Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Primary Cultured Rat Astrocytes Induced by 2-Chloroethanol Via MAPK Signal Pathways.
ABSTRACT: 2-Chloroethanol (2-CE) is one of the reactive metabolites of 1,2-DCE in vivo, which might contribute to brain edema formation induced by 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) poisoning. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways in upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in 2-CE exposed rat astrocytes. Expression of p38 MAPK (p38), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and MMP-9 at both protein and gene levels in rat astrocytes were determined using western blot and real-time RT-PCR methods. The results showed that both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes significantly increased. Meanwhile, protein levels of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2) in 2-CE exposed astrocytes also significantly increased. In addition, both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 significantly decreased in response to reduced protein levels of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 achieved by supplement with their specific inhibitors, indicating that activation of MAPK signal pathways might play an important role in upregulation of MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level in 2-CE exposed astrocytes. Furthermore, since pretreatment of n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a powerful antioxidant amino acid, could attenuate the elevated levels of MMP-9, p-p38, p-ERK2 and p-JNK1/2 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes, activation of MAPK signal pathways in 2-CE exposed astrocytes could be mediated partially by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was most likely generated in the metabolism of 2-CE.
Project description:Subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) has become a serious occupational problem in China, and brain edema is its main pathological consequence, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. As the metabolite of 1,2-DCE, 2-chloroethanol (2-CE) is more reactive, and might play an important role in the toxic effects of 1,2-DCE. In our previous studies, we found that matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) expression was enhanced in mouse brains upon treatment with 1,2-DCE, and in rat astrocytes exposed to 2-CE. In the present study, we analyzed the association of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) with MMP-9 overexpression in astrocytes treated with 2-CE. MMP-9, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos were significantly upregulated by 2-CE treatment, which also enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun, c-Fos and inhibitor of ?B? (I?B?), and nuclear translocation of p65. Furthermore, inhibition of I?B? phosphorylation and AP-1 activity with the specific inhibitors could attenuate MMP-9 overexpression in the cells. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway suppressed the activation of both NF-?B and AP-1 in 2-CE-treated astrocytes. In conclusion, MMP-9 overexpression induced by 2-CE in astrocytes could be mediated at least in part through the p38 signaling pathway via activation of both NF-?B and AP-1. This study might provide novel clues for clarifying the mechanisms underlying 1,2-DCE associated cerebral edema.
Project description:In this study, we demonstrated the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our aim is to evaluate the impact of reperfusion on I/R-related changes in RECK, an MMP modulator, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) pathways (ERK, p38, and JNK). Male Wistar rats were either subjected to 60 min partial-hepatic ischemia or sham-operated. After a 60 min or 120 min reperfusion, liver samples were collected for analysis of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by zymography and RECK, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 content, MAPKs activation (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38), as well as iNOS and eNOS by Western blot. Serum enzymes AST, ALT, and alkaline-phosphatase were quantified. A transitory decrease in hepatic RECK and TIMPs was associated with a transitory increase in both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and a robust activation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 were detected at 60 min reperfusion. Hepatic expression of iNOS was maximally upregulated at 120 min reperfusion. An increase in eNOS was detected at 120 min reperfusion. I/R evoked significant hepatic injury in a time-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of reperfusion in inducing hepatic injury: a transitory decrease in RECK and TIMPs and increases in both MAPK and MMP activity suggest their role as triggering factors of the organ dysfunction.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is a landmark of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one member of MMPs, has been shown to contribute to the pathology of these brain diseases. Several experimental models have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exerts a pathological role through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying LPS-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1) are not completely understood. Here, we applied pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA transfection to assess the levels of MMP-9 protein, mRNA, and promoter activity, as well as protein kinase phosphorylation in RBA-1 cells triggered by LPS. We found that LPS-induced expression of pro-form MMP-9 and cell migration were mediated through TLR4, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (c-Src), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 signaling molecules in RBA-1 cells. In addition, LPS-stimulated binding of c-Jun to the MMP-9 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, which was blocked by pretreatment with c-Src inhibitor II, PF431396, AG1296, LY294002, Akt inhibitor VIII, p38 MAP kinase inhibitor VIII, SP600125, and tanshinone IIA. These results suggest that in RBA-1 cells, LPS activates a TLR4/c-Src/Pyk2/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathway, which in turn triggers activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation and ultimately induces MMP-9 expression and cell migration.
Project description:Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are important in the development and/or progression of many cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Evidence shows that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 are related to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in atherosclerosis are regulated via various pathways, such as p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and nuclear factor kappa (NF-?B). Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been shown to induce atherosclerosis by increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) productions. However, whether DEHP poses any effects on MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression in VSMC has not yet been answered. In our studies, rat aorta VSMC was treated with DEHP (between 2 and 17.5 ppm) and p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, Akt, NF-?B, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins and activities were measured. Results showed that the presence of DEHP can induce higher MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression than the controls. Similar results on MMP-regulating proteins, i.e., p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-?B, were also observed. In summary, our current results have showed that DEHP can be a potent inducer of atherosclerosis by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression at least through the regulations of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-?B.
Project description:Double minute chromosomes (DMs) are extrachromosomal cytogenetic structures found in tumour cells. As hallmarks of gene amplification, DMs often carry oncogenes and drug-resistance genes and play important roles in malignant tumour progression and drug resistance. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway is frequently dysregulated in human malignant tumours, which induces genomic instability, but it remains unclear whether a close relationship exists between MAPK signalling and DMs. In the present study, we focused on three major components of MAPK signalling, ERK1/2, JNK1/2/3 and p38, to investigate the relationship between MAPK and DM production in tumour cells. We found that the constitutive phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not JNK1/2/3 and p38, was closely associated with DMs in tumour cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation in DM-containing and ERK1/2 constitutively phosphorylated tumour cells was able to markedly decrease the number of DMs, as well as the degree of amplification and expression of DM-carried genes. The mechanism was found to be an increasing tendency of DM DNA to break, become enveloped into micronuclei (MNs) and excluded from the tumour cells during the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle, events that accompanied the reversion of malignant behaviour. Our study reveals a linkage between ERK1/2 activation and DM stability in tumour cells.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in cell invasion and cancer metastasis. In this study, we showed that cholic acid (CA), a major primary bile acid, can induce MMP-9 expression in colon cancer HT29 and SW620 cells. CA increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and also activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. Specific inhibitors and mutagenesis studies showed that ERK1/2 and JNK functioned as upstream signals in the activation of AP-1, and p38 MAPK functioned as an upstream signal in the activation of NF-?B. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) inhibited CA-induced activation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, indicating that ROS production by NADPH oxidase could be the furthest upstream signal in MMP-9 expression. Colon cancer cells pretreated with CA showed remarkably enhanced invasiveness. Such enhancement was partially abrogated by MMP-9-neutralizing antibodies. These results demonstrate that CA could induce MMP-9 expression via ROS-dependent ERK1/2, JNK-activated AP-1, and p38-MAPK-activated NF-?B signaling pathways, which in turn stimulate cell invasion in human colon cancer cells.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1? (IL-1?) induces prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>) production via upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in synovial fibroblasts. This effect of IL-1? is involved in osteoarthritis. We investigated MAPK signaling pathways in IL-1?-induced COX-2 expression in feline synovial fibroblasts. In the presence of MAPK inhibitors, IL-1?-induced COX-2 expression and PGE<sub>2</sub> release were both attenuated. IL-1? induced the phosphorylation of p38, JNK, MEK, and ERK1/2. A JNK inhibitor prevented not only JNK phosphorylation but also MEK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in IL-1?-stimulated cells, but MEK and ERK1/2 inhibitors had no effect on JNK phosphorylation. A p38 inhibitor prevented p38 phosphorylation, but had no effect on MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK phosphorylation. MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK inhibitors had no effect on p38 phosphorylation. We also observed that in IL-1?-treated cells, phosphorylated MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK were co-precipitated with anti-phospho-MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK antibodies. The silencing of JNK1 in siRNA-transfected fibroblasts prevented IL-1? to induce phosphorylation of MEK and ERK1/2 and COX-2 mRNA expression. These observations suggest that JNK1 phosphorylation is necessary for the activation of the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway and the subsequent COX-2 expression for PGE<sub>2</sub> release, and p38 independently contributes to the IL-1? effect in synovial fibroblasts.
Project description:Following acute brain injury, albumin may gain access to the brain parenchyma. Clinical studies indicate a protective role for albumin in stroke but an increase in mortality associated with albumin administration following traumatic brain injury. We investigated the effects of albumin on astrocyte and microglial activation, and the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in these responses. Albumin activated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways in astrocytes, and induced the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, the NO metabolite nitrite, and the chemokine CX3CL1 while reducing the level of S100B. The release of inflammatory markers by astrocytes was partially dependent on p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways, but not JNK. In microglia, albumin exposure activated all three MAPK pathways and produced an increase in IL-1beta and nitrite. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in microglia leads to an increased level of IL1beta, while inhibition of all three MAPKs suppressed the release of nitrite. These results suggest that albumin activates astrocytes and microglia, inducing inflammatory responses involved both in the mechanisms of cellular injury and repair via activation of MAPK pathways, and thereby implicate glial activation in the clinical responses to administration of albumin.
Project description:Discoidin Domain Receptors (DDR1/DDR2) are tyrosine kinase receptors which are activated by collagen. DDR signalling regulates cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. MMPs degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and play essential role in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) which strongly inhibit osteoclastic activity are commonly used for osteoporosis treatment. They also have MMP inhibitory effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of zoledronate in PC3 cells and the possible role of DDR signalling and downstream pathways in these inhibitory effects. We studied messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of MMP-2,-9,-8, DDR1/DDR2 type I procollagen (TIP) and mRNA levels of PCA-1, MMP-13 and DDR-initiated signalling pathway players including K-Ras oncogene, ERK1, JNK1, p38, AKT-1 and BCLX in PC3 cells in the presence or absence of zoledronate (10-100 ?M) for 2-3 days. Zoledronate (100 ?M) down-regulated DDR1/ DDR2, TIP mRNAs but did not change MMP-13 (collagenase-3) mRNA. However, zoledronate up-regulated MMP-8 (collagenase-2) mRNA. Zoledronate also inhibited mRNA expressions of K-Ras, ERK1, AKT-1, BCLX and PCA-1; but did not change JNK1, p38 mRNA levels. Zoledronate (100 ?M) supressed DDR1/DDR2, TIP expressions; and gelatinase (MMP-2/MMP-9) expressions/activities. Conversely, zoledronate up-regulated MMP-8 expression in PC3 cells. Zoledronate down-regulates MMP-2/-9 expressions in PC3 prostate cancer cells. DDR1/DDR2 signalling and DDR-initiated downstream Ras/Raf/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways may at least partially responsible for MMP inhibitory effect of zoledronate.
Project description:Monanchoxymycalin C (MomC) is a new marine pentacyclic guanidine alkaloid, recently isolated from marine sponge Monanchora pulchra by us. Here, anticancer activity and mechanism of action was investigated for the first time using a human prostate cancer (PCa) model. MomC was active in all PCa cell lines at low micromolar concentrations and induced an unusual caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death. Kinase activity screening identified activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) to be one of the primary molecular mechanism of MomC anticancer activity. Functional assays demonstrated a specific and selective JNK1/2 activation prior to the induction of other cell death related processes. Inhibition of JNK1/2 by pretreatment with the JNK-inhibitor SP600125 antagonized cytotoxic activity of the marine compound. MomC caused an upregulation of cytotoxic ROS. However, in contrast to other ROS-inducing agents, co-treatment with PARP-inhibitor olaparib revealed antagonistic effects indicating an active PARP to be necessary for MomC activity. Interestingly, although no direct regulation of p38 and ERK1/2 were detected, active p38 kinase was required for MomC efficacy, while the inhibition of ERK1/2 increased its cytotoxicity. In conclusion, MomC shows promising activity against PCa, which is exerted via JNK1/2 activation and non-apoptotic cell death.