyandin biosynthesis in sweet potato leaves.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoid compounds. As a group of important secondary metabolites, they perform several key biological functions in plants. Anthocyanins also play beneficial health roles as potentially protective factors against cancer and heart disease. To elucidate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Brassica rapa, we conducted comparative genomic analyses between Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa on a genome-wide level. RESULTS: In total, we identified 73 genes in B. rapa as orthologs of 41 anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in A. thaliana. In B. rapa, the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (ABGs) have expanded and most genes exist in more than one copy. The anthocyanin biosynthetic structural genes have expanded through whole genome and tandem duplication in B. rapa. More structural genes located upstream of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway have been retained than downstream. More negative regulatory genes are retained in the anthocyanin biosynthesis regulatory system of B. rapa. CONCLUSIONS: These results will promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis, as well as help the improvement of the nutritional quality of B. rapa through the breeding of high anthocyanin content varieties.
Project description:Anthocyanins are the resultant end-point metabolites of phenylapropanoid/flavonoid (F/P) pathway which is regulated at transcriptional level via a series of structural genes. Identifying the key genes and their potential interactions can provide us with the clue for novel points of intervention for improvement of the trait in strawberry. We profiled the expressions of putative regulatory and biosynthetic genes of cultivated strawberry in three developmental and characteristically colored stages of fruits of contrastingly anthocyanin rich cultivars: Tokun, Maehyang and Soelhyang. Besides FaMYB10, a well-characterized positive regulator, FaMYB5, FabHLH3 and FabHLH3-delta might also act as potential positive regulators, while FaMYB11, FaMYB9, FabHLH33 and FaWD44-1 as potential negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in these high-anthocyanin cultivars. Among the early BGs, Fa4CL7, FaF3H, FaCHI1, FaCHI3, and FaCHS, and among the late BGs, FaDFR4-3, FaLDOX, and FaUFGT2 showed significantly higher expression in ripe fruits of high anthocyanin cultivars Maehyang and Soelhyang. Multivariate analysis revealed the association of these genes with total anthocyanins. Increasingly higher expressions of the key genes along the pathway indicates the progressive intensification of pathway flux leading to final higher accumulation of anthocyanins. Identification of these key genetic determinants of anthocyanin regulation and biosynthesis in Korean cultivars will be helpful in designing crop improvement programs.
Project description:Background:Anthocyanins are plant secondary metabolites with key roles in attracting insect pollinators and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. They have potential health-promoting effects as part of the human diet. Anthocyanin biosynthesis has been elucidated in many species, enabling the development of anthocyanin-enriched fruits, vegetables, and grains; however, few studies have investigated Brassica napus anthocyanin biosynthesis. Results:We developed a high-anthocyanin resynthesized B. napus line, Rs035, by crossing anthocyanin-rich B. rapa (A genome) and B. oleracea (C genome) lines, followed by chromosome doubling. We identified and characterized 73 and 58 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in silico in the A and C genomes, respectively; these genes showed syntenic relationships with 41 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and B. napus. Among the syntenic genes, twelve biosynthetic and six regulatory genes showed transgressively higher expression in Rs035, and eight structural genes and one regulatory gene showed additive expression. We identified three early-, four late-biosynthesis pathways, three transcriptional regulator genes, and one transporter as putative candidates enhancing anthocyanin accumulation in Rs035. Principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients corroborated the contribution of these genes to anthocyanin accumulation. Conclusions:Our study lays the foundation for producing high-anthocyanin B. napus cultivars. The resynthesized lines and the differentially expressed genes we have identified could be used to transfer the anthocyanin traits to other commercial rapeseed lines using molecular and conventional breeding.
Project description:Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot contains high concentrations of flavonoids, including anthocyanins (ATCs), in red-skinned genotypes. However, little information on the genetic regulation of ATC biosynthesis in radish is available. A genome-wide association study of radish red skin color was conducted using whole-genome sequencing data derived from 179 radish genotypes. The R2R3-MYB transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment 2 (PAP2) gene was found in the region associated with a leading SNP located on chromosome 2. The amino acid sequence encoded by the RsPAP2 gene was different from those of the other published RsMYB genes responsible for the red skin color of radish. The overexpression of the RsPAP2 gene resulted in ATC accumulation in Arabidopsis and radish, which was accompanied by the upregulation of several ATC-related structural genes. RsPAP2 was found to bind the RsUFGT and RsTT8 promoters, as shown by a dual-luciferase reporter system and a yeast one-hybrid assay. The promoter activities of the RsANS, RsCHI, RsPAL, and RsUFGT genes could be strongly activated by coinfiltration with RsPAP2 and RsTT8. These findings showed the effectiveness of GWAS in identifying candidate genes in radish and demonstrated that RsPAP2 could (either directly or together with its cofactor RsTT8) regulate the transcript levels of ATC-related genes to promote ATC biosynthesis, facilitating the genetic enhancement of ATC contents and other related traits in radish.
Project description:Carrots (Daucus carota L.) are among the 10 most economically important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Purple carrot cultivars accumulate rich cyanidin-based anthocyanins in a light-independent manner in their taproots whereas other carrot color types do not. Anthocyanins are important secondary metabolites in plants, protecting them from damage caused by strong light, heavy metals, and pathogens. Furthermore, they are important nutrients for human health. Molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in purple carrot cultivars and loss of anthocyanin production in non-purple carrot cultivars remain unknown.The taproots of the three purple carrot cultivars were rich in anthocyanin, and levels increased during development. Conversely, the six non-purple carrot cultivars failed to accumulate anthocyanins in the underground part of taproots. Six novel structural genes, CA4H1, CA4H2, 4CL1, 4CL2, CHI1, and F3'H1, were isolated from purple carrots. The expression profiles of these genes, together with other structural genes known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, were analyzed in three purple and six non-purple carrot cultivars at the 60-day-old stage. PAL3/PAL4, CA4H1, and 4CL1 expression levels were higher in purple than in non-purple carrot cultivars. Expression of CHS1, CHI1, F3H1, F3'H1, DFR1, and LDOX1/LDOX2 was highly correlated with the presence of anthocyanin as these genes were highly expressed in purple carrot taproots but not or scarcely expressed in non-purple carrot taproots.This study isolated six novel structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrots. Among the 13 analyzed structural genes, PAL3/PAL4, CA4H1, 4CL1, CHS1, CHI1, F3H1, F3'H1, DFR1, and LDOX1/LDOX2 may participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the taproots of purple carrot cultivars. CHS1, CHI1, F3H1, F3'H1, DFR1, and LDOX1/LDOX2 may lead to loss of light-independent anthocyanin production in orange and yellow carrots. These results suggest that numerous structural genes are involved in anthocyanin production in the taproots of purple carrot cultivars and in the loss of anthocyanin production in non-purple carrots. Unexpressed or scarcely expressed genes in the taproots of non-purple carrot cultivars may be caused by the inactivation of regulator genes. Our results provide new insights into anthocyanin biosynthesis at the molecular level in carrots and for other root vegetables.