ABSTRACT: Because of the European Working-Time Directive and 'the New Deal', there has been a significant reduction in opportunities for training. To address this deficit, consultants and junior doctors will need to alter their approach, making greater use of the learning opportunities that arise 'on the job'. This paper provides some ideas on how to maximise learning without radically increasing workload. The paper first looks at attitudes and behaviours that influence the learning environment. If the senior doctor encourages discussion and shows enthusiasm during clinical duties, junior doctors will learn more. Second, the paper focuses on key skills that can be adopted to ensure appropriate learning. These attitudes, behaviours and skills can help consultants and senior doctors improve the effectiveness of their teaching in an era when the time available for junior doctors to learn has been reduced.
Project description:Traditionally, there have been tensions between frontline healthcare professionals and managers, with well-known stereotypes of difficult consultants and pen-pushing managers. Many junior doctors have limited management experience and have often never even met a manager prior to taking on a consultant role. Based on a successful programme pioneered by Dr Robert Klaber (Imperial, London) we have set-up an innovative scheme for Birmingham Children's Hospital, pairing junior doctors and managers to learn and work together. Our aim was to cultivate positive attitudes and understanding between the two groups, break down inter-professional barriers, and to provide practical leadership experience and education. We recruited 60 managers and doctors to participate in shadowing, conversation, and quality improvement projects. Thought-provoking online materials, blogs, socials, and popular monthly workshops consisting of patient-focused debate and discussion around key leadership themes, have helped to support learning and cement shared values. Formal evaluation has demonstrated an improvement in how participants perceive their knowledge and ability based on key NHS Leadership Framework competencies. Participant feedback has been extremely positive, and everyone plans to continue to incorporate Paired Learning into their continuing professional development. We are now embedding Paired Learning in the on-going educational programme offered at Birmingham Children's Hospital, whilst looking at extending the scheme to include different professional groups and other trusts across the region and nationally.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We believe junior doctors are in a unique position in relation to reporting of incidents and safety culture. They are still in training and are also 'fresh eyes' on the system providing valuable insights into what they perceive as safe and unsafe behaviour. The aim of this study was to co-design and implement an embedded learning intervention - a serious board game - to educate junior doctors about patient safety and the importance of reporting safety concerns, while at the same time shaping a culture of responsiveness from senior medical staff. METHODS:A serious game based on the PlayDecide framework was co-designed and implemented in two large urban acute teaching hospitals. To evaluate the educational value of the game voting on the position statements was recorded at the end of each game by a facilitator who also took notes after the game of key themes that emerged from the discussion. A sample of players were invited on a voluntary basis to take part in semi-structured interviews after playing the game using Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique. A paper-based questionnaire on 'Safety Concerns' was developed and administered to assess pre-and post-playing the game reporting behaviour. Dissemination workshops were held with senior clinicians to promote more inclusive leadership behaviours and responsiveness to junior doctors raising of safety concerns from senior clinicians. RESULTS:The game proved to be a valuable patient safety educational tool and proved effective in encouraging deep discussion on patient safety. There was a significant change in the reporting behaviour of junior doctors in one of the hospitals following the intervention. CONCLUSION:In healthcare, limited exposure to patient safety training and narrow understanding of safety compromise patients lives. The existing healthcare system needs to value the role that junior doctors and others could play in shaping a positive safety culture where reporting of all safety concerns is encouraged. Greater efforts need to be made at hospital level to develop a more pro-active safe and just culture that supports and encourages junior doctors and ultimately all doctors to understand and speak up about safety concerns.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>The transition from medical student to junior doctor is challenging. Junior doctors need to become part of the physician community of practice (CoP), while dealing with new responsibilities, tasks and expectations. At the same time, they need to learn how to navigate the frontiers and intersections with the other communities of practice that form the Landscape of Practice (LoP). This study aims to understand how junior doctors experience interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and what elements shape these experiences considering their transition to clinical practice.<h4>Methods</h4>In this multicentre qualitative study, 13 junior doctors individually drew two rich pictures of IPC experiences, one positive and one negative. A rich picture is a visual representation, a drawing of a particular situation intended to capture the complex and non-verbal elements of an experience. We used semi-structured interviews to deepen the understanding of junior doctors' depicted IPC experiences. We analysed both visual materials and interview transcripts iteratively, for which we adopted an inductive constructivist thematic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>While transitioning into a doctor, junior doctors become foremost members of the physician CoP and shape their professional identity based on perceived values in their physician community. Interprofessional learning occurs implicitly, without input from the interprofessional team. As a result, junior doctors struggle to bridge the gap between themselves and the interprofessional team, preventing IPC learning from developing into an integrative process. This professional isolation leaves junior doctors wandering the landscape of practice without understanding roles, attitudes and expectations of others.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Learning IPC needs to become a collective endeavour and an explicit learning goal, based on multisource feedback to take advantage of the expertise already present in the LoP. Furthermore, junior doctors need a safe environment to embrace and reflect on the emotions aroused by interprofessional interactions, under the guidance of experienced facilitators.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This systematic review aimed to explore consultant attitudes towards teaching undergraduate medical students in the UK.<h4>Design</h4>Systematic review.<h4>Methodology</h4>Standard systematic review methodology was followed. MEDLINE, EMBASE and OpenGrey were searched from inception to August 2019 to identify studies exploring senior doctors' attitudes towards teaching undergraduate medical students. Two reviewers independently carried out key methodological steps including study screening/selection, quality assessment and data extraction. A narrative synthesis was undertaken.<h4>Results</h4>Five studies were included in the review dating 2003-2015. Two studies used questionnaires, and three used focus groups/semistructured interviews. Key findings identified across all studies were consultants generally found teaching undergraduate medical students enjoyable, and consultants identified time constraints as a barrier to teaching. Other findings were consultants feeling there was a lack of recognition for time spent teaching, and a lack of training/guidance regarding teaching students.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first systematic review to explore senior hospital doctors' attitudes towards teaching undergraduate medical students. Despite these five studies spanning 12 years, the same attitudes and issues regarding teaching are identified by all, suggesting lack of time particularly is a persistent problem regarding consultant-based teaching. An anecdotal impression is that consultants are no longer as enthusiastic about teaching as they once were, but it is evident over the 12 years of these studies that enjoyment levels, and presumably enthusiasm, have not changed significantly.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Junior to mid-career medical faculty often move into administrative and leadership roles without formal leadership training. Many national leadership training programs target senior rather than junior faculty.<h4>Aim</h4>To address the leadership development needs of junior and mid-career faculty.<h4>Setting</h4>Sessions at annual meetings combined with online learning, independent work, and leadership coaching.<h4>Participants</h4>79 junior-mid-career general internal medicine (GIM) faculty enrolled in five consecutive annual cohorts from 2014 to 2018.<h4>Program description</h4>LEAD scholars participate in a full-day anchor session followed by selected workshops during the annual meeting. They then participate in monthly online sessions, complete a project, interview a senior leader, and receive leadership coaching from senior GIM faculty.<h4>Program evaluation</h4>Post-program evaluation indicated the LEAD program was effective in helping participants understand what it means to be a good leader (93%, 37/40), become a more reflective leader (90%, 35/39), and apply principles of leadership to increase effectiveness in their role (88%, 34/39).<h4>Discussion</h4>LEAD provides junior-mid-career medical faculty an opportunity to learn effective leadership skills and build a network.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Across the world, local standards provide doctors with a backbone of professional attitudes that must be embodied across their practice. However, educational approaches to develop attitudes are undermined by the lack of a theoretical framework. Our research explored the ways in which the General Medical Council's (GMC) programme of preventative educational workshops (the Duties of a Doctor programme) attempted to influence doctors' professional attitudes and examined how persuasive communication theory can advance understandings of professionalism education. METHODS:This qualitative study comprised 15 ethnographic observations of the GMC's programme of preventative educational workshops at seven locations across England, as well as qualitative interviews with 55 postgraduate doctors ranging in experience from junior trainees to senior consultants. The sample was purposefully chosen to include various geographic locations, different programme facilitators and doctors, who varied by seniority. Data collection occurred between March to December 2017. Thematic analysis was undertaken inductively, with meaning flowing from the data, and deductively, guided by persuasive communication theory. RESULTS:The source (educator); the message (content); and the audience (participants) were revealed as key influences on the persuasiveness of the intervention. Educators established a high degree of credibility amongst doctors and worked to build rapport. Their message was persuasive, in that it drew on rational and emotional communicative techniques and made use of both statistical and narrative evidence. Importantly, the workshops were interactive, which allowed doctors to engage with the message and thus increased its persuasiveness. CONCLUSIONS:This study extends the literature by providing a theoretically-informed understanding of an educational intervention aimed at promoting professionalism, examining it through the lens of persuasive communication. Within the context of interactive programmes that allow doctors to discuss real life examples of professional dilemmas, educators can impact on doctors' professional attitudes by drawing on persuasive communication techniques to enhance their credibility to demonstrate expertise, by building rapport and by making use of rational and emotional appeals.
Project description:Given the relatively sudden change from learner to teacher-provider that new consultants experience and the likely clinical and managerial challenges this may pose, there is a relative dearth of research into the problems they may have in relation to their new roles, or how supported they feel by senior colleagues acting in a mentoring role. This research sought to determine new consultants views on the quality and relevance of their training, its relationship to their confidence in clinical and managerial skills and their views on mentorship by senior colleagues.Detailed postal questionnaire to new consultants using open and closed questions. Open questionnaire to established consultants to validate new consultant responses.Respondents felt their clinical training was good and were generally confident in most clinical skills although some perceived deficiencies in more complex procedures and specialist areas. Most lacked confidence in many managerial skills. These perceptions were verified by established consultants. Although no relationship was found between total training time or quality of training with confidence, extra training in specific sub-specialities improved confidence in these areas. While most established consultants thought that mentorship would be useful for new consultants, only 52% of them shared this view.Training and experience in management should be given greater emphasis. There may be a need for specific, targeted training in complex procedures for doctors who experience lack of confidence in these areas. Mentorship should be offered to new consultants and recognised in the job-plan of the new consultant contract.
Project description:We present a year long quality improvement project to bring a new induction programme to the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) department of University Hospital Lewisham (UHL). Aimed at non-speciality junior doctors, including general practice and foundation trainees, the induction programme has sought to improve the quality of care delivered and experience of these transiting junior doctors. We have demonstrated a readily implementable and sustainable programme that requires only modest input of time from senior trainees (ST3+) periodically throughout the year. We have highlighted the specific need for senior consultant investment in the success and sustainability of such a project. We have demonstrated improvement of learning outcomes (p=0.01) in junior doctors undertaking the induction programme at Kirkpatrick's hierarchy level 2.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. SETTING:Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors' career decisions. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. RESULTS:Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future.Junior doctors' decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences.Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors' attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. CONCLUSIONS:Junior doctors' preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed and preferences are developed, as a basis for generating learning and working environments that nurture students and motivate their professional careers.