GhSOS1, a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene from upland cotton, enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT: Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an important source of natural fiber, can tolerate relatively high salinity and drought stresses. In the present study, a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene, GhSOS1, was cloned from a salt-tolerant genotype of G. hirsutum, Zhong 9807. The expression level of GhSOS1 in cotton roots was significantly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (200 mM), while its transcript abundance was increased when exposed to low temperature and drought stresses. Localization analysis using onion epidermal cells showed that the GhSOS1 protein was localized to the plasma membrane. The overexpression of GhSOS1 in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance to salt stress, as indicated by a lower MDA content and decreased Na+/K+ ratio in transgenic plants. Moreover, the transcript levels of stress-related genes were significantly higher in GhSOS1 overexpression lines than in wild-type plants under salt treatment. Hence, GhSOS1 may be a potential target gene for enhancing salt tolerance in transgenic plants.
Project description:Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the main natural fiber crop worldwide and is an essential source of seed oil and biofuel products. Many abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, constrain cotton production. Thioredoxins (TRXs) are a group of small ubiquitous proteins that are widely distributed among organisms. TRXs play a crucial role in regulating diverse functions during plant growth and development. In the present study, a novel GhTRX134 gene was characterized and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and silenced in cotton under drought stress. Furthermore, the proline content and enzyme activity levels were measured in transgenic plants and wild-type (Wt) plants under drought and salt stress. The results revealed that the overexpression of GhTRX134 enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. When GhTRX134 was silenced, cotton plants become more sensitive to drought. Taken together, these findings confirmed that the overexpression of GhTRX134 improved drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the GhTRX134 gene can be transformed into cotton plants to obtain transgenic lines for more functional details.
Project description:A cDNA clone encoding a 64-amino acid type 3 metallothionein protein, designated GhMT3a, was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by cDNA library screening. Northern blot analysis indicated that mRNA accumulation of GhMT3a was up-regulated not only by high salinity, drought, and low temperature stresses, but also by heavy metal ions, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cotton seedlings. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing GhMT3a showed increased tolerance against abiotic stresses compared with wild-type plants. Interestingly, the induced expression of GhMT3a by salt, drought, and low-temperature stresses could be inhibited in the presence of antioxidants. H(2)O(2) levels in transgenic tobacco plants were only half of that in wild-type (WT) plants under such stress conditions. According to in vitro assay, recombinant GhMT3a protein showed an ability to bind metal ions and scavenge ROS. Transgenic yeast overexpressing GhMT3a also showed higher tolerance against ROS stresses. Taken together, these results indicated that GhMT3a could function as an effective ROS scavenger and its expression could be regulated by abiotic stresses through ROS signalling.
Project description:Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the number one crop cultivated for fiber production and the cornerstone of the textile industry. Drought and salt stress are the major abiotic stresses, which can have a huge economic impact on cotton production; this has been aggravated with continued climate change, and compounded by pollution. Various survival strategies evolved by plants include the induction of various stress responsive genes, such as cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). In this study, we performed a whole-genome identification and analysis of the CDK gene family in cotton. We identified 31, 12, and 15 CDK genes in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii respectively, and they were classified into 6 groups. CDK genes were distributed in 15, 10, and 9 linkage groups of AD, D, and A genomes, respectively. Evolutionary analysis revealed that segmental types of gene duplication were the primary force underlying CDK genes expansion. RNA sequence and RT-qPCR validation revealed that Gh_D12G2017 (CDKF4) was strongly induced by drought and salt stresses. The transient expression of Gh_D12G2017-GFP fusion protein in the protoplast showed that Gh_D12G2017 was localized in the nucleus. The transgenic Arabidopsis lines exhibited higher concentration levels of the antioxidant enzymes measured, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) concentrations under drought and salt stress conditions with very low levels of oxidants. Moreover, cell membrane stability (CMS), excised leaf water loss (ELWL), saturated leaf weight (SLW), and chlorophyll content measurements showed that the transgenic Arabidopsis lines were highly tolerant to either of the stress factors compared to their wild types. Moreover, the expression of the stress-related genes was also significantly up-regulated in Gh_D12G2017(CDKF4) transgenic Arabidopsis plants under drought and salt conditions. We infer that CDKF-4s and CDKG-2s might be the primary regulators of salt and drought responses in cotton.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors have diverse functions in regulating stress response, leaf senescence, and plant growth and development. However, knowledge of the group IId WRKY subfamily in cotton is largely absent. This study identified 34 group IId WRKY genes in the Gossypium hirsutum genome, and their genomic loci were investigated. Members clustered together in the phylogenetic tree had similar motif compositions and gene structural features, revealing similarity and conservation within group IId WRKY genes. During the evolutionary process, 14 duplicated genes appeared to undergo purification selection. Public RNA-seq data were used to examine the expression patterns of group IId WRKY genes in various tissues and under drought and salt stress conditions. Ten highly expressed genes were identified, and the ten candidate genes revealed distinct expression patterns under drought and salt treatments by qRT-PCR analysis. Among them, Gh_A11G1801 was used for functional characterization. GUS activity was differentially induced by various stresses in Gh_A11G1801p::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of Gh_A11G1801 resulted in drought sensitivity in cotton plants, which was accompanied by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced catalase (CAT) content. Taken together, these findings obtained in this study provide valuable resources for further studying group IId WRKY genes in cotton. Our results also enrich the gene resources for the genetic improvements of cotton varieties that are suitable for growth in stressful conditions.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance and the use of modern genetics approaches for the improvement of drought stress tolerance have been major focuses of plant molecular biologists. In the present study, we cloned the Gossypium hirsutum sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (GhSnRK2) gene and investigated its functions in transgenic Arabidopsis. We further elucidated the function of this gene in transgenic cotton using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) techniques. We hypothesized that GhSnRK2 participates in the stress signaling pathway and elucidated its role in enhancing stress tolerance in plants via various stress-related pathways and stress-responsive genes. We determined that the subcellular localization of the GhSnRK2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) was localized in the nuclei and cytoplasm. In contrast to wild-type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 exhibited increased tolerance to drought, cold, abscisic acid and salt stresses, suggesting that GhSnRK2 acts as a positive regulator in response to cold and drought stresses. Plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 displayed evidence of reduced water loss, turgor regulation, elevated relative water content, biomass, and proline accumulation. qRT-PCR analysis of GhSnRK2 expression suggested that this gene may function in diverse tissues. Under normal and stress conditions, the expression levels of stress-inducible genes, such as AtRD29A, AtRD29B, AtP5CS1, AtABI3, AtCBF1, and AtABI5, were increased in the GhSnRK2-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. GhSnRK2 gene silencing alleviated drought tolerance in cotton plants, indicating that VIGS technique can certainly be used as an effective means to examine gene function by knocking down the expression of distinctly expressed genes. The results of this study suggested that the GhSnRK2 gene, when incorporated into Arabidopsis, functions in positive responses to drought stress and in low temperature tolerance.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) mediate a variety of stress responses in plants. So far little is known on the functional role of MAPKKs in cotton. In the present study, Gossypium hirsutum MKK1 (GhMKK1) function was investigated. GhMKK1 protein may activate its specific targets in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Treatments with salt, drought, and H2O2 induced the expression of GhMKK1 and increased the activity of GhMKK1, while overexpression of GhMKK1 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced its tolerance to salt and drought stresses as determined by many physiological data. Additionally, GhMKK1 activity was found to up-regulate pathogen-associated biotic stress, and overexpression of GhMKK1 increased the susceptibility of the transgenic plants to the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum by reducing the expression of PR genes. Moreover, GhMKK1-overexpressing plants also exhibited an enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capability and markedly elevated activities of several antioxidant enzymes. These results indicate that GhMKK1 is involved in plants defence responses and provide new data to further analyze the function of plant MAPK pathways.
Project description:RAV (related to ABI3/VP1) protein containing an AP2 domain in the N-terminal region and a B3 domain in the C-terminal region, which belongs to AP2 transcription factor family, is unique in higher plants. In this study, a gene (GhRAV1) encoding a RAV protein of 357 amino acids was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Transient expression analysis of the eGFP:GhRAV1 fusion genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) epidermal cells revealed that GhRAV1 protein was localized in the cell nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of GhRAV1 in cotton is induced by abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Overexpression of GhRAV1 in Arabidopsis resulted in plant sensitive to ABA, NaCl and PEG. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, seed germination and green seedling rates of the GhRAV1 transgenic plants were remarkably lower than those of wild type. In the presence of NaCl, the seed germination and seedling growth of the GhRAV1 transgenic lines were inhibited greater than those of wild type. And chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of the transgenic plants were significantly lower than those of wild type. Under drought stress, the GhRAV1 transgenic plants displayed more severe wilting than wild type. Furthermore, expressions of the stress-related genes were altered in the GhRAV1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants under high salinity and drought stresses. Collectively, our data suggested that GhRAV1 may be involved in response to high salinity and drought stresses through regulating expressions of the stress-related genes during cotton development.
Project description:MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, TaODORANT1, a R2R3-MYB gene, was cloned from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaODORANT1 was localized in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional activator. TaODORANT1 was up-regulated in wheat under PEG6000, NaCl, ABA, and H2O2 treatments. TaODORANT1-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited higher relative water content and lower water loss rate under drought stress, as well as lower Na+ accumulation in leaves under salt stress. The transgenic plants showed higher CAT activity but lower ion leakage, H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents under drought and salt stresses. Besides, the transgenic plants also exhibited higher SOD activity under drought stress. Our results also revealed that TaODORANT1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of several ROS- and stress-related genes in response to both drought and salt stresses, thus enhancing transgenic tobacco plants tolerance. Our studies demonstrate that TaODORANT1 positively regulates plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Calcium-binding proteins that contain EF-hand motifs have been reported to play important roles in transduction of signals associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. To functionally characterize genes of EF-hand family in response to abiotic stress, an MtCaMP1 gene belonging to EF-hand family from legume model plant Medicago truncatula was isolated and its function in response to drought and salt stress was investigated by expressing MtCaMP1 in Arabidopsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings expressing MtCaMP1 exhibited higher survival rate than wild-type seedlings under drought and salt stress, suggesting that expression of MtCaMP1 confers tolerance of Arabidopsis to drought and salt stress. The transgenic plants accumulated greater amounts of Pro due to up-regulation of P5CS1 and down-regulation of ProDH than wild-type plants under drought stress. There was a less accumulation of Na(+) in the transgenic plants than in WT plants due to reduced up-regulation of AtHKT1 and enhanced regulation of AtNHX1 in the transgenic plants compared to WT plants under salt stress. There was a reduced accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in the transgenic plants than in WT plants under both drought and salt stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of MtCaMP1 in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought and salt stress by effective osmo-regulation due to greater accumulation of Pro and by minimizing toxic Na(+) accumulation, respectively. The enhanced accumulation of Pro and reduced accumulation of Na(+) under drought and salt stress would protect plants from water default and Na(+) toxicity, and alleviate the associated oxidative stress. These findings demonstrate that MtCaMP1 encodes a stress-responsive EF-hand protein that plays a regulatory role in response of plants to drought and salt stress.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in various processes from plant growth and development to biotic and abiotic stress responses. MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), which link MAPKs and MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), play crucial roles in MAPK cascades to mediate a variety of stress responses in plants. However, few MAPKKs have been functionally characterized in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study, a novel gene, GhMKK5, from cotton belonging to the group C MAPKKs was isolated and characterized. The expression of GhMKK5 can be induced by pathogen infection, abiotic stresses, and multiple defence-related signal molecules. The overexpression of GhMKK5 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced the plants' resistance to the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum by elevating the expression of pathogen resistance (PR) genes, including PR1a, PR2, PR4, PR5, and NPR1, but increased the plants' sensitivity to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae Tucker. Importantly, GhMKK5-overexpressing plants displayed markedly elevated expression of reactive oxygen species-related and cell death marker genes, such as NtRbohA and NtCDM, and resulted in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death characterized by the accumulation of H(2)O(2). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that GhMKK5 overexpression in plants reduced their tolerance to salt and drought stresses, as determined by statistical analysis of seed germination, root length, leaf water loss, and survival rate. Drought obviously accelerated the cell death phenomenon in GhMKK5-overexpressing plants. These results suggest that GhMKK5 may play an important role in pathogen infection and the regulation of the salt and drought stress responses in plants.