Infant Adiposity is Independently Associated with a Maternal High Fat Diet but not Related to Niacin Intake: The Healthy Start Study.
ABSTRACT: Objectives Over-nutrition during pregnancy resulting from maternal obesity or an unhealthy diet can lead to excess infant adiposity at birth. Specific dietary macro- and micronutrients have been shown to increase fat cell development in both in-vitro and in-vivo models and may therefore link maternal diet to increased infant adiposity. We hypothesized that high maternal dietary niacin intake during pregnancy, especially in combination with a high-fat diet (HFD) would increase infant adiposity. Methods We included 1040 participants from a pre-birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. Maternal diet was assessed using multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. HFD was defined as ?30% of calories from fat and ?12% of fat calories from saturated fat. Neonatal body composition (% fat mass [%FM], fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM]) was measured by PEAPOD. We used multivariate regression to assess the joint effect of maternal dietary niacin and maternal HFD on neonatal body composition. Results Dietary niacin was not associated with neonatal body composition, and maternal HFD did not modify this finding. However, maternal HFD was independently associated with %FM (??=?0.8 [0.1, 1.4]%, p?
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Poor maternal diet in pregnancy can influence fetal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that poor maternal diet quality during pregnancy would increase neonatal adiposity (percent fat mass (%FM)) at birth by increasing the fat mass (FM) component of neonatal body composition. METHODS:Our analysis was conducted using a prebirth observational cohort of 1079 mother-offspring pairs. Pregnancy diet was assessed via repeated Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recalls, from which Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated for each mother. HEI-2010 was dichotomized into scores of ?57 and >57, with low scores representing poorer diet quality. Neonatal %FM was assessed within 72?h after birth with air displacement plethysmography. Using univariate and multivariate linear models, we analyzed the relationship between maternal diet quality and neonatal %FM, FM, and fat-free mass (FFM) while adjusting for prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity, maternal age, smoking, energy intake, preeclampsia, hypertension, infant sex and gestational age. RESULTS:Total HEI-2010 score ranged between 18.2 and 89.5 (mean: 54.2, s.d.: 13.6). An HEI-2010 score of ?57 was significantly associated with higher neonatal %FM (?=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-1.1, P<0.05) and FM (?=20.74; 95% CI 1.49-40.0; P<0.05) but no difference in FFM. CONCLUSIONS:Poor diet quality during pregnancy increases neonatal adiposity independent of maternal prepregnancy BMI and total caloric intake. This further implicates maternal diet as a potentially important exposure for fetal adiposity.
Project description:Maternal pregnancy nutrition influences fetal growth. Evidence is limited, however, on the relationship of maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation on infant postnatal growth and adiposity. Our purpose was to examine associations between maternal diet quality during pregnancy and lactation with offspring growth and body composition from birth to six months. Maternal diet quality was serially assessed in pregnancy and at one and three months postpartum, using the Healthy Eating Index?2015 in a cohort of 354 fully breastfeeding mother?infant dyads. Infant length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and weight-for-length (WLZ) Z-scores were assessed at birth, one, three, and six months. Infant body fat percent (BF%), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured at six months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Higher maternal diet quality from pregnancy through three months postpartum was associated with lower infant WLZ from birth to six months (<i>p</i> = 0.02) and BF% at six months (<i>p</i> ? 0.05). Higher maternal diet quality at one and three months postpartum was also associated with lower infant FM at six months (<i>p</i> < 0.01). In summary, maternal diet quality during pregnancy and lactation was inversely associated with infant relative weight and adiposity in early postnatal life. Additional research is needed to explore whether associations persist across the life course.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic disease risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. OBJECTIVE:We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured by using MRI in a multiethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. METHODS:The macronutrient intake of mothers was ascertained by using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 wk gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed by using MRI in week 2 of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n = 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models with the use of multivariable linear regressions. RESULTS:Mothers (mean age: 30 y) consumed (mean ± SD) 15.5% ± 4.3% of their energy from protein, 32.4% ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1% ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher-protein, lower-carbohydrate or -fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [? (95% CI): -0.18 mL (-0.35, -0.001 mL) per 1% protein-to-carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 mL (-0.46, -0.04 mL) per 1% protein-to-fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interaction < 0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein, but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not associated consistently with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. CONCLUSIONS:Higher maternal protein intake at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake at 26-28 wk gestation was associated with lower abdominal internal adiposity in neonates. Optimizing maternal dietary balance might be a new approach to improve offspring body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:In women who are overweight or obese before or during pregnancy there is an associated risk of increased fetal growth and higher birthweight. The metabolic phenotype of the overweight/obese pregnant woman, characterised by higher than normal insulin resistance (IR) and increased circulating fuels, suggests a mechanism resulting in fetal overnutrition and subsequent increased adiposity. We tested the fuel-mediated hypothesis in an observational pre-birth cohort of 951 mother-offspring pairs, the Healthy Start study. METHODS:We conducted a path analysis to estimate the simultaneous effects of maternal IR and maternal fuels (fasting glucose, triacylglycerol [TG] and NEFA levels) in late pregnancy in mediating the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and neonatal adiposity (per cent fat mass [%FM]). RESULTS:The total effect of maternal BMI on neonatal %FM was significant (total effect 0.16, 95% CI 0.08, 0.22, p?<?0.001). The mediated path including maternal IR and glucose levels together accounted for 21% (p?<?0.01) of the total effect of maternal BMI on neonatal %FM while the mediating effects of all other fuels were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Using a novel application of path analysis our data implicate maternal IR and glucose levels as important mediators of the association between maternal and infant adiposity.
Project description:Excess adiposity in infancy may predispose individuals to obesity later in life. The literature on determinants of adiposity in infants is equivocal. In this longitudinal cohort study, we investigated pre-pregnancy, prenatal and postnatal determinants of different adiposity indices in infants, i.e., fat mass (FM), percent FM (%FM), fat mass index (FMI) and log-log index (FM/FFM<i><sup>p</sup></i>), from birth to 6 months, using linear mixed-effects regression. Body composition was measured in 322, 174 and 109 infants at birth and 3 and 6 months afterwards, respectively, utilising air displacement plethysmography. Positive associations were observed between gestation length and infant FM, maternal self-reported pre-pregnancy body mass index and infant %FM, and parity and infant %FM and FMI at birth. Surprisingly, maternal intake of iron supplements during pregnancy was associated with infant FM, %FM and FMI at 3 months and FM/FFM<i><sup>p</sup></i> at 6 months. Male infant sex and formula feeding were negatively associated with all adiposity indices at 6 months. In conclusion, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy factors influence adiposity during early life, and any unfavourable impacts may be modulated postnatally via infant feeding practices. Moreover, as these associations are dependent on the adiposity indices used, it is crucial that researchers use conceptually and statistically robust approaches such as FM/FFM<i><sup>p</sup></i>.
Project description:Animal models of maternal high fat diet (HFD) demonstrate perturbed offspring metabolism although the effects differ markedly between models. We assessed studies investigating metabolic parameters in the offspring of HFD fed mothers to identify factors explaining these inter-study differences. A total of 171 papers were identified, which provided data from 6047 offspring. Data were extracted regarding body weight, adiposity, glucose homeostasis and lipidaemia. Information regarding the macronutrient content of diet, species, time point of exposure and gestational weight gain were collected and utilized in meta-regression models to explore predictive factors. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's regression test. Maternal HFD exposure did not affect offspring birthweight but increased weaning weight, final bodyweight, adiposity, triglyceridaemia, cholesterolaemia and insulinaemia in both female and male offspring. Hyperglycaemia was found in female offspring only. Meta-regression analysis identified lactational HFD exposure as a key moderator. The fat content of the diet did not correlate with any outcomes. There was evidence of significant publication bias for all outcomes except birthweight. Maternal HFD exposure was associated with perturbed metabolism in offspring but between studies was not accounted for by dietary constituents, species, strain or maternal gestational weight gain. Specific weaknesses in experimental design predispose many of the results to bias.
Project description:Specific dietary risk factors for excess adiposity in young people are poorly understood. However, studies in adults suggest dietary energy density, fat and fibre are critical dietary factors.To examine longitudinal relationships between a dietary pattern (DP) characterised by dietary energy density, % total energy from fat and fibre density and fat mass (FM) in children from 7 to 15 years of age.Subjects were 6772 children from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food diary at 7, 10 and 13 years of age. An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre DP was identified using reduced rank regression and subjects scored for the DP at each age. FM was measured at 11, 13 and 15 years and FM index (FMI) calculated as FM/height((x)). Longitudinal models were adjusted for dietary misreporting, physical activity and maternal factors.DP z-scores at all ages were positively associated with later FMI. A 1 s.d. unit increase in DP z-score was longitudinally associated with an average increase in FMI z-score of 0.04 s.d. units (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.07). For each 1 s.d. unit increase in DP z-score, the odds of being in the highest quintile for FMI (as a marker of excess adiposity) increased by 13% (95% CI, 1-27%).Dietary habits during childhood are associated with increased adiposity in adolescence, with specific implications for dietary energy density, fat and fibre intake. Improving diet quality may reduce the risk of obesity in young people.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. OBJECTIVE:We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. STUDY DESIGN:The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. RESULTS:The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. CONCLUSION:Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased caloric intake contribute to fetal fat accretion.
Project description:Background:Evidence linking maternal diet quality during pregnancy with infant birth outcomes is limited in Asia. Objective:We investigated the association of maternal diet quality with the risk of preterm birth, offspring birth size, and adiposity in a multiethnic Asian birth cohort. Design:Dietary intakes of 1051 pregnant women were ascertained at 26-28 wk of gestation with the use of 24-h recalls and 3-d food diaries, from which diet quality (score range: 0-100) was measured by the Healthy Eating Index for pregnant women in Singapore (HEI-SGP). Gestational age was established by first-trimester ultrasound dating scan. Neonatal weight and length were measured at birth. Body composition was assessed by air displacement plethysmography in a subset of infants (n = 313) within 72 h after birth, and abdominal adiposity was assessed by MRI (n = 316) within the first 2 wk of life. Associations were assessed by multivariable linear regression for continuous outcomes and logistic regression for preterm birth. Results:The mean ± SD maternal HEI-SGP score was 52.1 ± 13.6. Maternal diet quality during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth or birth weight. Greater adherence to the HEI-SGP (per 10-point increment in HEI-SGP score) was associated with longer birth length [? (95% CI): 0.14 (0.03, 0.24 cm)], lower body mass index (in kg/m2) at birth [-0.07 (-0.13, -0.01)], lower sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness [-0.15 (-0.26, -0.05 mm)], lower percentage body fat [-0.52% (-0.84%, -0.20%)], lower fat mass [-17.23 (-29.52, -4.94 g)], lower percentage abdominal superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue [-0.16% (-0.30%, -0.01%)], and lower percentage deep subcutaneous adipose tissue [-0.06% (-0.10%, -0.01%)]. Conclusions:Higher maternal diet quality during pregnancy was associated with longer birth length and lower neonatal adiposity but not with birth weight and preterm birth. These findings warrant further investigation in independent studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Increased infant birth weight and adiposity are associated with an altered risk of adult chronic diseases. The objective was to investigate the association between maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy and newborn adiposity.<h4>Study design</h4>The study included 79 singleton pregnancies. Associations between maternal dietary fat intake during each trimester and infant adiposity at birth were assessed.<h4>Result</h4>Average total grams of maternal total dietary fat and unsaturated fat intake during pregnancy correlated with infant percent body fat after adjusting for potential confounding variables (r = 0.23, p = 0.045; r = 0.24, p = 0.037). Maternal average daily intake of total fat, saturated fat, and unsaturated fat during the second trimester of pregnancy were each associated with infant percent body fat (r = 0.25, p = 0.029; r = 0.23, p = 0.046; r = 0.25, p = 0.031; respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The second trimester of pregnancy is a key time period for fetal adipose tissue metabolic programming and therefore a target for nutritional intervention.