Key findings from a prospective trauma registry at a regional hospital in Southwest Cameroon.
ABSTRACT: Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data characterizing the burden of trauma in Cameroon is limited. Regular, prospective injury surveillance can address the shortcomings of existing hospital administrative logs and medical records. This study aims to characterize trauma as seen at the emergency department (ED) of Limbe Regional Hospital (LRH) and assess the completeness of data obtained by a trauma registry.From January 2008 to October 2013, we prospectively captured data on injured patients using a strategically designed, context-relevant trauma registry instrument. Indicators around patient demographics, injury characteristics, delays in accessing care, and treatment outcomes were recorded. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted. About 5,617 patients, aged from 0.5-95years (median age of 26 years), visited the LRH ED with an injury; 67% were male. Students (27%) were the most affected occupation category. Road traffic injuries (RTIs) (56%), assault (22%), and domestic injuries (13%) were the leading causes of injury. Two-thirds of RTIs were motorcycle-related. Working in transportation (AOR 4.42, p<0.001) and law enforcement (AOR 1.73, p = 0.004) were significant predictors of having a RTI. The trauma registry showed a significant improvement in completeness of all data (p<0.001) and it improved over time compared with previous administrative records. However, proportions of missing data still ranged from 0.5% to 8.2% and involved respiratory rate or Glasgow Coma scale.Implementation of a context-appropriate trauma registry in resource-constrained settings is feasible. Providing valuable, high-quality data, the trauma registry can inform trauma care quality improvement efforts and policy development. Study findings indicate the need for injury prevention interventions and policies that will prioritize high-risks groups, such as those aged 20-29 years, and those in occupations requiring frequent road travel. The high incidence of motorcycle-related injuries is concerning and calls for a proactive solution.
Project description:Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data characterizing the burden of injury in rural Uganda is limited. Hospital-based trauma registries are a critical tool in illustrating injury patterns and clinical outcomes. This study aims to characterize the traumatic injuries presenting to Soroti Regional Referral Hospital (SRRH) in order to identify opportunities for quality improvement and policy development. From October 2016 to July 2019, we prospectively captured data on injured patients using a locally designed, context-relevant trauma registry instrument. Information regarding patient demographics, injury characteristics, clinical information, and treatment outcomes were recorded. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted. A total of 4109 injured patients were treated during the study period. Median age was 26 years and 63% were male. Students (33%) and peasant farmers (31%) were the most affected occupations. Falls (36%) and road traffic injuries (RTIs, 35%) were the leading causes of injury. Nearly two-thirds of RTIs were motorcycle-related and only 16% involved a pedestrian. Over half (53%) of all patients had a fracture or a sprain. Suffering a burn or a head injury were significant predictors of mortality. The number of trauma patients enrolled in the study declined by five-fold when comparing the final six months and initial six months of the study. Implementation of a context-appropriate trauma registry in a resource-constrained setting is feasible. In rural Uganda, there is a significant need for injury prevention efforts to protect vulnerable populations such as children and women from trauma on roads and in the home. Orthopedic and neurosurgical care are important targets for the strengthening of health systems. The comprehensive data provided by a trauma registry will continue to inform such efforts and provide a way to monitor their progress moving forward.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. METHODS:Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. RESULTS:Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. CONCLUSIONS:Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.
Project description:Objective:Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to estimate the influence of meteorological factors on road traffic injuries stratified by severity. Crash rate was defined as mean monthly road traffic accidents per 1,000 vectors. Design:Ecological time-series study. Setting:Macao traffic accident registry database between January 1st, 2001 and November 31st, 2016. Participants:In total, 393,176 traffic accidents and 72,501 cases of road traffic injuries (RTIs) were enrolled; patients' severity was divided into mild injury, required hospitalisation, and death. Exposure:Variation of monthly meteorological factors. Main outcome measure:Weather-condition-related road traffic accidents, injuries, and deaths. Results:Windy weather significantly correlated with increased number of traffic accidents among all transport vectors (r = .375 to .637; p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed temperature (B = 0.704; p < 0.05) and humidity (B = - 0.537; p < 0.001) were independent factors for mild injury. The role of windy weather was relatively more obvious among patients with severe injuries (B = 0.304; p < 0.001) or those who died (B = 0.015; p < 0.001). A longer duration of sunshine was also associated to RTI-related deaths (B = 0.015; p < 0.001). In total, 13.4% of RTIs were attributable to meteorological factors and may be preventable. Conclusion:The World Health Organization stated that RTIs are a major but neglected public health challenge. This study demonstrates meteorological factors have significant effects on any degree of RTIs. The results may not be generalized to other climates or populations while the findings may have implications in both preventing injuries and to announce safety precautions regarding trauma and motor vehicle collisions to the general public by public agencies.
Project description:Introduction:Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally and disproportionately affects low-income countries. While most injury data comes from tertiary care centers in urban settings, the purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and severity of injury in rural Uganda and the associated treatment patterns and delays in care. Methods:This is a retrospective cohort study of a trauma registry that was implemented at Masindi-Kitara Medical Center (MKMC), a rural hospital in Western Uganda. Demographic information, injury characteristics, modified Kampala Trauma Scores (M-KTS), and treatment modalities over a 12 month period were retrospectively collected from paper-based registry forms completed for all injury patients presenting to MKMC. Results:A total of 350 patients were entered into the trauma registry. Most patients were male (71.2%) with a median age of 26.5 years. Motorcycle crashes were the most prevalent mechanism of injury (42.3%) with the majority being unhelmeted (83.3%). Soft tissue injury was the most common diagnosis (44.9%). Patients were frequently treated in the outpatient department and then discharged (54.8%). Patients requiring admission or transfer (M-KTS = 11.57 or 11.67) tended to have a lower M-KTS than discharged patients (M-KTS = 12.75). Analgesics (74.6%) and antibiotics (52.9%) were the most common treatments administered. For those patients requiring admission (29.4%), only one in-hospital death was documented. Thirty-nine percent of patients reported a delay in seeking care, most frequently due to lack of transportation (31.5%) with a median time of delay of 11 h. Conclusion:Road traffic injuries were the leading cause of injury in Masindi, with a high proportion of injuries associated with unhelmeted motorcycle crashes. Future opportunities to prevent injury and improve care may be seen through improved prehospital care, enforcement of helmet laws, increased access to neurosurgical services, and enactment of hospital quality improvement measures.
Project description:PURPOSE:Amongst the ASEAN countries, Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (>15 fatalities per 100 000 population) with 50% of these fatalities involving motorcyclist. This contributes greatly to ward admissions and poses a significant burden to the general surgery services. From mild rib fractures to severe intra-abdominal exsanguinations, the spectrum of cases managed by surgeons resulting from motorcycle accidents is extensive. The objective of this study is to report the clinical characteristics and identify predictors of death in motorcycle traumatic injuries from a Malaysian trauma surgery centre. METHODS:This is a prospective cross-sectional study of all injured motorcyclists and pillion riders that were admitted to Hospital Sultanah Aminah and treated by the trauma surgery team from May 2011 to February 2015. Only injured motorcyclists and pillion riders were included in this study. Patient demography and predictors leading to mortality were identified. Significant predictors on univariate analysis were further analysed with multivariate analysis. RESULTS:We included 1653 patients with a mean age of (35 ± 16.17) years that were treated for traumatic injuries due to motorcycle accidents. The mortality rate was 8.6% (142) with equal amount of motorcycle riders (788) and pillion riders (865) that were injured. Amongst the injured were male predominant (1 537) and majority of ethnic groups were the Malays (897) and Chinese (350). Severity of injury was reflected with a mean Revised Trauma Score (RTS) of 7.31 ± 1.29, New Injury Severity Score (NISS) of 19.84 ± 13.84 and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) of 0.91 ± 0.15. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that age≥35, lower GCS, head injuries, chest injuries, liver injuries, and small bowel injuries were significant predictors of motorcycle trauma related deaths with p < 0.05. Higher trauma severity represented by NISS, RTS and TRISS scores was also significant for death with p < 0.05. CONCLUSION:Age, lower GCS, presence of head, chest, liver, small bowel injuries and higher severity on NISS, RTS and TRISS scores are predictive of death in patients involved with motorcycle accidents. This information is important for prognostic mortality risk prevention and counselling.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To identify key intervention factors and reduce road traffic injury (RTI)-associated mortality, this study compared outcomes and influencing factors of single and multiple road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Shanghai. METHODS:Based on the design of National Trauma Data Bank, this study collected demographic, injury, and outcome data from RTI patients treated at the four largest trauma centers in Shanghai from January 2011 to January 2015. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and hierarchical logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Among 2397 participants, 59.4% had a single injury, and 40.6% had multiple injuries. Most patients' outcome was cure or improvement. For single-RTI patients, length of stay, body region, central nervous system injury, acute renal failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, bacterial infection, and coma were significantly related to outcome. For multiple-RTI patients, age, admission pathway, prehospital time, length of stay, number of body regions, body region, injury condition, injury severity score, and coma were significantly related to outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Emergency rescue in road traffic accidents should focus on high-risk groups (the elderly), high-incidence body regions (head, thorax, pelvis) and number of injuries, injury condition (central nervous system injury, coma, complications, admission pathway), injury severity (critically injured patients), and time factors (particularly prehospital time).
Project description:Objectives:Africa and other Asian low middle-income countries account for the greatest burden of the global road-traffic injury (RTI)-related head injury (HI). This study set out to describe the incidence, causation, and severity of RTI-related HI and associated injuries in a Nigerian academic neurosurgical practice. Methods:This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of RTI-related HI from a prospective HI registry in an academic neurosurgery practice in Nigeria. Results:All-terrain RTI accounted for 80.6% (833/1,034) of HI over a 7-year study period. All age groups were involved, mean 33.06?years (SD 18.30), mode 21-30, 231/833 (27.7%). The male:female ratio was 631:202, ?3:1. The road trauma occurred exclusively from motorcycle-and motor-vehicle crash (MCC/MVC), MCC caused 56.8% (473/833) of these; the victims were vulnerable road users (VRU) in 74%, and >90% belong in the low socioeconomic class. Using the Glasgow Coma Scale grading, the HI was moderate/severe in 52%; loss of consciousness occurred in 93%, the Abbreviated Injury Severity-head?>?3 in 74%, and computed tomography (CT) Rotterdam score?>?3 in 52%. Significant extracranial injuries occurred in many organ systems, 421/833 (50.5%) having Injury Severity Score (ISS)?>?25. Surgical lesions included extensive brain contusions in 157 (18.8%); acute extradural hematoma in 34 (4.1%); acute subdural hematoma in 32 (3.8%); and traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 27 (3.2%), but only 97 (11.6%) received operative care for various logistic reasons. The in-hospital outcome was good in 71.3% and poor in 28.7%; the statistically significant (p?<?0.001) determinants of this outcome profile were the severity of the HI, the CT Rotterdam score, and the ISS. Conclusion:In this study from Nigeria, RTI-related HI emanates from significant trauma to vulnerable road users and are caused exclusively by motorcycles and motor vehicles.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city. METHODS:The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. RESULTS:Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45), lower engine capacity (<100 cc) (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. RECOMMENDATIONS:More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all who got licenses in last 3 years.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury characteristics, severity, and outcome between underweight and normal-weight patients hospitalized for the treatment of all kinds of trauma injury.This study was based on a level I trauma center Taiwan.The detailed data of 640 underweight adult trauma patients with a body mass index (BMI) of <18.5?kg/m and 6497 normal-weight adult patients (25 > BMI ? 18.5?kg/m) were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test were performed to compare the differences. Propensity score matching with logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of underweight on mortality.Underweight patients presented a different bodily injury pattern and a significantly higher rate of admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU) than did normal-weight patients; however, no significant differences in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), in-hospital mortality, and hospital length of stay were found between the two groups. However, further analysis of the patients stratified by two major injury mechanisms (motorcycle accident and fall injury) revealed that underweight patients had significantly lower GCS scores (13.8 ± 3.0 vs 14.5?±?2.0, P?=?0.020), but higher ISS (10.1?±?6.9 vs 8.4?±?5.9, P?=?0.005), in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-11.35; P?=?0.006), and ICU admittance rate (24.1% vs 14.3%, P?=?0.007) than normal-weight patients in the fall accident group, but not in the motorcycle accident group. However, after propensity score matching, logistic regression analysis of well-matched pairs of patients with either all trauma, motorcycle accident, or fall injury did not show a significant influence of underweight on mortality.Exploratory data analysis revealed that underweight patients presented a different bodily injury pattern from that of normal-weight patients, specifically a higher incidence of pneumothorax in those with penetrating injuries and of femoral fracture in those with struck on/against injuries; however, the injury severity and outcome of underweight patients varied depending on the injury mechanism.
Project description:Purpose: This study aimed to determine the patterns associated with adult mandibular fractures from a Level-I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: The data of adult trauma patients admitted between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System and retrospectively reviewed. Fracture site and cause of injury were categorized into groups for comparison, and corresponding odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Motorcycle accidents were the most common cause of mandibular fractures (76.3%), followed by falls (10.9%), motor vehicle accidents (4.8%), and being struck by/against objects (4.5%). Of the 503 cases of mandibular fractures, the condylar neck and head were the most common sites (32.0%), followed by the parasymphysis (21.7%), symphysis (19.5%), angle and ramus (17.5%), and body (9.3%). The location of mandibular fractures in patients who had motorcycle accidents was similar to that in all patients. Motor vehicle accidents resulted in a significantly higher number of body fractures (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.24-8.76, p = 0.017) and struck injury in a significantly higher number of angle and ramus fractures (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.48-10.26, p = 0.006) compared to motorcycle accidents. The helmet-wearing status and body weight were not associated with the location of mandibular fractures in motorcycle accidents. Conclusions: Our study revealed that the anatomic fracture sites of mandible were specifically related to different etiologies. In southern Taiwan, motorcycle accidents accounted for the major cause of mandibular fractures and were associated with the condylar neck and head as the most frequent fracture sites. In contrast, motor vehicle accidents and struck injuries tended to cause more body fracture as well as angle and ramus fracture compared to motorcycle accidents. Furthermore, the status of helmet-wearing and body weight were not associated with the location of mandible fractures caused by motorcycle accidents.