Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography services can be accessible and of a high standard in a district general hospital.
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) is an important tool in the management of pancreato-biliary disease.To compare the current practice of ERCP in a district general hospital with those reported in the 2007 British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) ERCP audit and assess access to the service.This was a service evaluation study. Data were collected retrospectively for all people who underwent ERCP. Demographic, clinical and procedure related data were collected and analysed.Sunderland Hospital.236 patients (median age 70 years, 56% women) underwent ERCP. The median period from referral to patient review was 1.0 day. The median period from the decision to carry out an ERCP to the actual procedure date was 3 days. All patients had radiological imaging before their first procedure. 96% patients had their bloods checked within 1 week of the procedure. The most common indication was related to choledocholithiasis and its complications. The mean doses of midazolam and diazemul used were 4.4 mg and 11.1 mg, respectively. The selective biliary cannulation rate was 92%. Sphincterotomy, biliary stent insertion and complete stone extraction were achieved in 94%, 85% and 88% of patients before the procedure. Complications that occurred as a result of ERCPs were as follows: bleeding (1.7%), pancreatitis (3.8%), cholangitis (0.4%) and renal failure (0.4%). The 30-day death rate was 4.6%. However, none of these were procedure related.The structure of the ERCP services at Sunderland Royal Hospital provides patients with a high-quality and accessible service. The technical success rate and sedation rate were better than those reported in the BSG ERCP audit. The complication rate and procedure-related mortality were comparable to the BSG audit and much below the published figures.
Project description:Background/Aims:Few studies have addressed the relationship between the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and hospital case volume or endoscopist's experience with inconsistent results. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of hospital case volume and endoscopist's experience on the AEs associated with ERCP and to analyze patient- and procedure-related risk factors for post-ERCP AEs. Methods:From January 2015 to December 2015, we prospectively enrolled patients with naïve papilla who underwent ERCP at six centers. Patient- and procedure-related variables were recorded on data collection sheets at the time of and after ERCP. Results:A total of 1,191 patients (median age, 71 years) were consecutively enrolled. The overall success rate of biliary cannulation was 96.6%. Overall, 244 patients (20.5%) experienced post-ERCP AEs, including pancreatitis (9.0%), bleeding (11.8%), perforation (0.4%), cholangitis (1.2%), and others (0.9%). While post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) was more common when the procedure was performed by less experienced endoscopists, bleeding was more common in high-volume centers and by less experienced endoscopists. Multivariate analysis showed that a less experience in ERCP was significantly associated with PEP (odds ratio [OR], 1.630; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.050 to 2.531; p=0.030) and post-ERCP bleeding (OR, 1.439; 95% CI, 1.003 to 2.062; p=0.048). Conclusions:Our study demonstrated that overall AEs following ERCP were associated with the experience of the endoscopist. To minimize post-ERCP AEs, rigorous training with a sufficient case volume is required, and treatment strategies should be modified according to the endoscopist's expertise.
Project description:Selective biliary cannulation is unsuccessful in 5 % to 10 % of patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO). Percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) has been the gold standard, but endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUSr) have been increasingly used for biliary decompression in this patient population. Our aim was to compare the initial success rate, long-term efficacy, and safety of PBD and EUSr in relieving MDBO after failed ERC Patients and methods: A retrospective study involving 50 consecutive patients who had an initial failed ERCP for MDBO. Twenty-five patients undergoing EUSr between 2008 - 2014 were compared to 25 patients who underwent PBD immediately prior to the introduction of EUSr at our center (2002 - 2008). Comparisons were made between the two groups with regard to technical success, duration of hospital stay and adverse event rates after biliary decompression.The mean age at presentation was 66.5 (± 12.6 years), 28 patients (54.9 %) were female. The etiology of MDBO was pancreaticobiliary malignancy in 44 (88 %) and metastatic disease in 6 (12 %) cases. Biliary drainage was technically successful by EUSr in 19 (76 %) cases and by PBD in 25 (100 %) (P = 0.002). Median length of hospital stay after initial drainage was 1 day in the EUSr group vs 5 days in PBD group (P = 0.02). Repeat biliary intervention was required for 4 patients in the EUSr group and 15 in the PBD group (P = 0.001).Initial technical success with EUSr was significantly lower than with PBD, however when EUSr was successful, patients had a significantly shorter post-procedure hospital stay and required fewer follow-up biliary interventions. Meeting presentations: Annual Digestive Diseases Week 2015.
Project description:Bariatric gastric bypass surgery is being increasingly performed, but endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in these patients poses a unique challenge because of a lack of per-oral access to the stomach. Small series suggest a higher technical success rate using laparoscopy-assisted ERCP (LA-ERCP) than with an enteroscopic approach via the Roux-en-Y anastomosis. We present initial experience of LA-ERCP in our unit.Retrospective case series of consecutive patients undergoing LA-ERCP in our unit between September 2011 and July 2014. Data was retrieved from electronic, clinical and endoscopy records.Seven LA-ERCPs were performed. All seven patients were female, with median age 44 years (range 36-71). Indications included symptomatic bile duct stones (5/7), benign papillary fibrosis (1/7) and retained biliary stent (1/7). 5/7 (71%) patients had had a prior cholecystectomy. To facilitate LA-ERCP, laparoscopic gastrostomy ports were created in all patients. Duodenal access, biliary cannulation and completion of therapeutic aim were achieved in all patients. 6/7 (86%) patients required endoscopic sphincterotomy. The median duration of procedures was 94 min (range 70-135). Median postoperative length of stay was 2 days (range 1-9). One patient developed mild postprocedural acute pancreatitis, and another patient developed a mild port-site infection. Otherwise, no procedure-related complications were seen. All patients remained well on follow-up (median 14 months (range 1-35) from date of ERCP), with no evidence of further biliary symptoms.Our early experience of LA-ERCP is that it is safe and effective. The technique may require particular consideration, as bariatric surgery is increasingly performed, in a patient group at significant risk of bile duct stones.
Project description:Duodenal obstruction may prevent performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or Endoscopic ultrasonograhy-guided biliary access (EUS-BD) are alternative treatments but are associated with a higher morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of the study is to report overall technical success rate and clinical outcome with deployment of temporary fully or partially covered self-expanding duodenal stent (pc/fcSEMS) as a bridge to ERCP in case of inaccessible papilla due to duodenal strictures.This retrospective study included 66 consecutive patients presenting with a duodenal stricture impeding the ability to perform an ERCP. Provisional duodenal stenting was performed as a bridge to ERCP. A second endoscopic session was performed to remove the provisional stent and to perform an ERCP. Afterward, a permanent duodenal stent was delivered if necessary.Sixty-six duodenal stents (17 pcSEMS and 49 fcSEMS) were delivered with a median indwelling time of 3.15 (1 - 7) days. Two migrations occurred in the pcSEMS group, 1 of which required lower endoscopy for retrieval. No other procedure-related complications were observed. At second endoscopy a successful ERCP was performed in 56 patients (85 %); 10 patients (15 %) with endoscopic failure underwent PTBD or EUS-BD. Forty patients needed permanent duodenal stenting.Provisional removable covered duodenal stenting as a bridge to ERCP for duodenal obstruction is safe procedure and in most cases allows successful performance of therapeutic ERCP. This technique could be a sound option as a step up approach before referring such cases for more complex techniques such as EUS-BD or PTBD.
Project description:Results of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUBD) are unknown in case of proximal stricture. The aim is to assess clinical outcomes of EUBD in patients with malignant hilar obstruction.Patients undergoing EUBD with hilar strictures were prospectively included. Primary outcome was clinical success at 7 and 30 days (defined by 50% bilirubin decrease). Secondary outcomes were technical success, procedure-related complications, length of hospital stay, reintervention rate, survival and chemotherapy administration.Eighteen patients with a mean age of 68.8 years were included. On 15 classable stenosis, 7 (47%) were noted Bismuth I-II, 7 (47%) Bismuth III, and 1 (6.7%) Bismuth IV. Reasons for EUBD were surgically modified anatomy in 10 patients (55.6%), impassable stricture at ERCP in 7 (38.9%) and duodenal obstruction in 1 (5.6%). Only hepaticogastrostomy was performed. Clinical success was at day 7 and 30 respectively 72.2% and 68.8%. Technical success was 94%. Complications occurred in 3 (16.7%) patients. Median (range) length of hospital stay was 10 (6-35) days. Reintervention rate was 16.7%. Median (range) survival was 79 (5-390) days. Chemotherapy was possible in 10 (55.6%) patients.EUBD is feasible for hilar obstruction for surgically altered anatomy or after ERCP failure. Clinical outcome is satisfactory when considering underlying advanced disease, allowing chemotherapy.
Project description:Background:Relieving malignant biliary obstruction improves quality of life and permits chemotherapy. Outcomes of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancratography(ERCP) in inoperable malignant biliary obstruction have been examined in a national cohort to establish factors associated with poor outcomes. Methods:Hospital Episode Statistics include diagnostic and procedural data for all NHS hospital attendances in England. Patients from 2006 to 2017 with a Hepaticopancreaticobiliary (HPB) malignancy who had undergone ERCP were studied. Patients undergoing a potentially curative operation were excluded. Associations between demographics, co-morbidities, unit ERCP volume and mortality were examined by logistic regression. Findings:39,702 patients were included; 49.4% were male; median age was 75 (IQR 66-88)years. Pancreatic cancer was the most common tumour (63.9%). Mortality was 4.1%, 9.7% and 19.1% for 7-day, in hospital and 30-day respectively. On multivariable analysis: men (OR 1.20(95%CI 1.14-1.26), p < 0.001); increasing age quintile 78-83(1.73(1.59-1.89), p < 0.001), >83(2.70(2.48-2.94),p < 0.001); most deprived quintile (1.21(1.11-1.32), p < 0.001); increasing co-morbidity score >20(3.36(2.94-3.84),p < 0.001); small bowel malignancy (1.45(1.22-1.72), p < 0.001), intrahepatic biliary malignancy(1.10(1.03-1.17), p = 0.005) and year of ERCP 2006/07 (1.37(1.22-1.55), p < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality. Extrahepatic biliary tree cancers (0.67(0.61-0.73), p<0.001), high volume providers of ERCP (>318 annually, 0.91(0.84-0.98), p = 0.01) and high volume of ERCP for malignant obstruction (>40 annually (0.91(0.85-0.98), p = 0.014) were negatively associated with 30-day mortality. Patients were less likely to require a second ERCP in high volume providers (>318, 8.0%) compared to low volume ((<204, 13.4%), p<0.001). Interpretation:Short term mortality in patients with malignant biliary obstruction following ERCP was high. 30-day mortality was positively associated with increasing age and co-morbidity, men, deprivation, and earlier year of ERCP and negatively with extrahepatic biliary tree cancer and high volume ERCP providers. Funding:Internal funding only.
Project description:Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures (BBS) can be challenging.To evaluate the efficacy of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) in BBS.Ninety-two consecutive patients with BBS (chronic pancreatitis (n?=?42), anastomotic after liver transplantation (n?=?36), and post biliary surgical procedure (n?=?14)) were included. FCSEMS were placed across strictures for 6 months before endoscopic extraction. Early success rate was defined as the absence of biliary stricture or as a minimal residual anomaly on post-stent removal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Secondary outcomes were the final success and stricture recurrence rates as well as procedure-related morbidity.Stenting was successful in all patients. Stenting associated complications were minor and occurred in 22 (23.9%) patients. Migration occurred in 23 (25%) patients. Stent extraction was successful in all but two patients with proximal stent migration. ERCP after the 6 months stenting showed an early success in 84.9% patients (chronic pancreatitis patients: 94.7%, liver transplant: 87.9%, post-surgical: 61.5%) (p?=?0.01). Final success was observed in 57/73 (78.1%) patients with a median follow-up of 12?±?3.56 months. Recurrence of biliary stricture occurred in 16/73 (21.9%) patients.FCSEMS placement is efficient for patients with BBS, in particular for chronic pancreatitis patients. Stent extraction after 6 months indwelling, although generally feasible, may fail in a few cases.
Project description:Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a significant cause of acute abdominal pain, morbidity and hospitalisation. There was previously a dearth of studies exploring the incidence, risk factors and outcome of AP in the Caribbean region.All patients with a diagnosis of AP admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. The epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with AP were retrospectively studied.There were 70 females and 21 males with a median age of 44 years (range 2-86). The median age of males was significantly higher than that of females (p = 0.041). The incidence of AP was 74 per 100,000 admissions per year. Vomiting and abdominal tenderness were noted in the majority of patients. The most common aetiology was biliary disease (71.4%), idiopathic (12%), post-ERCP (6.6%) and alcohol (5.5%). Alcoholic pancreatitis was only seen in males whereas idiopathic and post-ERCP pancreatitis only occurred in females. The mean duration of hospitalisation was 9.51 ± 8.28 days. Disease severity was mild in 61.1%, moderately severe in 26.7%, and severe in 12.2% of patients. Factors associated with more severe disease included overweight/obesity, idiopathic aetiology and post-ERCP status. The case fatality rate was 2%.The incidence of AP was 74/100,000 hospital admissions annually. There was an unusual female preponderance, with biliary pancreatitis being the most common type occurring at an equal frequency among males and females. Only 12.2% of the total cases seen were severe. The case fatality rate was 2%. Local health policy should target timely interventions for biliary pancreatitis and should also address the local factors affecting disease severity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Conscious sedation is not routinely administered for therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in many countries. The aim of our retrospective study was to compare the safety and rate of success and complications during common bile duct (CBD) stone extraction using ERCPs performed with no-sedation (NS) or under general endotracheal anesthesia (GET). METHODS:The medical records of all patients who underwent ERCP for biliary stone extraction between January 2010 and September 2013 were reviewed, and patients classified to the NS and GET groups. The primary outcomes were the rate of success of complete stone removal and rate of complications, including post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), perforation, bleeding, pneumonia, and mortality within 30 days post-ERCP. Operative time was recorded for analysis. RESULTS:During the study period, 630 patients underwent ERCP, 402 with NS and 105 with GET. Among the 402 patients in the NS group, 37 (9.2%) could not complete the procedure due to an inability to tolerate the procedure. The success rate of complete stone extraction was higher among patients in the GET group than the NS group (94.3% versus 75.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). The rate of contrast injection into the pancreatic duct was higher for the NS than GET group (24.9% versus 15.2%, respectively; p = 0.008). Although non-significant, there was a higher incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in the NS than in the GET group (10.4% versus 5.7%, respectively; p = 0.105), while the incidence of pneumonia was higher for the GET group. Biliary pancreatitis, contrast injection into the pancreatic duct and an operation time ?30 min were independent risks factors for PEP. CONCLUSIONS:ERCP under GET is effective for CBD stone removal, but with slightly higher pneumonia rate after the procedure than non-sedated ERCP.
Project description:Background:Exclusion of the stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) makes access to the biliary tree very challenging for the surgeon or the endoscopist. Different techniques have been described to overcome this downside, including laparoscopy-assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which is an outstanding method to access the remnant stomach in order to reach the duodenal papilla. The use of this technique is associated with a high success rate. Presentation of case:Here we present the case of a 57-year-old patient with altered RYGB anatomy. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intraoperative cholangiography revealed the presence of a stone in the common bile duct. A laparoscopy-assisted transgastric ERCP was performed successfully. During the procedure, the duodenoscope was introduced through a gastrostomy, obviating the need for an intragastric trocar. The patient evolved favorably and was discharged on second postoperative day without any complications. Discussion:Transgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP represents an effective approach for the management of biliary complications after RYGB, even if there is a long interval between the two interventions, as occurred in the present case. Other methods described for accessing the biliary tree in patients with altered RYGB anatomy are double-balloon ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound-directed transgastric ERCP. We elected to perform the laparoscopy-assisted approach because choledocholithiasis was diagnosed transoperatively, thus, avoiding the need for secondary procedures or interventions. Conclusion:Transgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP is a feasible procedure with low complication rates and is used in treating patients with altered RYGB anatomy who present with biliary tract disorders. The use of transgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP allows endoscopic treatment and cholecystectomy to be performed in a single setting.