Recent advances in understanding Listeria monocytogenes infection: the importance of subcellular and physiological context.
ABSTRACT: The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm) is the causative agent of listeriosis, a rare but fatal foodborne disease. During infection, Lm can traverse several host barriers and enter the cytosol of a variety of cell types. Thus, consideration of the extracellular and intracellular niches of Lm is critical for understanding the infection process. Here, we review advances in our understanding of Lm infection and highlight how the interactions between the host and the pathogen are context dependent. We discuss discoveries of how Lm senses entry into the host cell cytosol. We present findings concerning how the nature of the various cytoskeleton components subverted by Lm changes depending on both the stage of infection and the subcellular context. We present discoveries of critical components required for Lm traversal of physiological barriers. Interactions between the host gut microbiota and Lm will be briefly discussed. Finally, the importance of Lm biodiversity and post-genomics approaches as a promising way to discover novel virulence factors will be highlighted.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of listeriosis, a rare but fatal disease. During infection, Lm can traverse several physiological barriers; it can cross the intestine and placenta barrier and, in immunocompromised individuals, the blood-brain barrier. With the recent plethora of sequenced genomes available for Lm, it is clear that the complete repertoire of genes used by Lm to interact with its host remains to be fully explored. Recently, we focused on secreted Lm proteins because they are likely to interact with host cell components. Here, we investigated a putatively secreted protein of Lm, Lmo1656, that is present in most sequenced strains of Lm but absent in the nonpathogenic species Listeria innocua. lmo1656 gene is predicted to encode a small, positively charged protein. We show that Lmo1656 is secreted by Lm Furthermore, deletion of the lmo1656 gene (Δlmo1656) attenuates virulence in mice infected orally but not intravenously, suggesting that Lmo1656 plays a role during oral listeriosis. We identified sorting nexin 6 (SNX6), an endosomal sorting component and BAR domain-containing protein, as a host cell interactor of Lmol656. SNX6 colocalizes with WT Lm during the early steps of infection. This colocalization depends on Lmo1656, and RNAi of SNX6 impairs infection in infected tissue culture cells, suggesting that SNX6 is utilized by Lm during infection. Our results reveal that Lmo1656 is a novel secreted virulence factor of Lm that facilitates recruitment of a specific member of the sorting nexin family in the mammalian host.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an invasive foodborne pathogen that leads to severe central nervous system and maternal-fetal infections. Lm ability to actively cross the intestinal barrier is one of its key pathogenic properties. Lm crosses the intestinal epithelium upon the interaction of its surface protein internalin (InlA) with its host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). InlA-Ecad interaction is species-specific, does not occur in wild-type mice, but does in transgenic mice expressing human Ecad and knock-in mice expressing humanized mouse Ecad. To study listeriosis in wild-type mice, InlA has been "murinized" to interact with mouse Ecad. Here, we demonstrate that, unexpectedly, murinized InlA (InlA(m)) mediates not only Ecad-dependent internalization, but also N-cadherin-dependent internalization. Consequently, InlA(m)-expressing Lm targets not only goblet cells expressing luminally-accessible Ecad, as does Lm in humanized mice, but also targets villous M cells, which express luminally-accessible N-cadherin. This aberrant Lm portal of entry results in enhanced innate immune responses and intestinal barrier damage, both of which are not observed in wild-type Lm-infected humanized mice. Murinization of InlA therefore not only extends the host range of Lm, but also broadens its receptor repertoire, providing Lm with artifactual pathogenic properties. These results challenge the relevance of using InlA(m)-expressing Lm to study human listeriosis and in vivo host responses to this human pathogen.
Project description:The facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) may cause severe infection in humans and livestock. Control of acute listeriosis is primarily dependent on innate immune responses, which are strongly regulated by NF-?B, and tissue protective factors including fibrin. However, molecular pathways connecting NF-?B and fibrin production are poorly described. Here, we investigated whether the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD, which is an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent immune responses, regulated these protective host responses in murine listeriosis. Upon high dose systemic infection, all C57BL/6 Cyld(-/-) mice survived, whereas 100% of wildtype mice succumbed due to severe liver pathology with impaired pathogen control and hemorrhage within 6 days. Upon in vitro infection with Lm, CYLD reduced NF-?B-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, and control of bacteria in macrophages. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that CYLD impaired STAT3-dependent fibrin production in cultivated hepatocytes. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CYLD interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and strongly reduced K63-ubiquitination of STAT3 in IL-6 stimulated hepatocytes. In addition, CYLD diminished IL-6-induced STAT3 activity by reducing nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3. In vivo, CYLD also reduced hepatic STAT3 K63-ubiquitination and activation, NF-?B activation, IL-6 and NOX2 mRNA production as well as fibrin production in murine listeriosis. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 by anti-IL-6 antibody, STAT3 by siRNA, and fibrin by warfarin treatment, respectively, demonstrated that IL-6-induced, STAT3-mediated fibrin production significantly contributed to protection in Cyld(-/-) mice. In addition, in vivo Cyld siRNA treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation, fibrin production, pathogen control and survival of Lm-infected WT mice illustrating that therapeutic inhibition of CYLD augments the protective NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and fibrin production.
Project description:Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are at the forefront of host-microbe interactions. Molecular and cell-based studies suggest that HSPG-pathogen interactions promote pathogenesis by facilitating microbial attachment and invasion of host cells. However, the specific identity of HSPGs, precise mechanisms by which HSPGs promote pathogenesis, and the in vivo relevance of HSPG-pathogen interactions remain to be determined. HSPGs also modulate host responses to tissue injury and inflammation, but functions of HSPGs other than facilitating microbial attachment and internalization are understudied in infectious disease. Here we examined the role of syndecan-1 (Sdc1), a major cell surface HSPG of epithelial cells, in mouse models of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection. We show that Sdc1-/- mice are significantly less susceptible to both intragastric and intravenous Lm infection compared to wild type (Wt) mice. This phenotype is not seen in Sdc3-/- or Sdc4-/- mice, indicating that ablation of Sdc1 causes a specific gain of function that enables mice to resist listeriosis. However, Sdc1 does not support Lm attachment or invasion of host cells, indicating that Sdc1 does not promote pathogenesis as a cell surface Lm receptor. Instead, Sdc1 inhibits the clearance of Lm before the bacterium gains access to its intracellular niche. Large intravascular aggregates of neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) embedded with antimicrobial compounds are formed in Sdc1-/- livers, which trap and kill Lm. Lm infection induces Sdc1 shedding from the surface of hepatocytes in Wt livers, which is directly associated with the decrease in size of intravascular aggregated NETs. Furthermore, administration of purified Sdc1 ectodomains or DNase inhibits the formation of intravascular aggregated neutrophils and NETs and significantly increases the liver bacterial burden in Sdc1-/- mice. These data indicate that Lm induces Sdc1 shedding to subvert the activity of Sdc1 ectodomains to inhibit its clearance by intravascular aggregated NETs.
Project description:Innate and adaptive immunity depends critically on host recognition of pathogen-associated molecules. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key mediators of pathogen surveillance at the cell or phagocytic vacuole surface. However, mechanisms underlying recognition of pathogens in other cellular compartments remain unclear, and responses elicited by cytosolic challenge are poorly characterized. We therefore used mouse cDNA microarrays to investigate gene expression triggered by infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages with cytosol- and vacuole-localized Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), a model cytosolic pathogen. The resulting gene expression program included two basic categories of induced genes: an "early/persistent" cluster consistent with NF-kappaB-dependent responses downstream of TLRs, and a subsequent "late response" cluster largely composed of IFN-responsive genes (IRGs). The early/persistent cluster was observed upon infection with WT, heat-killed, or mutant Lm lacking listeriolysin O, the pore-forming hemolysin that promotes escape from phagocytic vacuoles. However, the IRG cluster depended on entry of WT Lm into the cytosol. Infection with listeriolysin O-expressing, cytosolic Bacillus subtilis (Bs) strikingly recapitulated the expression profile associated with WT Lm, including IRG induction. IRG up-regulation was associated with MyD88-independent induction of IFN-beta transcription and activity. Whereas Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) lipoteichoic acid treatment confirmed that many late-response genes could also be stimulated through TLRs, our study identified a cytosol-specific transcriptional program independent of TLR signaling through MyD88. Further characterization of cytosolic surveillance pathway(s) and their points of convergence with TLR- and IFN-dependent pathways will enhance our understanding of the means by which mammals detect and respond to pathogens.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a ubiquitous bacterium able to survive and thrive within the environment and readily colonizes a wide range of substrates, often as a biofilm. It is also a facultative intracellular pathogen, which actively invades diverse hosts and induces listeriosis. So far, these two complementary facets of Lm biology have been studied independently. Here we demonstrate that the major Lm virulence determinant ActA, a PrfA-regulated gene product enabling actin polymerization and thereby promoting its intracellular motility and cell-to-cell spread, is critical for bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation. We show that ActA mediates Lm aggregation via direct ActA-ActA interactions and that the ActA C-terminal region, which is not involved in actin polymerization, is essential for aggregation in vitro. In mice permissive to orally-acquired listeriosis, ActA-mediated Lm aggregation is not observed in infected tissues but occurs in the gut lumen. Strikingly, ActA-dependent aggregating bacteria exhibit an increased ability to persist within the cecum and colon lumen of mice, and are shed in the feces three order of magnitude more efficiently and for twice as long than bacteria unable to aggregate. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel function for ActA and illustrates that in addition to contributing to its dissemination within the host, ActA plays a key role in Lm persistence within the host and in transmission from the host back to the environment.
Project description:Listeriosis is a clinically severe foodborne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). However, approximately 45% of Lm isolates in food carry a virulence-attenuating single-nucleotide polymorphism in inlA, which normally facilitates crossing the intestinal barrier during the initial stages of infection. We hypothesized that (i) natural exposure to virulence-attenuated (vA) Lm strains through food can confer protective immunity against listeriosis attributable to fully virulent (fV) strains and (ii) current food safety measures to minimize exposure to both Lm strains may have adverse population-level outcomes. To test these hypotheses, we evaluated the host response to Lm in a mouse infection model and through mathematical modelling in a human population. After oral immunization with a murinized vA Lm strain, we demonstrated the elicitation of a CD8+ T-cell response and protection against subsequent challenge with an fV strain. A two-strain compartmental mathematical model of human exposure to Lm with cross-protective immunity was also developed. If food safety testing strategies preferentially identify and remove food contaminated by vA strains (potentially due to their common occurrence in foods and higher concentration in food compared to fV strains), the model predicted minimal public health benefit to potentially adverse effects. For example, reducing vA exposures by half, while maintaining fV exposures results in an approximately 6% rise in annual incidence.
Project description:Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios. Therefore, we developed a nanovaccine with gold glyco-nanoparticles conjugated to LM peptide 1-22 of GAPDH (Lmo2459), GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccinesformulated with a pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2/4-targeted adjuvant. Neonates born to non-vaccinated pregnant mice with listeriosis, showed brain and vascular diseases and significant microglial dysfunction by induction of TNF-?-mediated apoptosis. This programmed TNF-mediated suicide explains LM dissemination in brains and livers and blocks production of early pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1? and interferon-?/?. In contrast, neonates born to GNP-GAPDH1-22-vaccinated mothers before LM infection, did not develop listeriosis or brain diseases and had functional microglia. In nanovaccinated mothers, immune responses shifted towards Th1/IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and high production of anti-GAPDH1-22 antibodies, suggesting good induction of LM-specific memory.
Project description:This logical set encompases several 8hr timecourses (0,1,2,4,8 hrs) and their replicates. All correspond to treatments of bone marrow derived macrophages. Abstract: Innate and adaptive immunity depends critically on host recognition of pathogen-associated molecules. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key mediators of pathogen surveillance at the cell or phagocytic vacuole surface. However, mechanisms underlying recognition of pathogens in other cellular compartments remain unclear, and responses elicited by cytosolic challenge are poorly characterized. We therefore used mouse cDNA microarrays to investigate gene expression triggered by infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages with cytosol- and vacuole-localized Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), a model cytosolic pathogen. The resulting gene expression program included two basic categories of induced genes: an "early/persistent" cluster consistent with NF-kappaB-dependent responses downstream of TLRs, and a subsequent "late response" cluster largely composed of IFN-responsive genes (IRGs). The early/persistent cluster was observed upon infection with WT, heat-killed, or mutant Lm lacking listeriolysin O, the pore-forming hemolysin that promotes escape from phagocytic vacuoles. However, the IRG cluster depended on entry of WT Lm into the cytosol. Infection with listeriolysin O-expressing, cytosolic Bacillus subtilis (Bs) strikingly recapitulated the expression profile associated with WT Lm, including IRG induction. IRG up-regulation was associated with MyD88-independent induction of IFN-beta transcription and activity. Whereas Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) lipoteichoic acid treatment confirmed that many late-response genes could also be stimulated through TLRs, our study identified a cytosol-specific transcriptional program independent of TLR signaling through MyD88. Further characterization of cytosolic surveillance pathway(s) and their points of convergence with TLR- and IFN-dependent pathways will enhance our understanding of the means by which mammals detect and respond to pathogens. Set of arrays organized by shared biological context, such as organism, tumors types, processes, etc. Keywords: Logical Set Overall design: Computed
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells are essential components of the innate immunity and play a crucial role in the first phase of host defense against infections and tumors. Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an intracellular pathogen that colonizes the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Recent findings have shown Lm specifically in splenic CD8a(+) DCs shortly after intravenous infection. We examined gene expression profiles of mouse DCs exposed to Lm to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying DCs interaction with Lm. Using a functional genomics approach, we found that Lm infection induced a cluster of late response genes including type I IFNs and interferon responsive genes (IRGs) in DCs. Type I INFs were produced at the maximal level only at 24 h post infection indicating that the regulation of IFNs in the context of Lm infection is delayed compared to the rapid response observed with viral pathogens. We showed that during Lm infection, IFN? production and cytotoxic activity were severely impaired in NK cells compared to E. coli infection. These defects were restored by providing an exogenous source of IFN? during the initial phase of bacterial challenge. Moreover, when treated with IFN? during early infection, NK cells were able to reduce bacterial titer in the spleen and significantly improve survival of infected mice. These findings show that the timing of IFN? production is fundamental to the efficient control of the bacterium during the early innate phase of Lm infection.